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1.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(8): e201900805, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618405

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of sevoflurane preconditioning on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced pulmonary/hepatic injury. METHODS: Fifty-one Wistar rats were randomly grouped into sham, I/R, and sevoflurane groups. After reperfusion, the structural change of the lung was measured by Smith score, the wet and dry weights (W/D) were determined, malondialdehyde (MDA) myeloperoxidase (MPO) content was determined colorimetrically and by fluorescence, respectively, and matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9) mRNA was quantified by RT-PCR. Biopsy and morphological analyses were performed on liver tissue, activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level was determined. RESULTS: The sham group showed no changes in tissue structure. Structural lesions in the sevoflurane and I/R groups were mild and severe, respectively. Smith score, W/D, MDA, MPO, and MMP mRNA showed the same trend, and were increased in the I/R group and recovered in the sevoflurane group, compared with the sham group (both P<0.05). AST and ALT were significantly increased compared to the sham group (AST: 655±52.06 vs . 29±9.30 U/L; ALT: 693±75.56 vs . 37±6.71 U/L; P<0.05). In the sevoflurane group, AST and ALT levels were significantly decreased (464±47.71 and 516±78.84 U/L; P<0.001). TNF-α presented similar results. CONCLUSION: The protection of lung and liver by sevoflurane may be mediated by inhibited leukocyte recruitment and MMP-9 secretion.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/uso terapêutico , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Sevoflurano/uso terapêutico , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Isquemia/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Peroxidase/análise , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 463-470, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468423

RESUMO

We previously reported that taurine treatment inhibited arsenic (As)-induced apoptosis in the liver of mice. This study was designed to explore the effect of taurine on liver function and its underlying mechanism in As-exposed mice. Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups, ten mice in each group. Group 1, control group, only orally received drinking water alone. Group 2, As intoxication group, was exposed to 4 mg/L As2O3 via drinking water for 60 days. Group 3, taurine protection group, was treated with 4 mg/L As2O3 and 150 mg/kg both. Taurine administration significantly revered the increases of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities in serum. The decrease of glutathione (GSH) was inhibited with taurine treatment in the liver of As-exposed mice. At the same time, taurine significantly inhihibited As-induced enhancement of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver. Here we show that taurine protective effect on liver function in As-exposed mice maybe involve lipid peroxidation.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo , Taurina/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glutationa/análise , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/análise , Camundongos , Distribuição Aleatória
3.
Am J Dent ; 32(4): 183-186, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436938

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the association between periodontitis and levels of biochemical markers as well as enzyme activity. METHODS: Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 30 patients with periodontitis. Biochemical factors including the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO), uric acid (UA), and lactoferrin, as well as ß-hexosaminidase (ß-HEX) activity were measured. RESULTS: The levels of a salivary oxidant such as MDA and NO were statistically significantly higher in periodontitis patients than to that of healthy individuals. Similarly, the results indicated elevated levels of lactoferrin and ß-HEX activity in saliva of the periodontitis group, which was statistically significant when compared to the controls. While the levels of an enzymatic antioxidant such as SOD were higher in the periodontitis patients than in the control subjects, uric acid levels were statistically significantly lower in the saliva of the periodontitis patients than in the healthy controls. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Except for uric acid, as a non-enzymatic antioxidant, the levels of salivary oxidative stress generally increase in the saliva of periodontitis patients. Since altered levels of salivary biomarkers such as oxidative stress and antioxidant substances might contribute in systemic and local complications in the patients, these informative biomarkers can be used as a promising factor for the early diagnosis of the disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Periodontite Crônica , Estresse Oxidativo , Periodontite , Antioxidantes/análise , Biomarcadores/análise , Periodontite Crônica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Malondialdeído/análise , Periodontite/diagnóstico , Saliva/química
4.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111549, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302348

