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1.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Filtration of osmotic solution affects selective penetration during osmotic dehydration (OD), and after drying is finished, this can influence the chemical composition of the material, which is also modified by OD. METHODS: Osmotic dehydration was carried out in filtrated and non-filtrated concentrated chokeberry juice with the addition of mint infusion. Then, this underwent convective drying, vacuum-microwave drying and combined convective pre-drying, followed by vacuum-microwave finishing drying. Drying kinetics were presented and mathematical models were selected. The specific energy consumption for each drying method was calculated and the energy efficiency was determined. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The study revealed that filtration of osmotic solution did not have significant effect on drying kinetics; however, it affected selective penetration during OD. The highest specific energy consumption was obtained for the samples treated by convective drying (CD) (around 170 kJ·g-1 fresh weight (fw)) and the lowest for the samples treated by vacuum-microwave drying (VMD) (around 30 kJ·g-1 fw), which is due to the differences in the time of drying and when these methods are applied. CONCLUSIONS: Filtration of the osmotic solution can be used to obtain the desired material after drying and the VMD method is the most appropriate considering both phenolic acid content and the energy aspect of drying.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Mentha/metabolismo , Osmose , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Físico-Química/métodos , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Cinamatos/química , Cor , Depsídeos/química , Metabolismo Energético , Filtração , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Cinética , Micro-Ondas , Modelos Teóricos , Fenol , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura
2.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(7): 1127-1139, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973072

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: MdBZR1 directly binds to the promoter of MdABI5 and suppresses its expression to mediate ABA response. The plant hormones brassinosteroids (BRs) and abscisic acid (ABA) antagonistically regulate various aspects of plant growth and development. However, the association between BR and ABA signaling is less clear. Here, we identified MdBZR1 in apple (Malus domestica) and demonstrated that it was activated by BRs and could respond to ABA treatment. Overexpression of MdBZR1 in apple calli and Arabidopsis reduced ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes, suggesting that MdBZR1 negatively regulates ABA signaling. Subsequently, we found that MdBZR1 directly bound to the promoter region of MdABI5 and suppressed its expression. MdABI5 was significantly induced by ABA treatment. And overexpression of MdABI5 in apple calli increased sensitivity to ABA. Ectopic expression of MdABI5 in Arabidopsis inhibited seed germination and seedling growth. In addition, overexpression of MdBZR1 partially attenuated MdABI5-mediated ABA sensitivity. Taken together, our data indicate that MdBZR1 directly binds to the promoter of MdABI5 and suppresses its expression to antagonistically mediate ABA response. Our work contributes to the functional studies of BZR1 and further broadens the insight into the between BR and ABA signaling.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estresse Salino/genética
3.
J Plant Physiol ; 261: 153427, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940557

RESUMO

Metamitron (MET) is a fruitlet thinning compound for apple trees, needing better understanding of its action on leaf energy metabolism, depending on nighttime temperature. A trial under environmental controlled conditions was set with 'Golden Reinders' potted trees, under 25/7.5 and 25/15 °C (diurnal/nighttime temperature), with (MET, 247.5 ppm) or without (CTR) application, and considering the monitoring of photosynthetic and respiration components from day 1 (D1) to 14 (D14). Net photosynthesis (Pn) decline promoted by MET after D1 was not stomatal related. Instead, non-stomatal constraints, reflected on the photosynthetic capacity (Amax), included a clear photosystem (PS) II inhibition (but barely of PSI), as shown by severe reductions in thylakoid electron transport at PSII level, maximal (Fv/Fm) and actual (Fv'/Fm') PSII photochemical efficiencies, estimate of quantum yield of linear electron transport (Y(II)), and the rise in PSII photoinhibition status (Fs/Fm' and PIChr) and uncontrolled energy dissipation (Y(NO)). To Pn inhibition also contributed the impact in RuBisCO along the entire experiment, regardless of night temperature, here reported for the first time. Globally, MET impact on the photosynthetic parameters was usually greater under 7.5 °C, with maximal impacts between D4 and D7, probably associated to a less active metabolism at lower temperature. Cellular energy metabolism was further impaired under 7.5 °C, through moderate inhibition of NADH-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and pyruvate kinase (PK) enzymes involved in respiration, in contrast with the increase of dark respiration in MET 7.5 until D7. The lower impact on PK and MDH under 15 °C and a likely global higher active metabolism at that temperature would agree with the lowest sucrose levels in MET 15 at D4 and D7. Our findings showed that MET alters the cell energy machinery in a temperature dependent manner, affecting the sucrose balance mainly at 15 °C, justifying the observed greater thinning potential.


