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1.
Food Chem ; 332: 127382, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619943

RESUMO

Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) berries have high biological value as a rich source of phenolic compounds, fatty acids and vitamins A, C, E. Due to the high organic acid content and sour taste, the fruits are rarely used in juice production. Therefore, the study aimed to determine the metabolic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis and Oenococcus oeni strains along with the dynamics of changes in organic acids, sugars, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity during 72-h fermentation of 100% sea buckthorn and mixed with apple (1:1) juices. The strongest malolactic conversion was in mixed juices (to 75.0%). The most efficient strains were L. plantarum DSM 10492, 20174 and 6872. L. plantarum strains caused an increase in flavonols and antioxidant activity of sea buckthorn-apple juices. The results can be used to select conditions and strains in industrial-scale fermentation, to produce novel sea buckthorn products and increase their consumption.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Malatos/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Fermentação , Flavonóis/química , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Hippophae/química , Hippophae/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Malus/química , Malus/metabolismo , Oenococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oenococcus/metabolismo , Fenóis/química
2.
Food Chem ; 330: 127170, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531633

RESUMO

With the increasing concerns on food safety, foodborne toxicants, particularly advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have drawn large attention ascribing to their central role in the pathogenic process of diabetic complications. In this study, the antiglycative ability and action mechanism of 10 dried flowers were measured in fructose/glucose-BSA model with apple flower as the most effective one, probably through trapping reactive carbonyl species. Furthermore, apple flower was added in cookies to evaluate its antiglycative effect and data suggested that the fortification of cookies with apple flower powders significantly inhibited the formation of methylglyoxal and fluorescent AGEs. Moreover, sensory evaluation data showed that 2.5% (w/w) apple flower-fortified cookies had the highest acceptance. The active component in apple flower was further identified as phlorizin by chromatographic analysis. Our results highlighted the health benefits of consuming apple flower fortified foods which might possibly be developed into functional foods especially for diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Frutose/química , Glucose/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Malus/química , Animais , Flores/química , Aldeído Pirúvico/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/química
3.
Food Chem ; 330: 127325, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569939

RESUMO

In order to develop natural, food-grade particles as emulsifiers, wet-milled has been conducted to obtain apple pomace particles in varying sizes. Structural characteristics, physicochemical properties and Pickering emulsifying potential of the particle in different sizes were investigated. Particle size of apple pomace was gradually reduced from 12.9 µm to 550 nm during 8 h milling. With the decrease of particles size, the morphology became less angular. Meanwhile, some insoluble dietary fibers transformed into soluble ones, and the wettability tended to be hydrophilic, therefore, the water and oil holding capacities and free-radical-scavenging capacities increased. The properties of Pickering emulsions stabilized by wet-milled apple pomace particles in different sizes were then investigated. The decrease of particle size resulted in the size reduction of emulsion droplets, and gave rise to enhance gel-like properties and antioxidative activities of emulsions. The results demonstrated promising prospect of wet-milled apple pomace particles as emulsifiers in food industry.


Assuntos
Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Malus/química , Fibras na Dieta , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Tamanho da Partícula , Água/química , Molhabilidade
4.
Food Chem ; 330: 127357, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569943

RESUMO

Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was applied on fresh (NF), freeze-dried (FD) and cell wall materials (AIS) of raw and processed apples. These samples prepared from 36 apple sets and the corresponding 72 purees, issued from different varieties, agricultural practices, storage periods and processing conditions, were used to build models including exploratory analysis, supervised classification and multivariate calibration. Fresh and freeze-dried samples presented similar fingerprint spectral variations due to processing. ATR-FTIR directly on fresh purees satisfactorily predicted textural properties such as particle average size and volume (RPD > 3.0), while freeze-drying improved assessment of chemical (RPD > 3.2) and rheological (RPD > 3.1) parameters using partial least-squares regression. The assessment of texture and macrocomponents of purees can be obtained with a limited sample preparation. For research applications because of a need of sample preparation, changes of cell wall composition during fruit processing could be assessed in relationship with pectin degradation.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Malus/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Calibragem , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Liofilização , Frutas/química , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Malus/citologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Reologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Food Chem ; 328: 126967, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505057

