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1.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 148: 260-272, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982861

RESUMO

Water shortage is one of the main limiting factors in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) production. Although dopamine is produced in plants and has been linked with response to abiotic stress, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, physiological analyses revealed that pretreatment with 100 µM dopamine alleviated drought stress in apple seedlings. Dopamine inhibited the degradation of photosynthetic pigments and increased net photosynthetic rate under drought stress. Dopamine also reduced H2O2 content, possibly through direct scavenging and by mediating the antioxidant enzyme activity. Seedlings pretreated with dopamine had higher sucrose and malic acid contents but lower starch accumulation in their leaves. RNA-Seq analysis identified 1052 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between non-treated and dopamine-pretreated plants under drought. An in-depth analysis of these DEGs revealed that dopamine regulated the expression of genes related to metabolism of nitrogen, secondary compounds, and amino acids under drought stress. In addition, dopamine may improve apple drought tolerance by activating Ca2+ signaling pathways through increased expression of CNGC and CAM/CML family genes. Moreover, analysis of transcription factor expression suggested that dopamine affected drought tolerance mainly through the regulation of WRKY, ERF, and NAC transcription factors.


Assuntos
Secas , Malus , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma , Dopamina/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Food Chem ; 308: 125707, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669943

RESUMO

The ripening of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit is regulated by the phytohormone ethylene, where degreening is an important physiological metabolism caused by chlorophyll (Chl) degradation. However, to date, research on how ethylene affects the Chl degradation pathway of apple peel during ripening remains scarce. In this study, the effects of ethylene on the expression of Chl catabolic genes (CCGs) of apple peel during ripening were studied by treating harvested commercial mature apples with 0.5 µL L-1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). The results showed that 1-MCP treatment led to a delayed climacteric peak of respiration and ethylene production, exhibiting higher Chl content and hue angle (H˚) compared to untreated fruit during ripening. Lower quantities of pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO), pheophytinase (PPH) and red Chl catabolite reductase (RCCR) were also observed in peel tissues under 1-MCP treatment during ripening. Further study with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that the expression of CCGs, except for MdNYE1a, increased atdifferentdegrees upon ripening. Meanwhile, the apples treated with 1-MCP presented a downregulated expression of MdRCCR2, MdNYC1, MdNYC3 and MdNOL2 and a fluctuating expression of MdNYE1a, MdPPH1, MdPAO6, MdPAO8 and MdHCAR compared with the controls during ripening. Our results indicated the regulatory role of ethylene in the Chl degradation pathway of apple peel during ripening.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Etilenos/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 302: 125288, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419774

RESUMO

The effects of benzothiadiazole (BTH) on Penicillium expansum development, mitochondria energy metabolism, and changes in the number and structure of mitochondria in apple fruit were investigated after the fruit were immersed in 100 mg L-1 BTH for 10 min and then stored at 22 °C. The results indicated that BTH treatment significantly decreased the lesion diameter of fruit challenged with P. expansum; further, treatment enhanced the activities of mitochondrial respiratory metabolism-related enzymes, such as succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase, H+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, along with high ATP level and energy status in apple fruit during storage. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy results indicated that BTH treatment was beneficial for maintaining the number and structure of mitochondria during storage. The results suggested that BTH treatment enhanced ATP levels via mitochondrial energy metabolism, which might contribute to the induced resistance in apple fruit during storage.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Malus/microbiologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Penicillium/fisiologia
4.
Food Chem ; 303: 125346, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446364

RESUMO

The effect of a respiratory quotient dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA - RQ), which induces ethanol production through low oxygen storage, and ethanol application on softening of Braeburn apples stored at different temperatures was investigated. DCA - RQ storage was associated with the activation of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and greater anaerobic metabolism in comparison with DCA - CF (chlorophyll fluorescence) and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. Greater anaerobic metabolism resulted in lower ethylene production, ACC oxidase activity, membrane permeability, -galactosidase activity and, therefore, less softening after long-term storage. Ethanol application after CA storage decreased ethylene biosynthesis, respiration rate and membrane permeability. Storage at 3 °C resulted in the lowest soluble solids and acidity, but not softening. In conclusion, Braeburn apples could be stored at 3 °C under DCA - RQ1.5. Additionally, ethanol produced by the fruit, or applied externally, had a significant effect on inhibiting softening during and after storage.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Etanol/farmacologia , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Anaerobiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo
5.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614954

