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1.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124595, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445330

RESUMO

Earthworms are often used as test subjects in toxicological studies, due to their ubiquitousness and sensitivity to contaminant exposure. Such testing is typically conducted using Eisenia fetida as the test subject, but continued use of E. fetida (eco) toxicology is questionable. Therefore, in this study three earthworm species, Aporrectodea rosea, Aporrectodea trapezoides and E. fetida, were exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) nitrate in artificial soil for 7, 14 and 28 days. A biomarker of genotoxicity (TUNEL assay), biochemical markers [malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)], weight loss, lethal toxicity (LC50) and subcellular partitioning were assessed. Cadmium and Pb caused significant inhibition in TAC and growth and significant increases in DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in the earthworms. Acute toxicity rank (14 days) for both Cd and Pb were E. fetida > A. trapezoides > A. rosea. Subcellular partitioning of Cd and Pb in the earthworms were cytosol > debris > granules and debris > granules > cytosol, respectively. Comparison of biomarker responses between study species showed that E. fetida proved to be less susceptible to Cd and Pb exposure than A. rosea and A. trapezoides. Therefore, this study confirms that A. rosea and A. trapezoides are more suitable as subjects than E. fetida for the soil toxicity tests, because of both their greater susceptibility to toxicants and in their abundance in the field.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/classificação , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Testes de Toxicidade
2.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124668, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494325

RESUMO

Nitrite is one of major environmental pollutants that can impact immunological parameters in aquatic organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nitrite exposure on oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in mud crab (Scylla paramamosain). Mud crab were exposed to 0, 5, 10 and 15 mg L-1 nitrite for 72 h. These data showed that acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity significantly decreased in treatments with various concentrations of nitrite (5, 10 and 15 mg L-1) after 24 and 48 h, while the levels of nitric oxide (NO) significantly increased in these treatments. Nitrite exposure could suppress superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, and increase the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) after 48 and 72 h of exposure. In addition, nitrite exposure decreased total haemocyte counts after 48 and 72 h of exposure. Cytological damage, DNA damage and apoptosis was observed obviously at 72 h after nitrite exposure. Moreover, nitrite exposure significantly induced the mRNA levels of phosphorylated Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and eventually activated p53 signaling and caspase-3. These results indicated that nitrite exposure could induce oxidative stress, which further caused DNA damage and apoptosis in mud crab. Our results will be helpful to understand the mechanism of nitrite toxicity on crustaceans.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Braquiúros/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/genética , Nitritos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Fosfatase Ácida/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Braquiúros/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Hemócitos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134106, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505350

RESUMO

Chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) can cause renal dysfunction. Studies of animals, cell cultures, and plants have found that selenium (Se) can effectively alleviate the hazard generated by Cd, but there has been little study of this in general human populations. This study recruited 313 subjects from China's Hubei Province, including 160 living in areas with high soil Cd and Se (exposure group) and 153 living in clean areas (control group). The levels of the following were detected: Cd and Se in blood (B-Cd and B-Se), urine (U-Cd and U-Se), and hair (H-Cd and H-Se); N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (U-NAG), ß2-microglobulin (U-ß2-MG), and albumin (U-ALB) in urine; and malondialdehyde (S-MDA), superoxide dismutase (S-SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (S-GSH-Px) in serum. In addition, the interactions between Cd and Se were assessed. The median levels of B-Cd, B-Se, U-Cd, U-Se, H-Cd, H-Se, S-MDA, and S-GSH-Px of exposure group (2.60 ng/mL, 238.90 ng/mL, 3.13 µg/g Cr, 45.43 µg/g Cr, 0.06 µg/g, 0.70 µg/g, 5.22 nmol/mL, and 308.89 U, respectively) were significantly higher than of controls (0.95 ng/mL, 130.50 ng/mL, 1.08 µg/g Cr, 30.51 µg/g Cr, 0.04 µg/g, 0.49 µg/g, 4.71 nmol/mL, and 267.54 U, respectively), but there were no significant differences in U-NAG, U-ß2-MG, U-ALB, or S-SOD between the two groups. U-NAG levels were significantly negatively associated with the interaction between Cd and Se (B: -0.511, 95% CI: -0.886, -0.136). Additionally, changes in the direction of the estimated regression coefficient in the low and high H-Se groups were observed for U-Cd and S-MDA (from 0.018 to -0.090), U-Cd and S-GSH-Px (from -0.039 to 0.101). This study found that populations living in areas with high levels of soil Cd and Se did not show greater Cd-induced renal tubular and glomerular injuries than the control population, which could attribute to the protective effects of Se. The protective effects may be related to the peculiar function of Se that Se can combine with free Cd to activate the antioxidant enzyme system.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Selênio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Acetilglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Antioxidantes , Cádmio/metabolismo , China/epidemiologia , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Microglobulina beta-2/metabolismo
4.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124602, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545211