RESUMO

Light is a key factor influencing growth and development in plants. Specific irradiance and light quality can improve development and production of secondary compounds such as carotenoids during plant tissue culture. Bixin and norbixin, two apocarotenoids obtained from the seeds of Bixa orellana L. (annatto), are used as natural dyes in various industries. While annatto tissue culture has been successful, the effect of light in this species remains poorly understood. Here, we analyze for the first time the effect of irradiance regime (50, 150, 50 + 150, 200, 50 + 200 µmol m-2 s-1) and light spectral quality (fluorescent, white, blue/red LED) on in vitro development of apexes and bixin content in two contrasting bixin-producing varieties of B. orellana, namely 'Piave Vermelha' and 'UESB74'. The number of leaves per plant, stomatal density, leaf area, leaf expansion, chlorophylls and carotenoids content, malondialdehyde and bixin content were analyzed in the leaves of both cultivars. 'Piave Vermelha' produced 1.6-fold more bixin than 'UESB74'. Stomata cells of both cultivars had a paracytic arrangement with peltate trichomes along the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. 'Piave Vermelha' preferred blue/red LED light; whereas fluorescent light was optimal for 'UESB74'. Under fluorescent light, an irradiance of 50 µmol m-2 s-1 is indicated for both cultivars. LED light increased bixin content only in 'Piave Vermelha', suggesting that the dye biosynthetic pathway is genotype-dependent. The present findings suggest the possibility of using light to modulate the bixin biosynthetic pathway.


Assuntos
Bixaceae/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Luz , Bixaceae/efeitos da radiação , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/análise , Fluorescência , Malondialdeído/análise , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
5.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 35(3): 193-198, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the vascular damage effects and possible mechanism of acute exposure to ozone (O3) in male Wistar rats. METHODS: One hundred and twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups, 20 in each group. The experimental animals were placed in a gas poisoning cabinet, the control group was exposed to filtered air, and the treatment group was exposed to ozone at concentrations of 0.12 ppm, 0.5 ppm, 1.0 ppm, 2.0 ppm, and 4.0 ppm, respectively, for 4 hours. Arterial blood pressure data were obtained by PC-lab medical physiological signal acquisition system. Blood rheology indicators and blood biochemical indicators were detected by Tianjin Dean Diagnostic Laboratory. Serum endothelin-1 (ET-1), homocysteine (HCY), von Willebrand factor (vWF), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OhdG), interleukin (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microplate assay. Oxidative stress indicators superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by xanthine oxidase method, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method, reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) were tested by using microplate colorimetry. Paraffin sections were prepared from thoracic aorta tissue, and vascular structure was observed by HE staining. RESULTS: Acute exposure to 0.12 ppm ozone could cause a significant increase in arterial systolic blood pressure (SBP). Exposure to different concentrations of ozone could cause a significant increase in plasma viscosity, and the K value of the ESR equation was significantly increased in the 1.0 ppm ozone exposure group. Both the relative and reduced viscosities were significantly reduced at ozone concentrations of 0.5 ppm and 4.0 ppm, while the red blood cell deformation index was increased significantly at ozone concentrations of 0.12 ppm, 0.5 ppm, 1.0 ppm, and 2.0 ppm. Acute ozone exposure resulted in the decrease of total cholesterol content. The content of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly reduced in the 0.12 ppm ozone exposure group. When the ozone concentration was higher than 1.0 ppm, the body may also had an inflammatory reaction (increased TNF-α) and oxidative stress (increased MDA, decreased GSH). Acute exposure to ozone could lead to elevated levels of ET-1 in the blood, with significant differences in the 4.0 ppm concentration group, while HCY levels were decreased firstly and then increased, reaching the highest in the 1.0 ppm concentration group. No obvious pathological changes were observed in the thoracic aorta. CONCLUSION: Acute ozone exposure can affect arterial blood pressure, blood rheology and cholesterol metabolism in rats. The possible mechanism is that ozone exposure leads to inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress reaction, causing vascular endothelial function damage, and vascular endothelial cells increase with ozone exposure concentration.


Assuntos
Vasos Sanguíneos/lesões , Estresse Oxidativo , Ozônio/toxicidade , Animais , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/sangue , Endotelina-1/sangue , Homocisteína/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Fator de von Willebrand/análise
6.
Food Chem ; 299: 125116, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295637

RESUMO

The effects of exogenous melatonin treatment on the enzymatic browning and nutritional quality of fresh-cut pear fruit were investigated. Fresh-cut fruit soaked with 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 mM melatonin were stored at 4 °C. Our results showed that 0.1 mM melatonin treatment was optimal for reducing the surface browning and maintaining the titratable acidity of the fresh-cut fruit, which significantly decreased MDA and H2O2 contents and the growth of microorganism, enhanced total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, and delayed the reduction of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, melatonin treatment at 0.1 mM decreased the expression of genes involving in enzymatic browning pathway including POD, PPO1, PPO5 and LOX1, and reduced PPO activity. Moreover, this treatment increased the expression of PAL and CHS, and enhanced PAL and CHS activities. These results showed that melatonin treatment might be a promising strategy to alleviate browning and improve the nutritional quality of fresh-cut pear fruit.