RESUMO

Abstract: Apple tree canker infected by Valsa mali var. mali is a serious and widely distributed disease in China. Saccharothrix yanglingensis Hhs.015 is an endophytic actinomycete isolated from cucumber roots, and it has been proven that this strain is a promising biocontrol agent on apple tree canker in previous studies. The aim of this study was to elucidate the active ingredients in its metabolites. Two pentaene macrolides, WH01 and WH02, were isolated from strain Hhs.015, and their structures were elucidated based on the extensive spectroscopic analysis. WH01 and WH02 were identified as fungichromin and 1'-deoxyfungichromin, among which WH02 is a novel compound. These two compounds showed strong in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity against V. mali. By comparison of the structures of hyphae cells treated by pure compound and fermentation broth, it has been proven that pentaene macrolides are the main active ingredients in the metabolites of strain Hhs.015. This is the first report on the antifungal activity of fungichromin and its analogs on V. mali, and the 28-member pentaene macrolides were also firstly isolated from the genus of Saccharothrix.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/química , Antifúngicos/química , Cucumis sativus/química , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , China , Fermentação , Hifas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas
6.
Plant Sci ; 288: 110219, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521216

RESUMO

The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved phosphoserine-binding proteins that participate in the regulation of diverse physiological and developmental processes. In this research, twenty 14-3-3 genes in apples, which contained a highly conserved 14-3-3 domain, were identified and divided into two subgroups. Among them, MdGRF11 was further cloned and investigated. qRT-PCR analyses and GUS staining show that MdGRF11 is expressed in various organs and tissues with the highest expression levels found in the fruit. MdGRF11 was upregulated by polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000), NaCl, abscisic acid (ABA) and low temperature (4 °C) treatments. MdGRF11-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis and apple calli exhibited reduced sensitivity to salt and PEG 6000 treatments. Moreover, the ectopic expression of MdGRF11 improved the tolerance of transgenic tobacco to salt and drought stresses, which grew longer roots, underwent more growth, and presented higher chlorophyll levels than the wild-type control under salt and drought stress conditions. Furthermore, MdGRF11 expression remarkably reduced electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content levels, H2O2 and O2- accumulation under salt and drought stress conditions, which relied on the regulation of ROS-scavenging signaling to reduce oxidative damage of cells after salt and drought stress treatment. MdGRF11 also enhanced tolerance to stress by upregulating expression levels of ROS-scavenging and stress-related genes, especially improving responses to drought stress by modifying the water loss rates and stomatal aperture. Moreover, MdGRF11 could interact with MdAREB/ABF transcription factors through yeast two hybrid analyses. In conclusion, our results indicate that MdGRF11 acts as a positive regulator of salt and drought stress responses through regulating ROS scavenging and other signaling systems.


Assuntos
Proteínas 14-3-3/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Proteínas 14-3-3/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/administração & dosagem , Temperatura Baixa , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem
7.
Biol Res ; 52(1): 43, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drought is one of the main serious problems for agriculture production which its intensity is increasing in many parts of the world, hence, improving water use efficiency is a main goal for sustainable agriculture. RESULTS: Growth indices including relative shoot length growth (SL), relative stem diameter increase (SD) and relative trunk cross sectional area growth (TCSA) measured at the start and end of the season decreased by reducing the irrigation level. Chlorophyll index (CI) was decreased at 70% crop evapotranspiration, however water use efficiency (WUE), leaf and fruit total phenolic content (TPC), and fruit anthocyanin content (AC) were among the traits that showed increment by water deficit stress in both cultivars. Shafi-Abadi cultivar showed to be more sensitive to the water stress than 'Golab'. Kaolin treatment improved SL, SD and CI traits, but this increase was statistically significant only for SD at 5% level. Kaolin had no significant effect on yield and water use efficiency (WUE), however, it had negative effect on yield efficiency (YE). Kaolin treatments also significantly increased fruit and leaf TPC (P < 0.01) but had no effect on leaf and fruit total antioxidant activity (AA), as well as fruit anthocyanin content (AC) and soluble proteins (SP). CONCLUSIONS: Irrigation at 85% ETc showed better results than 100% and 70% ETc levels for yield attributes. It seems that the more pronounced effect of kaolin on vegetative traits but not on the fruits, might be attributed to the early ripening and harvest time of the examined cultivars.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Secas , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caulim/administração & dosagem , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Estações do Ano
8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 142: 332-341, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377482