RESUMO

Different particle sizes in cloudy apple juice were obtained following filtration with different mesh sizes (100, 200, 300, and 400-mesh). The effects of cloud particle size on the stability, nutrient content, and volatile flavor of cloudy apple juice were evaluated. With increasing mesh number, particle size decreased (p < 0.05) and particle shape changed. Particle size had an effect on volatile flavor compounds, especially nitrogen oxides, alcohols, and aromatic compounds. The content of pectin and total phenol decreased with decreasing particle size, while the content of soluble protein was not affected. The reduction of cloud particle size increased absolute value of ζ-potential, cloud stability, and apparent viscosity and decreased turbidity and cloud values. Pearson correlation analysis showed that there was a strong correlation between particle size and quality indicators, except for soluble protein.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Malus/química , Álcoois/análise , Malus/metabolismo , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenóis/análise , Viscosidade
6.
Food Chem ; 330: 127120, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526646

RESUMO

Enzymatic hydrolysis of plant-derived proteins can improve their quality by offering opportunities for food applications. In this study, three proteolytic enzymes (pepsin, trypsin, Alcalase®) were used, alone or combined, to produce faba bean protein hydrolysates (PHs). Their functional, nutritional and antioxidant properties were evaluated, and the peptidomic profile was assessed by LC-MS/MS. Hydrolysis improved solubility of faba proteins at acidic and neutral pH, and their antioxidant properties. Peptidomic analysis identified 2031 peptides in the different PHs. Among them, 9 showed 100% homology with previously known antioxidant peptides and several others had antioxidant motifs in their sequences. Sensory data analysis showed that after addition of PHs to apple juice, no significant differences were perceived between control and some of the PHs. This study demonstrates that enzymatic hydrolysis enhances the functional and antioxidant properties of faba bean proteins. Specifically, hydrolysates can be used as functional food ingredients to produce fortified beverages.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Malus/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Vicia faba/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Hidrólise , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Vicia faba/metabolismo
7.
Food Chem ; 330: 127227, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521402

RESUMO

A hydroxycinnamate-like component was identified in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruit, which had identical UV and mass spectrometric properties to an S-linked glutathionyl conjugate of chlorogenic acid synthesized using a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction. The conjugate was present in fruits from all highbush blueberry genotypes grown in one season, reaching 7-20% of the relative abundance of 5-caffeoylquininc acid. It was enriched, along with anthocyanins, by fractionation on solid phase cation-exchange units. Mining of pre-existing LC-MS data confirmed that this conjugate was ubiquitous in highbush blueberries, but also present in other Vaccinium species. Similar data mining identified this conjugate in potato tubers with enrichment in peel tissues. In addition, the conjugate was also present in commercial apple juice and was stable to pasteurization and storage. Although glutathionyl conjugates of hydroxycinnamic acids have been noted previously, this is the first report of glutathionyl conjugates of chlorogenic acids in commonly-eaten fruits and vegetables.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Malus/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Antocianinas/análise , Frutas/química , Tubérculos/química
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110729, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485491

RESUMO

The transformation of carbosulfan (CSN) in apples was investigated during oven-drying, microwave drying, and sun-drying. CSN transformed primarily into carbofuran (COA) during these drying processes. The conversion kinetics of CSN and COA was fitted by curve regression and mainly conformed to quadratic models (R2 = 0.70-0.97). Oven-drying promoted the transformation of CSN into COA. Microwave drying resulted in the highest scavenging capacity against CSN and COA (41%-100%). Moreover, a transformation mechanism was proposed on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The COA originated from a series of chemical reactions involving hydroxyl substitution, cleavage, and oxidation; this result was further confirmed on the basis of molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and molecular orbital theory. Furthermore, the toxicity and stability of CSN and COA were evaluated with the T.E.S.T. program. COA was less toxic than CSN to aquatic organisms but more toxic than CSN to rats. Therefore, COA production should be avoided during drying. Microwave drying was found to be the optimum choice for drying apples.