Assuntos
Malus/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Temperatura , Triazinas/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotoperíodo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Tilacoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Tilacoides/metabolismo , Triazinas/administração & dosagem
4.
Food Chem ; 346: 128881, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482531

RESUMO

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and ethylenebis (oxyethylenenitrilo) tetraacetic acid (EGTA) treatments on calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism in apples. Postharvest ASM treatment increased H2O2 content, reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid contents, and NADPH oxidase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activities and retarded catalase activity and MdCAT expression in apples. ASM treatment enhanced MdSOD, MdPOD, MdAPX, MdGR, MdCDPK1, MdCDPK4, MdCDPK5, MdCDPK7, and MdCDPK21 expressions in apples. However, EGTA + ASM treatments suppressed H2O2, glutathione and ascorbic acid contents, NADPH oxidase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. EGTA + ASM treatments suppressed the selected genes expressions in ROS metabolism and CDPKs, but up-regulated MdCAT expression in apples. These findings suggest that CDPKs play a vital role in regulating ROS metabolism and involve in inducing resistance in apples by ASM.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Egtázico/farmacologia , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética
5.
Biol Res ; 54(1): 1, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apple is one of the oldest and most valuable fruits. Water restriction is one of the major problems in the production of this fruit in some planting areas. METHODS: Effects of kaolin spray treatments were studied on two early apple cultivars of Golab and Shafi-Abadi under sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) in Alborz province, Iran during 2017 and 2018. Irrigation treatments were 100%, 85%, and 70% ETc and kaolin application were concentrations of 0, 3 and 6% in 2017 and 0, 1.5 and 3% in 2018. RESULTS: Results showed that 85% ETc treatment compared to other irrigation treatments improved apple tree crown volume in 2017. Deficit irrigation treatments significantly reduced fruit weight in both years. Application with 6% kaolin resulted in 33.3% increase in apple fruit weight compared to non-kaolin treatment at 100% ETc irrigation in the first year. Severe deficit irrigation (70% ETc) significantly reduced apple fruit length in both years, but 6% kaolin increased fruit length in both apple cultivars in 2017. Severe deficit irrigation treatment increased the firmness of apple fruit compared to control and mild deficit irrigation (85% ETc) in the first year of experiment. There was no significant difference between irrigation treatments for apple fruit firmness in the second year of experiment. Kaolin treatments of 1.5% and 3% at full irrigation increased the soluble solids content of apple fruit by 36.6% and 44.1% in 2018, respectively. Deficit irrigation treatments significantly increased leaf proline content compared to control in both years. In the first year, kaolin treatments increased leaf proline but in the second year, leaf proline was not significant. Deficit irrigation treatment of 70% ETc and 6% kaolin had the highest amount of glycine betaine content, malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide in apple leaf in the first year of experiment. CONCLUSIONS: Severe deficit irrigation stress (70% ETc) increased the activity of nonenzymatic defense systems of apple trees. Kaolin as a drought stress reducing agent can be recommended in apple orchards of Golab and Shafi-Abadi cultivars as an effective and inexpensive method to improve tolerance to drought stress conditions.