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been known to exhibit neurotoxicity in rats; however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown and there is no available intervention. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of oxidative and nitrosative stress in the neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex and primary neurons in rats following the BDE-153 treatment. Compared to the untreated group, BDE-153 treatment significantly induced the neurotoxic effects in rats, as manifested by the increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and cell apoptosis rates, and the decreased neurotrophic factor contents and cholinergic enzyme activities in rats' cerebral cortices and primary neurons. When compared to the untreated group, the oxidative and nitrosative stress had occurred in the cerebral cortex or primary neurons in rats following the BDE-153 treatment, as manifested by the increments in levels of reactive oxygenspecies (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) mRNA and protein expressions, along with the decline in levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) content, and peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) and Prx II mRNA and protein expressions. In addition, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or NO scavenger NG-Nitro-l-arginine (L-NNA) significantly rescued the LDH leakage and cell survival, reversed the neurotrophin contents and cholinergic enzymes, mainly via regaining balance between oxidation/nitrosation and antioxidation. Overall, our findings suggested that oxidative and nitrosative stresses are involved in the neurotoxicity induced by BDE-153, and that the antioxidation is a potential targeted intervention.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Estresse Nitrosativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurotrofina 3/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Estresse Nitrosativo/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 92-101, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oyster polypeptides have various biofunctions, such as anti-cancer and anti-oxidative stress, but whether it has the protective effects to primary ovarian failure (POF) remains poorly understand. To address this issue, daily gavage of oyster polypeptides was performed to investigate their protective effect, basing on d-galactose-induced POF model in C57BL/6 female mice. RESULTS: Oyster polypeptides restored the irregular estrous cycles and the abnormal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone (P) levels as well as the decreased mRNA expression level of Amh that were induced by d-galactose. The follicle development of POF mice was improved by increasing the primordial follicle ratio and decreasing the atretic follicle number after oral administration of oyster polypeptides. Moreover, in the oyster polypeptides treated mice, the total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity was significantly increased, while the malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased. The mRNA expression levels of stress-related genes (SOD2, SIRT1 and FOXO3a) were remarkably up-regulated after d-galactose induction, but the up-regulation was weakened or disappeared by the gavage of oyster polypeptides. In addition, oyster polypeptides treatment also reduced the apoptosis of the ovarian granulosa cells and down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (p53 and Bad but not Bcl-2). CONCLUSION: This study reveals that oyster polypeptides may protect ovary against d-galactose-induced POF by their anti-oxidative stress activity to rescue d-galactose-induced ovarian oxidative damage and therefore to prevent ovarian cells apoptosis, thereby tipping the abnormality trigged by POF to get close to the normal levels. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ostreidae/química , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/genética , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
6.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104529, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574324