Assuntos
Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Valor Nutritivo , Pyrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Pyrus/química , Pyrus/genética , Pyrus/metabolismo
7.
Food Chem ; 298: 125009, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260970

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to develop an accurate and fast method to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in raw and processed meat. This method is based on extraction with trichloroacetic acid (TCA), reaction with 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and quantification with ultraperformance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector (UPLC-FLD) with ʎexcitation = 530 nm and ʎemission = 550 nm and with a diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) with ʎabsorbance = 532 nm. The method tested was compared with the TBARS spectrophotometric method with ʎabsorbance = 532 nm. The concentration of MDA was similar for most of the matrices in both UPLC methods, except for cooked ham and frankfurter sausage. The TBARS spectrophotometric method overestimated the MDA concentration in all the matrices. Therefore, the use of both chromatographic methods, especially UPLC-FLD, to determine MDA would be more advisable than the classic TBARS method to avoid overestimation in meat and processed meat products.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Malondialdeído/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Animais , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/instrumentação , Culinária , Fluorescência , Malondialdeído/isolamento & purificação , Carne/análise , Espectrofotometria/métodos , Suínos , Tiobarbitúricos/química , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise , Ácido Tricloroacético/química
8.
Life Sci ; 232: 116608, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254583

RESUMO

Preventing vascular damage is considered an effective strategy in patients who suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with hypertension. Here, we investigated vascular damage in COPD-like and hypertensive rats, which demonstrated the presence of the three related factors of COPD with hypertension. These include elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which are positively correlated with vascular damage in patients. In addition to increases in these three related factors, COPD-like and hypertensive rats exhibited increased levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and matrix metallopeptidase-9 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and enlargement of alveolar airspaces, recapitulating clinical findings in previous studies of patients. Moreover, the appearance of these related factors was prevented by linalyl acetate. Our results provide novel insight into the potential of LA to prevent vascular damage and elevated SBP, serum MDA and serum LDH in COPD with hypertension, and could lead to an alternative strategy for preventing vascular damage for patients who suffered from COPD with hypertension in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipertensão/patologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/análise , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 515-521, June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002253

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Reproductive dysfunction is a complication for many diseases and toxins. Its early diagnosis and treatment are immensely important. Here the morphological histoarchitecture changes in early testicular and cauda toxicity before and after treatment with angiotensin receptor blockers were evaluated. Low-grade testicular damage was induced using thioacetamide (TAA, 50 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for two weeks in rats. The rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8) treated daily orally for three weeks as follows: Normal control (distilled water), TAA (positive control), TAA+candesartan (0.2 mg/kg) and TAA+losartan (7.5 mg/kg). Serum testosterone and testicular malondialdehyde and glutathione were measured. The changes in histoarchitecture of testis and cauda epididymis were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin for general structure, Masson's trichrome for collagen, periodic acid Schiff for basement membrane, and caspase-3 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) for immunohistochemical analysis. The TAA-rats showed decreases of serum testosterone and testicular glutathione, increases in testicular malondialdehyde, degenerative changes and apoptosis in germ cells, thickening of tubular basal lamina and increases in expression of caspase 3, and decreases in expression of PCNA. The ARBs (candesartan and losartan) significantly reversed these changes with non-significant differences in-between. Treatment with ARBs (candesartan and losartan) significantly reversed TAA-induced low-grade testicular and cauda toxicity in rats. This could be potentially useful for early treatment of male patients with occupational toxicant-induced reproductive dysfunction especially if they are using ARBs for other comorbidities.