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caulim/farmacologia , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/química , Água , Irrigação Agrícola , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Irã (Geográfico) , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Prolina/química
6.
Food Chem ; 341(Pt 2): 128293, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045586

RESUMO

The effects of two new ethylene antagonists namely 1H-cyclopropabenzene (BC) and 1H-cyclopropa[b]naphthalene (NC), as well as 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on ethylene production and fruit quality of Cripps Pink and Granny Smith apple in ozonized cold storage, were investigated. When compared to control, Cripps Pink fruit fumigated with BC and NC exhibited significantly lowest ethylene production and respiration, whilst the Granny Smith fruit treated with 1-MCP exhibited lowest ethylene production followed by NC and BC treatments. Application of ozone in cold storage maintained higher levels of sugars but elevated ethylene production in both the apple cultivars. No significant interaction was recorded between ethylene antagonists and ozone application in cold storage on the ethylene production, respiration and other fruit quality parameters. In conclusion, results suggest that BC and NC are potential ethylene antagonists in Cripps Pink and Granny Smith apples during the cold storage.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Etilenos/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Fumigação , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ozônio/farmacologia
7.
Food Chem ; 341(Pt 1): 128232, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039744

RESUMO

The inhibition of enzymatic browning is an attractive target to elevate the quality of foods. The objective of this work is to describe a novel platform for the discovery of tyrosinase inhibitors, based on (a) one-pot preparation of a library of thiosemicarbazide compounds, (b) biological evaluation using tyrosinase TLC bioautography, (c) inhibitor identification via mass spectrometry coupled to bioautography. During these proof-of-concept experiments, the approach led to the straightforward identification of a new thiosemicarbazone with improved tyrosinase inhibition properties and fresh-cut apple slices antibrowning effect when compared to kojic acid. In conclusion, the platform represents an interesting strategy for the discovery of this type of inhibitors.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Reação de Maillard/efeitos dos fármacos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Malus/química , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiossemicarbazonas/síntese química , Tiossemicarbazonas/farmacologia
8.
Food Chem ; 334: 127479, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688181

RESUMO

Calcium treatment effects on malate metabolism and the GABA pathway in 'Cripps Pink' apple fruit during storage were investigated. Postharvest apple fruit treated with 1% and 4% calcium chloride solutions were stored at 25 ± 1 °C. The 4% calcium treatment suppressed declines in titratable acidity and malate content and increased succinate and oxalate concentrations. Calcium treatment also reduced the respiration rate and decreased ethylene production peak during storage. Moreover, 4% calcium treatment significantly enhanced cyNAD-MDH and PEPC activities and upregulated MdMDH1, MdMDH2, MdPEPC1 and MdPEPC2 expression while inhibiting cyNADP-ME and PEPCK activities and downregulating MdME1, MdME4 and MdPEPCK2 expression. Surprisingly, calcium treatment changed the content of some free amino acids (GABA, proline, alanine, aspartic acid and glutamate), two of which (glutamate and GABA) are primary metabolites of the GABA pathway. Furthermore, calcium application enhanced GABA pathway activity by increasing MdGAD1, MdGAD2, MdGABA-T1/2 and MdSSADH transcript levels.


Assuntos
Cálcio/farmacologia , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malatos/metabolismo , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/química , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem ; 339: 128151, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152896

RESUMO

The effects of aloe vera (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.) gel treatment on the incidence of superficial scald in 'Starking' apples (Malus domestica Borkh. Var. Starking) during cold storage were studied. Apples were harvested at the pre-climacteric stage and treated with aloe vera gel. The treatment increased malondialdehyde content and membrane lipid damage. Furthermore, it inhibited the release of ethylene at the early stage but increased it in the later stage. The expression level of ACC synthase 1 (MdACS1) also increased, and the antioxidant capacity in apples, particularly, catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities, all decreased, while concomitantly, the content of α-farnesene and its oxidation product, conjugated triene increased, thereby aggravating superficial scald incidence during storage at low temperature.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Malus/fisiologia , Preparações de Plantas , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Enzimas/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/fisiologia , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 339: 127883, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889132