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Periodontitis disease is a chronic inflammation, and the prevention or treatment of periodontal disease is important for improving oral health and averting systemic diseases.Acer tegmentosum Maxim (ATM) is a type of deciduous tree in Korea. ATM extracts have been traditionally used to treat various dieases. This study investigated the effects of ATM extract on mitigation of periodontitis in vitro and in vivo. DESIGN: The current study investigated whether extracts ofAcer tegmentosum Maxim (ATM) attenuated periodontitis induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro and in vivo. We used a rat model of experimental periodontitis that received oral administration of 1 mg/kg P. gingivalis-derived LPS for 10 days. Periodontitis models was treated with two different dosages of ATM (30 or 100 mg/kg) during the same period of periodontal induction for histological analysis. RESULTS: The results indicated that aqueous ATM extracts effectively ameliorated ligature-induced periodontitis through of the antibacterial, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities. CONCLUSION: These pre-clinical results suggest the need for further studies on the anti-periodontitis effect of ATM in humans. Thus, ATM could be used as a natural anti-periodontitis agent for the treatment of periodontitis.


Assuntos
Acer/química , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/patogenicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Periodontite/microbiologia , Casca de Planta/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , República da Coreia
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 846-854, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pomegranate has antioxidant, cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. We designed a crossover study aimed at determining if consumption of pomegranate juice (PJ) improves lipid profile and oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers of hemodialysis patients. Forty-one hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: PJ-treated group receiving 100 mL of natural PJ immediately after their dialysis session three times a week and the control group receiving the usual care. After 8 weeks, a 4-week washout period was established and then the role of the groups was exchanged. Lipid profile, blood pressure and oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers were measured before and after each sequence. RESULTS: Based on the results of intention-to-treat analysis, triglycerides were decreased in PJ condition and increased in the controls. Conversely, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased in PJ and decreased in the control group. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not significantly change in either condition. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased in PJ condition. Total antioxidant capacity increased in PJ condition (P < 0.001) and decreased in the controls (P < 0.001). Conversely, malondialdehyde and interleukin-6 decreased in PJ (P < 0.001) and increased in the control group (P ≤ 0.001). The changes of these biomarkers were significantly different between the two conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Eight-week PJ consumption showed beneficial effects on blood pressure, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidative stress and inflammation in hemodialysis patients. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12164-12171, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600067

RESUMO

Plant biostimulants (PBS) increase crop productivity and induce beneficial processes in plants. Although PBS can stimulate plant tolerance to some abiotic stresses, their effect in improving crop resistance to herbicide injuries has barely been investigated. Therefore, a study on the effect of a biostimulant (Megafol) on maize (Zea mays L.) tolerance to a chloro-acetanilide herbicide (metolachlor) was carried out. We found that Megafol reduced the negative effects of metolachlor on maize. Indeed, biostimulated samples showed increases in germination, biomass production, Vigor index, and EC50 (effective concentration causing 50% reductions to roots and aerial biomass) with respect to the samples treated with metolachlor alone. Furthermore, plants treated with the herbicide in combination with Megafol showed lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). Antioxidant enzymes, namely, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT), were assayed in samples treated with metolachlor alone or in combination with Megafol, and higher enzymes activities were found in biostimulated plants. The results of this study open the perspective of using Megafol, as well as other suitable plant biostimulants, in improving the crop's capacity to cope with injuries and unwanted effects that herbicide could cause to these species.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12752-12760, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642668

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis, the major risk of cardiovascular events, is a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. Pterostilbene is a naturally occurring dimethylated analogue of resveratrol and has recently been demonstrated to be beneficial against cardiovascular diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms of pterostilbene on atherosclerosis remain elusive. Experimental atherosclerosis was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. Pterostilbene was administered intragastrically for 16 weeks. We found that pterostilbene significantly attenuated thoracic and abdominal atherosclerotic plaque formation in HFD-fed ApoE-/-mice, accompanied by modulated lipid profiles and reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines (including IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α). In addition, pterostilbene restored vascular redox balance in thoracic and abdominal aorta, evidenced by enhanced catalase (CAT) expression and activities, and decreased malondialdehyde and H2O2 production. Notably, pterostilbene specifically induced CAT expression and activities in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of thoracic and abdominal aorta. In vitro, pterostilbene markedly promoted the expression and activity of CAT and decreased ox-low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-mediated VSMC proliferation and intracellular H2O2 production, which was abolished by CAT siRNA knockdown or inhibition. Pterostilbene-induced CAT expression was associated with inhibition of Akt, PRAS40, and GSK-3ß signaling activation and upregulation of PTEN. Our data clearly demonstrated that pterostilbene exerted an antiatherosclerotic effect by inducing CAT and modulating the VSMC function.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Catalase/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/enzimologia , Estilbenos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Oxirredução
10.
Life Sci ; 235: 116840, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494171