RESUMEN: La disfunción reproductiva es una complicación por muchas enfermedades y toxinas. Su diagnóstico y tratamiento tempranos son inmensamente importantes. Aquí se evaluaron los cambios morfológicos en la histoarquitectura en la toxicidad precoz testicular y cauda antes y después del tratamiento con bloqueadores de receptores de angiotensina. Se indujo daño testicular de bajo grado usando tioacetamida (TAA, 50 mg / kg / día) por vía intraperitoneal durante dos semanas en ratas. Las ratas se dividieron aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos (n = 8) tratados diariamente por vía oral durante tres semanas de la siguiente manera: control normal (agua destilada), TAA (control positivo), TAA + candesartan (0,2 mg / kg) y TAA + losartán (7,5 mg / kg). Se midieron la testosterona sérica, el malondialdehído testicular y el glutatión. Los cambios en la histoarquitectura de los testículos y la epidermis de la cauda se evaluaron mediante Hematoxilina y Eosina para determinar la estructura general, con tricrómicro de Masson para el colágeno, ácido periódico de Schiff para la membrana basal y la caspasa-3 y el antígeno nuclear de células proliferantes (PCNA) para análisis inmunohistoquímico. Las ratas TAA mostraron disminución de la testosterona sérica y glutatión testicular, aumentos en el malondialdehído testicular, cambios degenerativos y apoptosis en células germinales, engrosamiento de la lámina basal tubular y aumentos en la expresión de la caspasa 3, y disminución en la expresión de PCNA. Los ARB (candesartán y losartán) revirtieron significativamente estos cambios con diferencias no significativas en el medio. El tratamiento con BRA (candesartán y losartán) revirtió significativamente la toxicidad testicular y cauda inducida por TAA en ratas. Esto podría ser potencialmente útil para el tratamiento temprano de pacientes con disfunción reproductiva inducida por tóxicos ocupacionales, especialmente si están usando BRA para otras comorbilidades.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Losartan/farmacologia , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/análise , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Glutationa/análise , Malondialdeído/análise
10.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(13): 5379-5390, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069486

RESUMO

Trehalose is a nonreducing disaccharide, and it plays an intracellular protective role in organisms under various stress conditions. In this study, the trehalose synthesis and its protective role in Pleurotus ostreatus were investigated. As a signal in metabolic regulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulated in the mycelia of P. ostreatus under heat stress (HS). Furthermore, mycelial growth was significantly inhibited, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) level significantly increased under HS. First, exogenous addition of H2O2 inhibited mycelial growth and elevated the MDA level, while N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and vitamin C (VC) reduced the MDA level and recovered mycelial growth under HS by scavenging ROS. These results indicated that the mycelial radial growth defect under HS might be partly caused by ROS accumulation. Second, adding NAC and VC to the media resulted in rescued trehalose accumulation, which indicated that ROS has an effect on inducing trehalose synthesis. Third, the mycelial growth was recovered by addition of trehalose to the media after HS, and the MDA level was reduced. This effect was further verified by the overexpression of genes for trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and neutral trehalase (NTH), which led to increased and reduced trehalose content, respectively. In addition, adding validamycin A (NTH inhibitor) to the media promoted trehalose accumulation and the recovered mycelial growth after HS. In conclusion, trehalose production was partly induced by ROS accumulation in the mycelia under HS, and the accumulated trehalose could promote the recovery of growth after HS, partly by reducing the MDA level in the mycelia.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Pleurotus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Trealose/biossíntese , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Cisteína/farmacologia , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Temperatura Alta , Malondialdeído/análise , Micélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Oxidativo , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Trealase/genética
11.
Food Chem ; 292: 314-324, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054680

RESUMO

Little is known about the variations of fresh fruit biomembrane and its physiological and biochemical characteristics during storage. A navel orange mutant 'Gannan No.1' (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) showed higher membrane stability and titratable acid while lower calyx senescence compared with wild-type 'Newhall'. The membrane damage was significantly reduced in 'Gannan No.1' under 10% polyethylene-glycol (41.16% vs. 8.77%) and 30% polyethylene-glycol (52.59% vs.16.11%) treatments on day 45 after harvest. Consistently, membrane electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde were significantly decreased in 'Gannan No.1', and superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase were activated. A metabolic analysis was performed to evaluate membrane fatty acid unsaturation and peroxidation. Linolenic acid and hexadecylenic acid contributed to the higher degree of unsaturated fatty acids in 'Gannan No.1'. Furthermore, 'Gannan No.1' accumulated stress-resistant metabolites such as proline, α-tocopherol and glutathione. Correlation analysis of membrane homeostasis indexes with quality parameters showed the importance of biomembrane stability in maintaining citrus fruit quality.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Parede Celular/química , Citrus sinensis/química , Citrus sinensis/genética , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Potenciais da Membrana , Mutação , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
Life Sci ; 228: 98-111, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051153