RESUMO

Selenium is an essential trace element that improves fruit quality and nutritional value. However, the effect of sodium selenite on apple quality and its relative sucrose metabolism activity remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the roles of selenite spraying, in improving Fuji apple quality and sucrose metabolism-related enzyme activity. Results showed that foliar spraying of sodium selenite significantly (P < 0.05) increased apple fruit yield and internal quality, but no significant effects on external quality. The apple yield, vitamin C content, sugar-acid ratio and total soluble sugar increased 4.4% to 11.7%, 4.68% to 20.86%, 3.07% to 31.57%, and 4.53% to 18.89%, respectively. Se content is 9.5-fold compared to the control. Significant correlations were observed between neutral invertase, sucrose synthase activity and sucrose phosphate synthase enzymes, and sucrose phosphate synthase enzyme was most crucial. Spraying sodium selenite of 100-150 mg/L could be appropriate for improving Fuji apple yield and quality.


Assuntos
Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Selenito de Sódio/farmacologia , Sacarose/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Malus/enzimologia , Malus/metabolismo , beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 337: 127753, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777566

RESUMO

The effects of treatment with melatonin on ripening of 'Fuji' apples during storage at 1 °C for 56 d were investigated. The apples were harvested at the commercial ripening stage and treated with 1 mmol L-1 melatonin. Compared with the control, melatonin treated apples had significant reduced ethylene production (28 d-56 d) and weight loss (14 d-56 d) during storage (p < 0.05). Also, the melatonin treatment maintained better apple skin structure throughout storage. The reduced ethylene production was regulated by the decreased expressions of MdACO1, MdACS1, MdAP2.4 and MdERF109, based on RNA-Seq analysis, which was validated using qRT-PCR analysis. Moreover, the activity of 3 enzymes, including peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were significantly increased in melatonin treated fruit (p < 0.05). Taken together, this study highlights the inhibitory effects of melatonin in ethylene biosynthesis and factors influencing postharvest quality in apple.


Assuntos
Etilenos/biossíntese , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Malus/enzimologia
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 159: 113-122, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359960

RESUMO

AIMS: In recent years, the application of large amounts of potash fertilizer in apple orchards leads to worsening KCl stress. Strigolactone (SL), as a novel phytohormone, reportedly participates in plant tolerance to NaCl and drought stresses. However, the underlying mechanism and the effects of exogenous SL on the KCl stress of apple seedlings remain unclear. METHODS: We sprayed different concentrations of exogenous SL on Malus hupehensis Rehd. under KCl stress and measured the physiological indexes like, photosynthetic parameter, content of ROS, osmolytes and mineral element. In addition, the expressions of KCl-responding genes and SL-signaling genes were also detected and analyzed. RESULTS: Application of exogenous SL protected the chlorophyll and maintained the photosynthetic rate of apple seedlings under KCl stress. Exogenous SL strengthened the enzyme activities of peroxidase and catalase, thereby eliminating reactive oxygen species production induced by KCl stress, promoting the accumulation of proline, and maintaining osmotic balance. Exogenous SL expelled K+ outside of the cytoplasm and compartmentalized K+ into the vacuole, increased the contents of Na+, Mg2+, Fe2+, and Mn2+ in the cytoplasm to maintain the ion homeostasis under KCl stress. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous SL can regulate photosynthesis, ROS migration and ion transport in apple seedlings to alleviate KCl stress.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis , Transporte de Íons , Lactonas , Malus , Fotossíntese , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Estresse Fisiológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas/genética , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Transporte de Íons/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactonas/farmacologia , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 536, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melatonin (MT) is important for plant growth and development; however, it is not known whether MT is involved in apple adventitious root (AR) development. In this study, we treated Malus prunifolia (MP) at four different stages of AR development, and analyzed the level of the endogenous hormones MT, auxin (IAA), zeatin-riboside (ZR), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellins (GA1 + 3) in all four treatment groups and the untreated control group. The expression of MT, IAA biosynthesis, transport and signal transduction, the cell cycle, and root development related genes were quantified by RT-qPCR. The function of MdWOX11 was analyzed in transgenic apple plants. RESULTS: The promotion of AR development by MT was dependent on the stage of AR induction between 0 and 2 d in apple rootstocks. MT-treatment increased the level of IAA and crosstalk existed between MT and IAA during AR formation. The expression of MdWOX11 was induced by MT treatment and positively regulated AR formation in apple. Furthermore, transgenic lines that overexpressed MdWOX11 lines produced more ARs than 'GL3'. Phenotypic analysis indicated that MdWOX11 overexpression lines were more sensitive to exogenous MT treatment than 'GL3', suggesting that MdWOX11 regulates AR formation in response to MT in apple rootstock. CONCLUSIONS: MT promotes AR formation mainly during the AR induction stage by inducing IAA levels and upregulating MdWOX11.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio/fisiologia , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 164: 3922-3931, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871122