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are a class of compounds that are widespread in plants, where they provide protection against stresses, and are also beneficial to human health as dietary components. Melatonin application is known to affect anthocyanin production, but the relationship between anthocyanin and melatonin is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed anthocyanin contents and the expression levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in tissue cultured plantlets of two Malus crabapple cultivars following various exogenous melatonin treatments under light and dark conditions. The application of exogenous melatonin not only promoted anthocyanin accumulation in leaves, but also increased the contents of flavonols and proanthocyanins (PAs), via a process that was not dependent on light. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses indicated that the expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes, flavonoid related transcription factors and melatonin biosynthetic genes was induced by melatonin. We propose that anthocyanin biosynthesis is regulated by melatonin in crabapple leaves via the expression of flavonoid related transcription factors. This study provides insight into the mechanism of melatonin induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in woody plants, and suggests that pretreatment with melatonin may represent a cultivation strategy to increase the flavonoid contents of plants.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonóis/análise , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/química , Malus/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem ; 299: 125109, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295635

RESUMO

The aim of this research is to develop, characterize and utilize a multi-layer antibacterial film using chitosan (CS) and sodium alginate (SA) as biopolymers and cinnamon essential oil (CEO) as main antibacterial ingredients. The dense cross-section of SA layer in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis verified that layer-by-layer method improved physical and mechanical properties of CS-CEO single layer film. The thermogravimetric (TGA) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis indicated that the layer-by-layer method changed the intermolecular interaction and the thermal stability. Importantly, the multi-layer film exhibited more sustained release and higher retention rate of CEO compared CS-CEO single layer film. The multi-layer coating showed a more significant and lasting inhibition of penicillium expansion which further demonstrated that the layer-by-layer method improved the release and retention of CEO in the multiphased system. To summarize, the multilayer film system is a promising controllable release system for loading essential oils.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Malus/microbiologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Penicillium/efeitos dos fármacos , Alginatos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Quitosana/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/microbiologia , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Óleos Voláteis/farmacocinética , Penicillium/patogenicidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Eletricidade Estática , Termogravimetria
10.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 189(3): 855-870, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131419

RESUMO

Condensed tannins (CTS) have been isolated and purified from leaves of Acanthus ilicifolius Linn. And their structures were investigated by three methods: 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The results showed that the CTS were a mixture of catechin/epicatechin, galatechin/epicatechin, and amphicin/epigalin, and that the polymer chain lengths were 3-mers to 14-mers. Antityrosinase activities and antioxidant activities of the CTS from A. ilicifolius leaves were further studied. The IC50 of the CTS on mushroom tyrosinase activity was determined to be 19.7 ± 0.13 µg/mL, and inhibition type analyses indicated that the CTS were mixed type inhibitors and their inhibition CTS was reversible. The CTS from A. ilicifolius leaves also exhibited potential antioxidant activity. The IC50 of DPPH and ABTS scavenging activities were 104 ± 0.894 µg/mL and 86 ± 0.616 µg/mL, respectively. And the FRAP value was 758.28 ± 2.42 mg AAE/g. In addition, we found that the CTS from A. ilicifolius leaves had an excellent effect on preserving the quality of fresh-cut apples by preventing apples from browning through reducing polyphenol oxidase activities in apples.


Assuntos
Acanthaceae/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Taninos/química , Taninos/farmacologia , Agaricales/enzimologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Conservação de Alimentos , Cinética , Malus/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Folhas de Planta/química , Polimerização , Taninos/isolamento & purificação
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 139: 630-641, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039504

RESUMO

Melatonin, an evolutionarily conserved molecule, is implicated in numerous physiological processes in plants. To explore the potential roles of melatonin in response to UV-B radiation, we examined the influence of exogenous melatonin on Malus hupehensis Rehd. seedlings under two levels of UV-B radiation. Under UV-B stress, seedlings showed significant reduction in plant growth, biomass production, and root system development. However, 1 µM melatonin solution markedly alleviated these effects, especially at the higher dosage of UV-B radiation. The inhibitory effects of UV-B radiation on photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, stomatal apertures, chlorophyll levels and leaf membrane damages were also markedly alleviated with melatonin application. Melatonin treatment was also associated with higher activity and expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and peroxidase) and greater decline of H2O2 content in leaves exposed to UV-B. Moreover, exogenous melatonin treatment and UV-B stress increased the concentration of endogenous melatonin. The content of several phenolic compounds, including chlorogenic acid, phloridzin and quercetin-3-galactoside, also increased under UV-B stress, and these were further elevated significantly with melatonin addition. This study provides insight into the role(s) of endogenous melatonin in response to UV-B stress, and will facilitate application of exogenous melatonin in agriculture.