RESUMO

AIMS: Protective efficacy of N­acetylcysteine (NAC) was assessed against sub-acute diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP) poisoning in mice. MAIN METHODS: Mice were allocated into nine groups of six each: vehicle control; DFP (0.125 LD50 ≈ 0.483 mg/kg bwt, s.c.); DFP + Atropine (ATR, 10 mg/kg bwt, i.p., 0 min); DFP + Pralidoxime (2-PAM, 30 mg/kg bwt, i.m., 0 min); DFP + NAC (150 mg/kg bwt, i.p., -60 min); DFP + ATR + NAC; DFP + 2-PAM + NAC; DFP + ATR + 2-PAM; and DFP + ATR + 2-PAM + NAC. Animals received various treatments for 21 d daily. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was measured after 7, 14 and 21 d of exposure. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured (brain, liver and kidney) after 21 d of exposure. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and c-fos were also performed. KEY FINDINGS: DFP significantly reduced BChE and AChE levels. Diminished GSH, CAT, SOD (brain and liver), GPx, GR, and elevated MDA (Brain) levels were also observed. DFP caused notable histopathology (brain, liver and kidney) and over expression of iNOS, and c-fos proteins (brain). NAC enhanced the protective efficacy of ATR and 2-PAM in most parameters, without any appreciable protection in iNOS and c-fos expression. SIGNIFICANCE: NAC as an adjunct with ATR and 2-PAM, exhibited marked beneficial effects against sub-acute DFP poisoning, indicating its possible implications in the management of OP poisoning.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Isoflurofato/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcolinesterase/análise , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Butirilcolinesterase/sangue , Catalase/análise , Glutationa/análise , Glutationa Peroxidase/análise , Glutationa Redutase/análise , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/análise
13.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(4): e201900407, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038585

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the functional and structural response of tadalafil effects in the intestinal mucosa, using an experimental model of hypoxia and reoxygenation injury in rats. METHODS: The animals were divided into 4 groups: CTL, H/R, H/R+Td and M+Td. The newborn rats allocated in groups H/R, H/R+Td and M+Td were submitted twice a day, to a gas chamber with CO2 at 100% for 10 minutes and afterward reoxygenation with O2 at 98% for 10 minutes, in the three first days of life. Tadalafil dose was given to newborn of group H/R+Td and to the pregnant rat of group M+Td. Histological analysis was made with hematoxylin-eosin technique and oxidative stress through nitrite and nitrate levels and lipid peroxidation. RESULTS: The histological analysis showed a reduction of mucosa alterations in the groups that received tadalafil. In the oxidative stress evaluation, occurred an increase of NO levels and less lipidic peroxidation in the ileum segments that received tadalafil. CONCLUSION: Tadalafil provides tissue protection when administered independently to both, pregnant or newborns.


Assuntos
Hipóxia/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/farmacologia , Tadalafila/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Malondialdeído/análise , Nitratos/análise , Nitritos/análise , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 208-214, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096126