RESUMO

AIMS: Ovarian ischemia as a consequence of torsion constitutes a gynecologic emergency affecting females during reproductive age. Its management by detorsion results in ovarian ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Thus, a conservative treatment with detorsion is highly recommended. Therefore, we attempted to investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of angiotensin 1-7 (Ang-(1-7)) treatment against ovarian IR injury. MAIN METHODS: Female rats were included into: Sham group; Ang-(1-7) (300 µg/kg, i.p.) group; ovarian IR groups with and without Ang-(1-7) treatment. We determined ovarian Ang-(1-7), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in addition to serum total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC) levels. Ovarian gene expressions of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), Mas receptor, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) were estimated. Furthermore, histopathological changes and ovarian expressions of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthases (iNOS and eNOS) were done. KEY FINDINGS: Treatment of ovarian IR rats with Ang-(1-7) led to marked improvement of ovarian damage through histological examination which was accompanied with marked increase in ovarian Ang-(1-7) level and expressions of ACE2 and Mas receptor, decrease in MDA and NO levels and expressions of NF-kB, iNOS and TNF-α with increase in serum TAC levels and ovarian expressions of eNOS and BCL-2. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results proved the protective effect of Ang-(1-7) against ovarian IR injury in rats and this may be attributed to ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas axis which showed anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Therefore, Ang-(1-7) can be used in the future for treatment of ovarian IR injury.


Assuntos
Angiotensina I/farmacologia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/biossíntese , Ovário/lesões , Ovário/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/biossíntese , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/biossíntese , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/biossíntese , Ratos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/biossíntese , Soro/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese
11.
Life Sci ; 235: 116858, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505195

RESUMO

AIMS: The current study was conducted to investigate the potential protective effects of hesperidin and its possible mechanisms of action on pancreatic ß-cells in diabetes. MAIN METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were made diabetic using 65 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin, and then administered daily with 100 mg/kg of hesperidin over 4 weeks. On conclusion of the experiment, blood and pancreatic tissue were collected to determine the function of ß-cells, apoptosis, oxidative stress, ER stress, and inflammation. KEY FINDINGS: Treatment of diabetic rats with hesperidin, significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and food intake, along with increased body weight, serum and pancreatic insulin levels, and pancreatic-duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) protein expression. The beneficial roles of hesperidin on diabetic pancreatic ß-cells exhibited an increment in antioxidant SOD and GPx activities, and a decrement in nitrotyrosine as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Additionally, the elevated concentration of TNF-α and expressions of ER stress maker GRP78 and CHOP proteins in the pancreas of diabetic rats were significantly diminished by hesperidin treatment. Furthermore, hesperidin effectively modulated expressions of apoptosis-regulatory proteins in diabetic rat pancreas, as revealed by upregulating anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL; with a concomitant downregulating pro-apoptotic Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and inhibiting the activation of DNA repair protein poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, these findings suggest that hesperidin may have the potential to protect pancreatic ß-cells and improve their function by suppressing oxidative and ER stress, along with activating its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/prevenção & controle , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Hesperidina/farmacologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/biossíntese , Inflamação , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Transativadores/biossíntese , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/metabolismo
12.
Food Chem ; 301: 125311, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398670