Assuntos
Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malus/efeitos da radiação , Fenóis/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 139: 600-612, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030028

RESUMO

Changes in intracellular calcium (Ca2+) levels in response to developmental processes or external stimuli serve as signals in eukaryotic cells. These Ca2+ signals are likely perceived through sensor proteins that bind Ca2+ by EF-hand (a helix-loop-helix structure) motif. Calmodulins (CaMs), a group of well-characterized Ca2+ sensors, and calmodulin-like (CMLs) are implicated in a large number of diverse cellular processes, including plant development and stress responses. In this study, apple (Malus × domestica) genes encoding CaM and CML proteins that only possess EF-hand motifs with no other functional domains were analyzed. A total of 4 MdCaM and 58 MdCML genes were identified, which are spread among 16 out of the 17 apple chromosomes. Bioinformatics analyses, including protein characteristics, conserved domain, evolutionary relationships and chromosomal locations, demonstrated the conservation and divergence of MdCaMs/CMLs. In addition, expression analysis showed that MdCaMs/CMLs are expressed in more than one tissue, including shoot tips, roots, mature leaves, flowers and fruit. Furthermore, the expression of some MdCaM/CML members responded to plant hormones (abscisic acid, jasmonic acid) and salt stress, suggesting a potential role of these genes in responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Overexpression of stress-induced MdCML3 gene significantly improved the tolerance of apple calli to salinity and ABA. The identification and characterization of MdCaMs/CMLs in apple lays a foundation for future functional studies of these genes.


Assuntos
Calmodulina/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Malus/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 139: 273-282, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925437

RESUMO

Anthocyanins in apple species are important secondary metabolites that are beneficial for human health. Previous studies revealed that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) promotes anthocyanin accumulation by up-regulating the transcription of related genes. In this study, we isolated a jasmonate (JA)-induced apple MYB gene, MdMYB24-like (MdMYB24L). The encoded nuclear protein contains a conserved R2R3 domain and is homologous to Arabidopsis thaliana AtMYB24. Additionally, MdMYB24L was observed to interact with JA signaling factors (MdJAZ8, MdJAZ11, and MdMYC2) in yeast and in planta. The MdMYC2 protein was also targeted by MdJAZ8 and MdJAZ11, which are rapidly degraded under MeJA treatment. The overexpression of MdMYB24L resulted in higher anthocyanin contents in the transgenic apple 'Orin' calli than in the wild-type control calli. Moreover, the expression levels of the anthocyanin biosynthesis structural genes MdUFGT and MdDFR were up-regulated in the transgenic calli. Furthermore, MdMYB24L positively regulated the transcription of MdDFR and MdUFGT by binding to the MYB-binding site motifs in their promoters. Interestingly, the interaction between MdMYC2 and MdMYB24L further enhanced the transcription of MdUFGT, whereas MdJAZ8 and MdJAZ11 attenuated this effect. We herein provide new details regarding the molecular mechanism by which MYB transcription factors help regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis via JA signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Malus/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(5)2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813543