RESUMO

Antifungal proteins (AFPs) offer a great potential as new biofungicides to control deleterious fungi. The phytopathogenic fungus Penicillium expansum encodes three phylogenetically distinct AFPs, PeAfpA, PeAfpB and PeAfpC. Here, PeAfpA, a potent in vitro self-inhibitory protein, was demonstrated to control the infection caused by P. expansum in Golden apple fruits. We determined the production of the three proteins in different growth media. PeAfpA and PeAfpC were simultaneously produced by P. expansum in three out of the eight media tested as detected by Western blot, whereas PeAfpB was not detected even in those described for class B AFP production. Regardless of the culture medium, the carbon source affected Peafp expression. Notably, the production of PeAfpA was strain-dependent, but analyses of PeafpA regulatory sequences in the three strains studied could not explain differences in protein production. None of the PeAFPs was produced during apple infection, suggesting no relevant role in pathogenesis. PeAfpA together with PeAfpB and also with Penicillium digitatum PdAfpB showed synergistic interaction. The highly active antifungal PeAfpA also showed moderate antibacterial activity. We conclude that there is not a general pattern for Peafp gene expression, protein production or antimicrobial activity and confirm PeAfpA as a promising compound for postharvest conservation.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/farmacologia , Penicillium/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/microbiologia , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/microbiologia
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 156: 233-241, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977178

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an important role in the plant salt stress response. The main component of salt stress is neutral salt (NaCl); NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 play a key role in soil alkaline due to the influence of pH. Malus hupehensis Rehd. var. pingyiensis Jiang (Pingyi Tiancha, PYTC) is a salt-sensitive apple rootstock. Seedlings of PYTC pretreated with NaHS (an H2S donor) were exposed to an alkaline salt solution, and then the plant growth, root architecture, oxidative damage, Na+/K+ homeostasis and gene expression of MhSOS1 and MhSKOR were investigated. The results showed that NaHS pretreatment increased the endogenous H2S content in seedlings, significantly alleviated the alkaline salt stress-induced growth inhibition and oxidative damage by inducing antioxidant enzymes activities, and sustained the root activity and root architecture of PYTC in the alkaline salt solution. NaHS pretreatment significantly decreased the root Na+ content and increased K+ content to maintain the homeostasis of Na+/K+, and effect the expression of MhSOS1 and MhSKOR at the transcription level in the presence of the alkaline salt. Our study reveals that application of H2S could mitigate the toxic effect of alkaline salt stress on Malus hupehensis seedlings, thus providing a foundation for improved plant tolerance to alkaline salt stress.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Estresse Salino , Genes de Plantas , Homeostase , Malus/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Potássio/metabolismo , Plântula , Sódio/metabolismo
16.
Plant Cell Rep ; 39(12): 1687-1703, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959122