RESUMO

We assessed the effects of postharvest exogenous melatonin (50,100 and 150 µmol L-1) on the senescence and quality of sweet cherries during storage at 0 ±â€¯0.5 °C. Melatonin treatment decreased decay incidence, respiration rate, and weight loss. It delayed the degradation of firmness, lightness, saturation, hue angle, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids content, thus maintaining better fruit quality. Melatonin treatment inhibited increases in O2-, H2O2, malondialdehyde content, and relative membrane permeability, while maintaining higher endogenous melatonin levels and increasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. Additionally, melatonin treatment enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes, increased the levels of ascorbic acid, and reduced glutathione levels, which are related to the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, as well as increasing the AsA:DHA and GSH:GSSG ratios. Delayed senescence in sweet cherries after exogenous melatonin treatment may be associated with high endogenous melatonin levels and increased antioxidant activity and content.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Prunus avium/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/fisiologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Prunus avium/fisiologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
Aquat Toxicol ; 215: 105270, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401473

RESUMO

The study aimed to compare differences in oxidative stress and energy metabolism between the left and right lobe of hepatopancreas in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea exposed to 0 (control), 20, and 100 µM Zn for 96 h. Tipical biomarkers were examined including the proportion of white hepatopancreas, lipid content, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione (GSH) content, activity levels of enzymes (Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, Cu/Zn-SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPx; glutathione reductase, GR; mitochondrial ATP synthase, F-ATPase; malate dehydrogenase, MDH; succinate dehydrogenase, SDH; hepatic lipase, HTGL; lipoprotein lipase, LPL), mRNA levels of genes encoding these enzymes (sod1, cat, gpx1a, gr, atp5b, mdh, sdh, htgl, and lpl), and gene expression of signaling molecules the NF-E2-related nuclear factor 2 (nrf2) and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (keap1). A whitish color in the left lobe of hepatopancreas was observed in the control and Zn-exposed fish. Contrarily, the right lobe of hepatopancreas tended towards red with increasing Zn levels. The phenomenon was further confirmed by that lipid content was reduced in the right lobe and was not significantly affected in the left lobe by Zn. The right lobe showed higher energy consumption than the left lobe as reflected by the up-regulation of activity levels of HTGL, LPL, F-ATPase, MDH, and SDH. Lipid peroxidation declined by 20 µM Zn and was unchanged by 100 µM Zn in both lobes, which could be explained by increased activity levels of Cu/Zn-SOD and GPx. However, the magnitude of increase in Cu/Zn-SOD activity was greater in the right lobe than that in the left one. The difference in enzyme activity between two lobes may be involved in changes in mRNA levels of sod1, gr, atp5b, sdh, htgl, lpl, and nrf2, which was further confirmed by positive relationships between enzyme activity and gene expression. Our data also showed positive correlations between nrf2 expression and mRNA levels of its target genes, suggesting that Nrf2 was required for the protracted induction of these genes. Our results demonstrated the potential molecular mechanism of Zn-induced differences between lobes of hepatopancreas, suggesting that the sampling part of hepatopancreas should be considered with caution when assessing metal contamination.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Perciformes/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zinco/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 198: 111557, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382091

RESUMO

Cistus incanus leaf extract was used to biologically synthesize Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs). The characteristic UV-vis spectral band of CuO NPs found at 290 nm revealed the successful formation of CuO NPs. By the analysis of TEM and SEM, it is confirmed that the obtained CuO NPs were in spherical structure. By the analysis of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, it is evident that the absorption peak was situated at a position of about 480 cm-1 of wavenumber, which is typically considered as an extremely pure CuO NPs. The images of Transmission Electron Microscopy exhibited that the formed CuO NPs were in the size of about 15-25 nm and were relatively uniform in distribution. When related with the treatment of nanomaterials only, the synergistic interaction among CuO NPs and oxidative stress conditions considerably decreased the cardiac-related function catalogs, which includes pathological progressions of myocardium along with an obvious rise in the levels of creatine kinase-MB and cardiac troponin I. When compared to the void reaction of micro-CuO and cardiac operations in alloxan-injected rats, aggravation in the conditions of oxidative stress could be playing a significant part in the heart injury after dual exposing CuO NPs and alloxan. By these results, it is confirmed that the conditions of oxidative stress improved the contrary effects of CuO NPs to the heart, signifying that the utilization of nanomaterials in conditions of stress such as, in the delivery of drug, required to be cautiously monitored.