Assuntos
Carbamatos/metabolismo , Dessecação/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Malus/química , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbamatos/química , Carbamatos/toxicidade , Carbofurano/química , Carbofurano/metabolismo , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Dessecação/instrumentação , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Ratos
9.
Food Chem ; 324: 126903, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361095

RESUMO

Cuticular wax chemicals differ among fruit cultivars and contribute to storage ability. However, wax analysis in apple cultivars, particularly during storage, has not been described. In this work, the chemicals and crystal structures of cuticular wax in 10 apple cultivars were analyzed to observe wax functions in apple during storage. Results showed that alkanes and primary alcohols decreased while fatty acids increased in stored fruits of all cultivars compared with the fruits before storage. Terpenoids, aldehydes, and phenols were observed in stored fruits but not in the fruits before storage in all cultivars except 'Red Star' fruit. The weight loss rate was significantly correlated with six components including C13 alcohol, C14 alkanes, total alkanes, total wax, C13 alkanes and C54 alkanes in 10 cultivar apple fruits during storage. Our findings indicate that the total wax, particularly alkanes, in the peel of apple fruits is essential for storage and quality control.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Malus/química , Ceras/química , Álcoois/metabolismo , Aldeídos/análise , Alcanos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Malus/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Terpenos/análise , Ceras/análise
10.
Food Chem ; 327: 127074, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464463

RESUMO

'Honeycrisp' is a popular apple cultivar because of its superior appearance and flavor. We investigated its aroma profiles and characteristic aroma. Whereas the aroma profiles of developing fruits were dominated by aldehydes, postharvest fruit accumulated abundant esters, alcohols, and sesquiterpenoids. Most of these components showed maxima at the fruit's climacteric peak. There were more types and higher contents of sesquiterpenoids, aldehydes, and esters in the fruit skin than in the pulp, while alcohol contents and types were comparable between the pulp and skin. Aroma extract dilution and gas chromatography-olfactometry analyses revealed that hexyl 2-methylbutyrate, α-farnesene, 1,3-octanediol, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, hexanol, butanol, and 2-methyl-butanol are the most potent odor compounds in 'Honeycrisp' apple. Aroma reconstruction and omission tests combined with sensory analyses suggested that hexyl 2-methylbutyrate is responsible for the strong fruity note of 'Honeycrisp' apple, and that other alcohols, aldehydes, and α-farnesene are essential for its background aroma notes.


Assuntos
Malus/química , Odorantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Frutas/química , Olfatometria
11.
Food Chem ; 321: 126687, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244138

RESUMO

The effect of food processing on the level and fate of chiral pesticide residues in apple products has rarely been investigated. In this study, we used ultra-performance convergence chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to determine the content of the novel chiral acaricide cyflumetofen. The matrix-matched calibration lines were constructed for apple slices, juice, wine and vinegar, and the determination coefficients (r2) exceeded 0.9954. Acceptable average recoveries were within 81.1% to 119.9%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.8% to 11.0%. Processing effectiveness is represented by the processing factor (PF). The results indicated that the PFs of different procedures (washing, peeling, enzymolysis, fermentation, among others.) were generally less than 1. The reduction of cyflumetofen enantiomers during fermentation was in accordance with first-order kinetics, and stereoselective behavior was observed. This study provides reliable references for the risk assessment of cyflumetofen in the processing of apple products.


Assuntos
Malus/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Propionatos/química , Acaricidas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Estereoisomerismo
12.
Food Chem ; 321: 126707, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244134

RESUMO

Mealiness is one of the most important textural failure of apple fruit and four patterns of mealiness involving five apple cultivars were identified as the rapid, moderate, slow and none, requiring 3, 7, 14, 49 days at 25 °C, respectively. In comparison with the non-mealy 'Fuji' apple, parenchyma cells of mealy apples became detached and remained intact. Highly methyl-esterified homogalacturonan was strongly immunolabeled in the cell wall of slow and non-mealy apples. The mobility of water was enhanced in the cell wall during mealiness. Principal components analysis of FTIR spectra discriminated the cell wall materials (CWM) based on the mealiness progress. Heavy loss of CWM and its water-insoluble fractions but limited increase of water-soluble fractions, and the increase of crystalline micelles of CWM were closely associated with the mealiness progress. Overall, the occurrence of mealiness might attribute to structural, physical and biochemical modifications of CWM during tissue senescence.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Malus/química , Pectinas/química , Frutas/química , Refeições
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 1180-1187, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237463