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Cytokinin together with MdoBRR1, MdoBRR8 and MdoBRR10 genes participate in the downregulation of MdoDAM1, contributing to the transition from endo- to ecodormancy in apple buds. The final step of cytokinin (CK) signaling pathway culminates in the activation of type-B response regulators (BRRs), important transcriptional factors in the modulation of CK-responsive genes. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis aiming to identify apple BRR family members and understand their involvement in bud dormancy control. The investigation identified ten MdoBRR protein-coding genes. A higher expression of three MdoBRR (MdoBRR1, MdoBRR9 and MdoBRR10) was observed in dormant buds in comparison to other developmental stages. Interestingly, in ecodormant buds these three MdoBRR genes were upregulated in a CK-dependent manner. Transcription profiles, determined during dormancy cycle under field and artificially controlled conditions, revealed that MdoBRR1 and MdoBRR8 played important roles in the transition from endo- to ecodormancy, probably mediated by endogenous CK stimuli. The expression of MdoBRR7, MdoBRR9, and MdoBRR10 was induced in ecodormant buds exposed to warm temperatures, indicating a putative role in growth resumption after chilling requirement fulfillment. Contrasting expression patternsin vivo between MdoBRRs and MdoDAM1, an essential dormancy establishment regulator, were observed during dormancy cycle and in CK-treated buds. Thereafter, in vivo transactivation assays showed that CK stimuli combined with transient overexpression of MdoBRR1, MdoBRR8, and MdoBRR10 resulted in downregulation of the reporter gene gusA driven by the MdoDAM1 promoter. These pieces of evidences point to the integration of CK-triggered responses through MdoBRRs that are able to downregulate MdoDAM1, contributing to dormancy release in apple.


Assuntos
Citocininas/fisiologia , Malus/fisiologia , Dormência de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Citocininas/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Dormência de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(39): 10928-10936, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902967

RESUMO

Apple fruits were subjected to dipping treatment to explore the effects of acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor PD98059 on lesion growth in fruits inoculated with Penicillium expansum. We investigated the roles of the MAPK cascade and reactive oxygen species metabolism in disease resistance in apples. ASM treatment inhibited lesion growth; suppressed catalase (CAT) activity; increased H2O2 content; reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid contents; and increased glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and NADPH oxidase activities. Moreover, ASM upregulated MdSOD, MdPOD, MdGR, MdAPX, MdMAPK4, MdMAPK2, and MdMAPKK1 expressions and downregulated MdCAT and MdMAPK3 expressions. PD98059 + ASM treatment increased CAT activity and MdCAT and MdMAPK3 expressions; inhibited MdSOD, MdPOD, MdGR, MdAPX, MdMAPK4, MdMAPK2, and MdMAPKK1 expressions; reduced superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities; and reduced glutathione content in apples. These findings indicate that ASM induces disease resistance in apples by regulating the expressions of key genes involved in reactive oxygen species metabolism and the MAPK cascade.


Assuntos
Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/imunologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Ascorbato Peroxidases/genética , Ascorbato Peroxidases/imunologia , Catalase/genética , Catalase/imunologia , Resistência à Doença , Frutas/genética , Frutas/imunologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Glutationa Redutase/genética , Glutationa Redutase/imunologia , Malus/genética , Malus/microbiologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Oxirredução , Penicillium , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/imunologia
18.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 155: 502-511, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836196