Assuntos
Aloxano/toxicidade , Cobre/química , Traumatismos Cardíacos/patologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cistus/química , Cistus/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Glutationa/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Troponina I/metabolismo
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 142: 342-350, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382176

RESUMO

Aspergillus aculeatus has been shown to stimulate plant growth, but its role in plants abiotic stress tolerance and the underlying mechanisms are not fully documented. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of A.aculeatus-mediated drought, heat and salt stress tolerance in tall fescue. The results showed that A.aculeatus inoculation improved drought and heat stress tolerance in tall fescue as observed from its effect on turf quality (TQ) and leaf relative water content (LWC). In the same stress conditions, A.aculeatus alleviated reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced burst and cell damage, as indicated by lower H2O2, electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Additionally, the A.aculeatus inoculated plants exhibited higher photosynthetic efficiency than uninoculated plants under drought, heat and salt stress conditions. The fungus reduced the uptake of Na+, and inoculated plants showed lower Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+and Na+/Mg2+ ratios compared to uninoculated ones under salt stress. Furthermore, comparative metabolomic analysis showed that A.aculeatus exclusively increased amino acid (such as proline and glycine) and sugar (such as glucose, fructose, sorbose, and talose) accumulation under drought and heat stress. However, there were no differences between inoculated and uninoculated plants except for changes in H2O2 level, Na+ in the root and photosynthetic efficiency under salt stress. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence of the protective roles of A.aculeatus in the tall fescue response to abiotic stresses, partially via protection of photosynthesis and modulation of metabolic homeostasis.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/metabolismo , Festuca/microbiologia , Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus/fisiologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Desidratação , Festuca/metabolismo , Festuca/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Homeostase , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Estresse Salino , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
16.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 113022, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408795

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) present in water is a nonignorable environmental issue, even at low concentrations (≤150 µg L-1). To evaluate the toxic effect of low concentrations of As, zebrafish at early life stage were exposed to 0, 25, 50, 75, or 150 µg L-1 AsIII for 120 h. Our results indicated that low concentration of AsIII decreased zebrafish larvae's survival rate to 85%, 89% and 86% at 50, 75 and 150 µg L-1. Furthermore, low concentrations of AsIII exposure caused oxidative stress (elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and influenced the mRNA transcriptional levels of Cu/ZnSOD and MnSOD) and damage (increased malondialdehyde levels). Meanwhile, zebrafish larvae regulated the mRNA transcription of metallothionein and heat shock protein 70 to alleviate toxicity caused by AsIII. These results revealed lower concentrations (≤150 µg L-1) of AsIII had a detriment effect on the survival of fish at early life stage, moreover, oxidative stress caused by AsIII posed potential risk for the zebrafish. This study provides novel insight into low concentration AsIII-induced toxicity in zebrafish.


Assuntos
Arsenitos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Arsênico/metabolismo , Arsenitos/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade , Transcrição Genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia
17.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 198: 111565, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374350

RESUMO

The incidence of skin cancers has increased worldwide, requiring more prevention of this type of cancer. The use of sunscreen and the control of the time of exposure to sunlight are the recognized forms of prevention. However, new substances have been researched in order to develop formulations with more efficient protective activity. Citral is a natural compound with lemon scent that is used in food and cosmetic industries. The present work evaluated the chemoprotective effect of citral during UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. Male hairless mice HRS/J, 8-12 weeks old, were exposed to UVB irradiation for 24 weeks, with a cumulative radiation dose of 13.875 J/cm2. Citral (0.1, 0.5 and 1%) was applied to the skin at a dosage of 0.1 g/animal, 5 min after UVB exposure. At the end of the experiment, the number of lesion/animal, and size of lesions were measured. The histological sections of the skin were evaluated for the presence and intensity of actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma. TUNEL assay was performed for apoptosis evaluation. Skin samples were used for the measurement of oxidative stress parameters (total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter of skin, glutathione, catalase activity and malondialdehyde), and cytokines levels (IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-10, IL-23, TNF-α, and IFNγ). Citral 1% completely inhibited UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis by reducing levels of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines, increasing apoptotic rate in the skin.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Catalase/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Ceratose/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Monoterpenos/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle
18.
Food Chem ; 301: 125224, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374530