RESUMO

Short-term (3 h) treatment of embryos isolated from dormant apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) seeds with NO donors stimulates their transition from dormancy to germination. Seed dormancy is maintained by ABA, while germination is controlled mainly by gibberellins (GAs) and jasmonic acid (JA). NO-induced dormancy removal correlates with low ABA concentration in embryonic axes and reduced embryo sensitivity to ABA. We analyzed the expression of genes encoding key enzymes of ABA degradation (CYP707A1, CYP707A2), biosynthesis (NCED3, NCED9), and elements of the ABA transduction pathway (PYL1, PYL2, RCAR1, RCAR3, PP2CA, ABI1, ABI2, SNRK2, ABI5, AREB3, ABF). A role for JA in the regulation of germination led us to investigate the expression of genes encoding enzymes of JA biosynthesis (AOS1, JMT, JAR1) and the transduction pathway (COI1, MYC2, JAZ3, JAZ12). The expression profiles of the genes were estimated in embryonic axes isolated from dormant or NO fumigated apple embryos. The analyzed genes were differentially regulated during dormancy alleviation, the main modifications in the transcription level were detected for NCED3, NCED9, CYP707A2, RCAR1, ABF, AOS1, JMT, JAR1 and JAZ3. A regulatory role of NO in the removal of seed dormancy is associated with the stimulation of expression of genes related to ABA degradation, down-regulation of genes responsible for ABA synthesis, an increase of expression level of genes engaged in JA synthesis and modification of the expression of genes engaged in signaling pathways of the hormones. To confirm a signaling role of NO during dormancy breakage, an increased RNA nitration level in embryonic axes was demonstrated.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/embriologia , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Dormência de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/embriologia , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/genética , Nitrosação , Dormência de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA de Plantas/genética , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Planta ; 249(5): 1627-1643, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826884

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: This study showed that AP2/EREBP transcription factor MdSHINE2 functioned in mediating cuticular permeability, sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA), and drought resistance by regulating wax biosynthesis. Plant cuticular wax plays crucial roles in protecting plants from environmental stresses, particularly drought stress. Many enzymes and transcription factors involved in wax biosynthesis have been identified in plant species. In this study, we identified an AP2/EREBP transcription factor, MdSHINE2 from apple, which is a homolog of AtSHINE2 in Arabidopsis. MdSHINE2 was constitutively expressed at different levels in various apple tissues, and the transcription level of MdSHINE2 was induced substantially by abiotic stress and hormone treatments. MdSHINE2-overexpressing Arabidopsis exhibited great change in cuticular wax crystal numbers and morphology and wax composition of leaves and stems. Moreover, MdSHINE2 heavily influenced cuticular permeability, sensitivity to abscisic acid, and drought resistance.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Secas , Malus/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-2/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição AP-2/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Carbohydr Polym ; 209: 338-349, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732816

RESUMO

The effect of wheat straw arabinoxylan (AX) and ß-glucan stearic acid ester (SABG) composite coating on the quality and storage life of apple (Royal Delicious) was studied at 22 °C (±2) with relative humidity of 65% and 85% for 60 days. Fresh fruits were coated with surface coatings of AX-SABG, shellac in the concentration range of 1-4%. Application of both AX-SABG (1-4%) and shellac (1-4%) coatings was found to significantly reduce weight loss, respiration rate, fruit softening process, ripening index, color degradation and polyphenol oxidase activity compared to control during the storage period of more than 30 days. However, an AX-SABG coating was more effective in reducing fruit decay and loss of aroma volatiles followed by shellac coated apples; the un-coated apples being showing maximum quality deterioration. These findings confirmed the potential benefits of applying AX-SABG coating to extend the shelf life and quality of apples especially during transportation and storage.


Assuntos
Ésteres/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Esteáricos/química , Xilanos/farmacologia , beta-Glucanas/química , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Respiração Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cor , Conservação de Alimentos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/citologia , Malus/enzimologia , Malus/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Peroxidase/metabolismo
17.
Gene ; 692: 26-34, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641216