RESUMO

To examine the dwarfing mechanism in apples, one-year-old Marubakaido (Malus prunifolia Borkh.) (invigorating) apple rootstock stools were foliar-sprayed with 860 mg L-1 of paclobutrazol (PBZ) as a single application or without. M.9 apple rootstock (dwarf) was used as a positive control. The phytohormones were estimated in the shoot bark and sub-apical shoot and gene expression in the apices of terminal shoots. Evident responses to PBZ were observed a fortnight after treatment, as the shoot and internode lengths were suppressed significantly. Endogenous indole-3-acetic acid increased in the PBZ treatment, and the polar auxin transporter genes MdPIN1 and MdLAX1 and the biosynthesis gene MdYUCCA10a were upregulated along with the MdARF2 gene. Additionally, PBZ increased the abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and the biosynthesis-related gene MdNCED1 but repressed the degradation gene MdCYP707A1. The ABA transporter gene MdAITb-like was upregulated by PBZ. The concentrations of the gibberellins (GAs) GA1 and GA4 decreased in the PBZ-treated rootstocks. The GA transporter gene MdNFP3.1-like and the signaling gene MdGID1b-like were strongly downregulated by PBZ, whereas the catabolic gene MdGA2OX2 was upregulated. PBZ treatment significantly reduced trans-zeatin (tZ) levels and downregulated the cytokinin biosynthesis gene MdIPT6 but upregulated the MdCKX7 degradation gene. Additionally, PBZ upregulated the cytokinin-related transporter genes MdPUP7-like and MdPUP9-like. Collectively, our results show that the physiological and molecular effect of PBZ was observed within two weeks, and this was indicated by the modulation of phytohormonal levels as well as transporter and other gene expression in Marubakaido apple rootstocks.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Triazóis/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Giberelinas , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Malus/genética , Zeatina
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824325

RESUMO

There is an urgent need for novel, efficient and environmentally friendly strategies to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis), for the purpose of reducing overall pesticide use. Fructans are recently emerging as promising "priming" compounds, standing out for their safety and low production costs. The objective of this work was to test a fructan-triggered defense in the leaves of apple seedlings. It was demonstrated that exogenous leaf spraying can reduce the development of apple scab disease symptoms. When evaluated macroscopically and by V. inaequalis-specific qPCR, levan-treated leaves showed a significant reduction of sporulation and V. inaequalis DNA in comparison to mock- and inulin-treated leaves, comparable to the levels in fosetyl-aluminum-treated leaves. Furthermore, we observed a significant reduction of in vitro mycelial growth of V. inaequalis on plates supplemented with levans when compared to controls, indicating a direct inhibition of fungal growth. Variations in endogenous sugar contents in the leaves were followed during priming and subsequent infection, revealing complex dynamics as a function of time and leaf ontogeny. Our data are discussed in view of the present theories on sugar signaling and fructan-based immunity, identifying areas for future research and highlighting the potential use of fructans in apple scab management in orchards.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Resistência à Doença , Frutanos/farmacologia , Fungos do Gênero Venturia/patogenicidade , Malus/microbiologia , Fungos do Gênero Venturia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos do Gênero Venturia/fisiologia , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12186, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699317

RESUMO

Cement industry-derived pollutants appear to play multiple roles in stimulating abiotic stress responses in plants. Cement dust deposition on agriculture fields can affect soils, photosynthesis, transpiration and respiration of plants. Here, we characterised the acute physiological responses of Malus × domestica leaves to different cement dust concentrations. The cement dust was sprinkled over plants daily for 2 months at 10 and 20 g/plant, with 0 g/plant serving as the control. Leaf physiological responses revealed significant increases in oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity levels. Additionally, ascorbic acid, soluble sugar, free amino acid, and pigment levels decreased after exposure to cement dust. Macroscopic morphometric parameters, such as weight, dry matter content, and lengths and widths of leaves and buds, were significantly reduced in the cement-treated groups. A histological analysis of leaves and buds revealed decreased cellular areas, cellular damage, and abridged leaf thickness, while an ion leakage assay confirmed the negative effects on tissue integrity. These results provide evidence that cement dust is a hazardous pollutant that induces abiotic stress responses and has degradative effects on leaf health, pigment and biochemical metabolite levels, and anatomical features. Studies to determine the elemental residues of cement dust present in edible plant parts and the adverse impacts of their consumption on human health are strongly recommended.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Materiais de Construção/toxicidade , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Poeira/análise , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
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