RESUMO

This study was the first investigation into the main inducers of two lignifications by examining the changes of physicochemical properties and gene expression in king oyster mushrooms, under different conditions, during 21 days of storage. The results showed that the toughness, firmness and gumminess of the no-wounding treatment decreased to approximately 75-82.5% of the initial values, and the lignin content and expression of Pe4CL1 and Pe4CL3 decreased by 21-40% and 22-77%, respectively, in comparison to those of the other treatments in the first lignification. These findings indicated that wounding was the main factor inducing the first lignification. The second lignification of tested mushrooms was positively correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated senescence, accompanied by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content, electrolyte leakage rate and mitochondrial dysfunction, which showed that ROS-mediated senescence played an essential role in the second lignification. This study is helpful for effective strategies to reduce lignification in stored mushrooms.


Assuntos
Pleurotus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Pleurotus/fisiologia
19.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 149-155, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378351

RESUMO

Induced resistance is an effective measure for controlling plant diseases by utilizing the natural defense of the host and meets the strategic needs of pesticide application and safety for agricultural products worldwide. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), which is the main active molecule of G. lucidum, has been widely used in functional food and clinical medicine. However, there are few reports of the use of GLP for the prevention and control of plant diseases. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of GLP and its mechanism of inducing plant resistance. In this study, we found that GLP spray and irrigation root treatments can promote growth in cotton. After soaking in GLP, theseedling height and cotton fusarium wilt resistance both increased to some extent, effects that were dose dependent. After treatment of cotton with GLP, the activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in leaves increased significantly, whereas the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased. In addition, QRT-PCR results showed significantly increased relative expression of genes related to the jasmonic acid pathway in cotton. Therefore, we speculate that GLP can induce plant resistance by stimulating the jasmonate pathway.


Assuntos
Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Gossypium/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
20.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(8): 569-575, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379179

RESUMO

AIM: Oxidative and nitrosative stress triggers an extensive damage to the tissues. Many herbal and chemical medicines have claimed to possess antioxidant properties. Arbutin exists in some plants such as Pyrus Biossierana Bushe. In this study, an inhibitory effect of arbutin against tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced cytotoxicity was studied using SYTOX TM Green assay for cell viability. The antioxidant effects of arbutin on the generation of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, activity of oxidative enzyme (Superoxide dismutase and catalyze) and the amount of total thiol in Hep-G2 cells exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide were evaluated. METHODS: Hep-G2 cells were cultured in 24-well plates. After 24 hours, the cells were pretreated with the arbutin at different concentrations (0, 100 and 150 µM). 24 hours later, tert-butyl hydroperoxide at different concentrations (0, 150, 200 and 250 µM) was added into the culture media. RESULTS: Arbutin was able to decrease malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentrations in arbutin treated group in comparison with the control group (p < 0.00001). The catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes in these cells were significantly decreased in a dose depend manner in the presence of arbutin in comparison with the control group (p < 0.00001). In addition, arbutin was capable of increasing the tert-butyl hydroperoxide mediated reduction in the total thiol amount in comparison with the control group (p < 0.00001.) CONCLUSION: Our investigation demonstrated that tert-butyl hydroperoxide evoked a reactive oxygen and nitrogen species overproduction in Hep-G2 cells. The cells treated with arbutin showed a dose-dependent reduction of tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation (Fig. 6, Ref. 34).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Arbutina/farmacologia , Estresse Nitrosativo , Estresse Oxidativo , Catalase/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , terc-Butil Hidroperóxido
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