RESUMO

Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), a phthalate ester (PAE), is a ubiquitous and organic pollutant. In this study, the toxicity of DMP to Escherichia coli K12 and its underlying mechanism were investigated. The results showed that DMP inhibited the growth of E. coli K12 and induced cell inactivation and/or death. DMP caused serious damage to the cell membrane of E. coli K12, and the damage increased with higher DMP concentrations. DMP exposure disrupted cell membranes, as evidenced by dose-dependent variations of cell structures, surface properties, and membrane compositions. Increases in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content indicated an increase in oxidative stress induced by DMP in E. coli K12. The activity of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) was changed by DMP, which could affect energy metabolism in the membrane of E. coli K12. The expression levels of OmpA and OmpX were increased, and the expression levels of OmpF and OmpW were decreased, in E. coli K12 exposed to DMP. The toxicities of DMP to E. coli K12 could be ascribed to membrane disruption and oxidative stress-induced cell inactivation and/or death. The outcomes will shed new light on the assessment of the ecological effects of DMP.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Escherichia coli K12/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli K12/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/análise , Estresse Oxidativo
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 178: 168-177, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Among the numerous agents, genetic factors and environmental elements such as pesticides have an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. The present study aimed to investigate the probable-role of some organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) in patients with CRC. METHODS: In this case-control study, 42 patients with CRC and 30 healthy subjects were selected. The serum levels of some OCPs (α-HCH, ß-HCH, γ-HCH, 2,4 DDE, 4,4 DDE, 2,4DDT and 4,4DDT) were measured by gas chromatography (GC) method. Serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as the enzyme activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and arylesterase activity of Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) were evaluated in all participants. The methylation specific PCR (MSP) assay was used for determining the methylation status of CpG island of p16 and MGMT genes in CRC patients. RESULTS: The mean serum levels of each OCPs were significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group (P < 0.001). The AChE and arylesterase activity of PON-1 in the patient group were significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.001). The mean serum levels of MDA and TAC in the serum of the patient group were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.001 and P < 0.002, respectively). The current findings demonstrated significantly hypermethylation of p16 promoter in CRC patients. CONCLUSION: Regarding the higher levels of OCPs in CRC patients, along with hypermethylation of the p16 promoter gene, diminishing in AChE and PON-1 activity and increasing in oxidative stress factors, the role of OCPs and OPPs in the CRC progression in the South-East of Iran may be assumed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Compostos Organofosforados/sangue , Praguicidas/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Feminino , Genes p16 , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(4)2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013662

RESUMO

: Background and objectives: Previous studies have shown anti-tumor activity of quercetin (QT). However, the low bioavailability of QT has restricted its use. This study aimed to assess the toxic effect of QT encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles (QT-SLNs) on the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: MCF-7 and MCF-10A (non-tumorigenic cell line) cell lines treated with 25 µmol/mL of QT or QT-SLNs for 48 h. Cell viability, colony formation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were evaluated to determine the toxic effects of the QT-SLNs. Results: The QT-SLNs with appropriate characteristics (particle size of 85.5 nm, a zeta potential of -22.5 and encapsulation efficiency of 97.6%) were prepared. The QT-SLNs showed sustained QT release until 48 h. Cytotoxicity assessments indicated that QT-SLNs inhibited MCF-7 cells growth with a low IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) value, compared to the free QT. QT-SLNs induced a significant decrease in the viability and proliferation of MCF-7 cells, compared to the free QT. QT-SLN significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and MDA contents and significantly decreased antioxidant enzyme activity in the MCF-7 cells. Following QT-SLNs treatment, the expression of the Bcl-2 protein significantly decreased, whereas Bx expression showed a significant increase in comparison with free QT-treated cells. Furthermore, The QT-SLNs significantly increased apoptotic and necrotic indexes in MCF-7 cells. Viability, proliferation, oxidative stress and apoptosis of MCF-10A cells were not affected by QT or QT-SLNs. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, SLN significantly enhanced the toxic effect of QT against human breast cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nanocápsulas , Nanomedicina/métodos , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/análise , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Malondialdeído/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(11): 5149-5156, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient due to its anticarsinogenic properties and positive influence on human immune system. Fortification of some fruits based on their rates of consumption and availability all year round appears to be an effective way to supplement Se in the human diet. In this study the possibility of augmenting Se content in 'Starking Delicious' apple fruit during two growing seasons was investigated. In 2016, the impact of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mg Se L-1 by foliar application on Se accumulation and fruit ripening as well as quality attributes was investigated. In 2017, the effects of 1.5 mg Se L-1 foliar application on fruit Se content and changes in the antioxidant system and storability were studied with a 30-day interval during 6 months storage at 0 ± 1 °C. RESULTS: Foliar application of Se significantly increased both leaf and fruit Se concentration. The increase in Se content enhanced the flesh firmness, titrable acidity, and soluble solid content of the fruit. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were markedly amplified by Se treatments as compared to the control, resulting in lower superoxide anion radical (O2 -• ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) contents, correspondingly higher membrane integrity as revealed by lower ion leakage and malondialdehyde accumulation and the fruit with lower water core. CONCLUSION: Application of Se was efficient in increasing fruit Se content and nutraceutical properties, retarding the flesh firmness reduction, and postponing fruit ripening resulting from lower ethylene biosynthesis rate, thereby positively affecting apple fruit quality and storability. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Malus/química , Ácido Selênico/análise , Selênio/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/análise , Biofortificação , Catalase/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , Fertilizantes/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ácido Selênico/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
Food Chem ; 288: 368-376, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902306