RESUMO

Members of the sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family play central roles in the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway and in mediating osmotic stress signaling and tolerance in plants. Previously, 12 full-length coding sequences that belong to SnRK2 gene family were identified and cloned in wild apple species Malus prunifolia. In this study, one of the members, MpSnRK2.10, was overexpressed in Arabidopsis and apple to investigate its potential function in response to drought stress. The results showed that overexpression of this gene did not affect plant growth under normal conditions. However, the transgenic plants showed enhanced tolerance to drought, as indicated by the amelioration in phenotype appearance and physiological indices related to drought stress damage. Additionally, transgenic apple plants overexpressing MpSnRK2.10 exhibited greater sensitivity to ABA compared to wild-type (WT) plants. Moreover, expressions of three stress response genes, MdRAB18, MdRD22, and MdRD29B, were more strongly induced in transgenic apple plants than in the WT when subjected to ABA and mannitol treatments. Taken as a whole, our study suggests that MpSnRK2.10 has a role in the enhancement of ABA signal transduction in response to stress, and that the manipulation of MpSnRK2.10 expression could be a feasible approach for improving abiotic stress tolerance in apple and other important crops.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Desidratação/genética , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/fisiologia , Pressão Osmótica/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(8): 3903-3909, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Processes extending the shelf life of climacteric fruit play an important role in terms of a sustainable global food supply. In a previous study, a synthetic octapeptide (NOP-1) was shown to inhibit the interaction between ethylene receptor (ETR) and ethylene insensitive-2 (EIN2), and in consequence delay tomato ripening. We investigated for the first time the effect of NOP-1 on inhibiting the ripening of apples ('Golden Delicious') during postharvest. RESULTS: Using purified recombinant proteins from a bacterial expression system, we demonstrate here that EIN2 also interacts tightly (Kd = 136 ± 29 nmol L-1 ) with the corresponding apple ETR MdETR1. In line with previous binding studies on tomato ETRs, the ripening-delaying peptide NOP-1 clearly binds to the purified apple ETR. An NOP-1 solution (1000 µmol L-1 ) was applied with a brush or microdispenser and compared with apples treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (SmartFresh™, Agrofresh) applied as gaseous treatment or untreated control fruits. NOP-1 inhibited colour development and chlorophyll degradation during shelf life. These effects were more pronounced with the brush application (surface film) than with microdroplets application (mimicking a sprayable formulation). NOP-1 did not alter ethylene release or respiration rate, whereas 1-MCP expectedly strongly suppressed both. There were no differences in quality parameters evaluated. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that NOP-1 binds to MdETR1 which results in delaying of ethylene-dependent ripening developments of skin colour and chlorophyll. Besides application methods, possible reasons for the weak effect of NOP-1 in comparison with previous tomato experiments could be different receptor affinity and penetration differences. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Etilenos/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/genética , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo
19.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 97: 486-497, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678936

RESUMO

A method was developed for the liquid exfoliation of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) from its bulk materials using ultrasound in aqueous phase with the assistance of chitosan (CS) and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) for effective loading of a variety of therapeutic molecules. The characterization results revealed that the as-made chemically-exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets had an average thickness of ∼10 nm. The new material, CS and Ag NPs-modified MoS2 (MoS2-CS-Ag), showed highly effective antifungal activities against Saccharomyces uvarum and Aspergillus niger. The Ag NPs-loaded MoS2 nanosheets achieved outstanding antifungal effect by inhibiting fungal growth both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of spore morphological changes caused by MoS2-CS-Ag treatment reveal that it may directly cause the cell death. The result of the analysis of the application of MoS2-CS-Ag as an antifungal for fruits also demonstrated the MoS2-CS-Ag protective properties against fungi. The excellent film-forming ability of CS has been shown to contribute to the effectiveness of MoS2-CS-Ag in preserving the freshness of fruits, exhibited in four chemical quality sections: Vc, total carbohydrate, weight loss, and titratable acidity in fruit preservation application assay. The present study reports a new and exciting insight in a multi-functional drug carrier for protecting postharvest fruit.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/química , Quitosana/química , Dissulfetos/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Molibdênio/química , Prata/química , Animais , Antifúngicos/síntese química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus niger/fisiologia , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/microbiologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/microbiologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Saccharomyces/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Food Chem ; 279: 379-388, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611504

RESUMO

A package was created that extends apple shelf-life by slowing Penicillium expansum growth. The package consisted of a peelable lid and a tray with a double bottom with inclusion complexes (ICs) of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) containing the essential oils of palmarosa (ICp) or of star anise (ICsa). Oil amounts required for antimicrobial activity were obtained from in vitro assays. After 12 days at 23 °C, P. expansum-inoculated apples in both of the double-bottom antimicrobial packages (DBAP) had 1/3 less fungal growth, less than 50% weight loss and ethylene and CO2 production, and less than 25% firmness loss, TA and SSC increase, and pH decrease compared to controls. The DBAP with ICsa performed better than with ICp in reducing ethylene production, respiration rate, firmness loss, TA increase, and pH decrease. This demonstrates DBAP containing ICp or ICsa can maximize the shelf-life of apples injured by P. expansum, validating a novel type of antimicrobial packaging.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Malus/microbiologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Cymbopogon/química , Etilenos/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Illicium/química , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/química , Penicillium/efeitos dos fármacos , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Vegetais/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química
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