RESUMO

Exogenous Ca2+ affects the phenolic metabolism and physiological indices of germinated wheat under ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, but the mechanism is unclear. The current study applied exogenous Ca2+ and Ca2+ channel blocker LaCl3 to the germinated wheat under UV-B radiation to unravel the role of Ca2+. The results indicated that total phenolic content (TPC) of the 4-day germinated wheat under UV-B radiation with CaCl2 (UV-B+Ca) treatment significantly increased by 10.3% as compared to the UV-B treatment. Gene expression levels of p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase, cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase were positively correlated with the content of ferulic and p-coumaric acids, respectively. Exogenous Ca2+ could significantly alleviate the membrane lipid peroxidation, activate the antioxidant enzymes and regulate the phytohormone level under UV-B radiation. This study suggested that exogenous Ca2+ participated in the phenolic metabolism and physiological regulation in germinated wheat under UV-B radiation.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos da radiação , Fenóis/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raios Ultravioleta , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/análise , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/análise , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
19.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(4): 1130-1145, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913204

RESUMO

Hajizadeh Maleki, B, Tartibian, B, and Chehrazi, M. Effects of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercise on markers of male reproduction in healthy human subjects: a randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res 33(4): 1130-1145, 2019-The effects of moderate intensity treadmill exercise training (MI), resistance training (RT), and combined treadmill + resistance training (CT) on markers of male reproductive function including seminal markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, and semen quality and sperm DNA integrity were evaluated in healthy human subjects. A total of 376 healthy sedentary male volunteers (aged 25-40) were screened and 282 were randomized into 4 treatment groups: MI (n = 71), RT (n = 71), CT (n = 71), and nonexercise (NON-EX, n = 70) groups for an experimental period of 24 weeks. After the intervention, compared with the NON-EX group, all 3 MI, RT, and CT exercise modalities showed significantly reduced body mass, fat percent, waist circumference, reactive oxygen species, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α and improved maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), progressive motility, sperm morphology, sperm concentration and sperm DNA integrity, as indicated by a decrease of percentage of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated fluorescein-dUTP nick end labeling-positive sperm cells (p ≤ 0.05). Body mass index, semen volume, number of spermatozoa, superoxide dismutase, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde, and 8-isoprostane improved significantly in the MI and CT groups (p ≤ 0.05) but not significantly in the RT group (p > 0.05). In summary, all 3 MI, RT, and CT interventions attenuate seminal markers of inflammation and oxidative stress and improve body composition, semen quality parameters, and sperm DNA integrity in the studied population. In respect to all the aspects studied, those men who took part in MI intervention had the best results. Considering the seminological parameters, however, CT had a synergistic effect and was superior over the other interventions used.


Assuntos
Exercício , Treinamento de Resistência , Análise do Sêmen , Adulto , Antioxidantes/análise , Biomarcadores/análise , Composição Corporal , Catalase/análise , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Dinoprosta/análise , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Sêmen/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(3)2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862060

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Zingerone is an ingredient of ginger (Zingiber officinale) with different pharmacological activities. Several studies have investigated the effect of zingerone on various gastrointestinal diseases, including irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhea. This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of zingerone on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Materials and Methods: Gastric ulcers were induced by ethanol (96%, 5 mL/kg, po) in male wistar rats and zingerone (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was administrated orally. Normal saline and ranitidine were used as negative and positive control, respectively. In this study, the number and length of ulcers, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in stomach tissues were determined. Results: The findings showed that the mean number and length of gastric ulcers were significantly lower in zingerone-received groups than ethanol group (P < 0.05). The level of malondialdehyde was decreased in the stomach of zingerone groups (P < 0.05) compared to the ethanol group. In addition, zingerone treatment prevented the decrease of nitric oxide level by ethanol in the stomach tissue. Conclusions: The present study showed that zingerone has a protective effect on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer, which may be due to its free radical scavenging activity.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Gengibre/química , Guaiacol/análogos & derivados , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Animais , Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Etanol/farmacologia , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Guaiacol/administração & dosagem , Guaiacol/farmacologia , Guaiacol/uso terapêutico , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Necrose , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Solventes/administração & dosagem , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Solventes/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle
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