RESUMO

Based on the idea of plant metabolomics, ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used to compare the chemical composition between 6 batches of fruit vinegar brewed from Choerospondias axillaris fruit peel and 6 batches of apple vinegar purchased from 3 companies. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities were also tested in vitro. A total of 43 compounds were identified by reference substance, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS) fragmentation information or literature data. A total of 40 compounds were identified in the C. axillaris fruit peel vinegar. A total of 16 compounds were identified in apple vinegar. There were 13 common ingredients including organic acids and esters such as citric acid, 2-isopropyl malic acid, and triethyl citrate. The results of partial leastsquares-discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) indicated that they had 33 significantly different compounds such as proanthocyanidin oligomer, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and heptadecanoic acid. The proanthocyanidins and flavonoid glycosides in C. axillaris peel vinegar were more abundant than apple vinegar, so it had better health function than ordinary fruit vinegar. The results showed that C. axillaris fruit peel vinegar had stronger antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities in vitro. The vinegar brewed from waste C. axillaris fruit peel had more chemical ingredients than the apple vinegar. C. axillaris fruit peel vinegar had better biological activity and health function, so it had good development prospect. This study provided the scientific evidence for exploiting the C. axillaris fruit peel into high value-added products. It also provided ideas for the comprehensive development and utilization of similar Chinese medicine waste.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Anacardiaceae/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Malus/química , Antioxidantes , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , alfa-Glucosidases
14.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1371-1379, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237092

RESUMO

In this study, triethylene tetramine-modified water-insoluble corn flour caged in magnetic chitosan resin (TETA-WICF/MCR) was firstly prepared, which indicates novel aspects for immobilization and chemically modification of mycotoxin adsorbents. The TETA-WICF/MCR was characterized using zoom stereo microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and magnetic separation performance analysis. Experimental results confirmed successful layer by layer modification of chitosan, biosorbent water-insoluble corn flour (WICF), TETA onto the surface of magnetic beads. The mean diameter of the TETA-WICF/MCR was 2.63 mm with good magnetic-responsive ability. Subsequently, the adsorption performance of the TETA-WICF/MCR obtained toward patulin was assessed in batch adsorption system and the results demonstrated that the adsorption process was strongly depended on adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature, and initial patulin concentration. The results of SEM images and FTIR analysis showed obvious changes in the porous structure of TETA-WICF/MCR after adsorbing patulin, and -NH2 and -OH groups were predominantly involved in the adsorption of patulin. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics followed the mechanism of pseudo-second-order model, and equilibrium data were well fitted in the Freundlich isotherm model. It was also found that the TETA-WICF/MCR had good reusability without any adverse changes in apple juice. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Patulin is a regulated toxin biosynthesized by certain fungi that contaminate agricultural commodities, such as fruits, juices, and other beverages. Several approaches have been studied to reduce patulin levels in apple juice and other aqueous systems. There is need for more low-cost and eco-friendly adsorbent capable of detoxifying patulin contaminated. In this sense, triethylene tetramine-modified water-insoluble corn flour caged in magnetic chitosan resin (TETA-WICF/MCR) was first prepared and exhibits easy solid-liquid separation and high adsorption capacity for removing patulin from contaminated apple juice.


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Malus/química , Patulina/química , Trientina/química , Zea mays , Adsorção , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes , Quitosana/química , Farinha/análise , Cinética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Água
15.
Food Chem ; 320: 126643, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208184

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to find differences in the volatile and phenolic profiles of the traditional Romanian apple brandy palinca aged with various species of wood chips. Seven types of wood species, two types of oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur), plus sweet chestnut, mulberry, walnut, fir and cherry, were considered. The majority of volatile compounds characterizing the aroma profile of palinca were esters, particularly ethyl esters, with ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl isovalerate, ethyl caproate, ethyl octanoate and ethyl decanoate as the most abundant. The most important source of catechin was cherry wood. Rutin and juglone were solubilised only in walnut wood aged brandy. Vanillin, increased significantly in chestnut aged apple brandy. Given the cost and difficulty in handling wooden barrels, and as an alternative being able to select from a range of specific wooden chips, this work could potentially guide actors in beverage industry to less expensive alternatives.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Malus/química , Odorantes/análise , Fenóis/análise , Quercus/química , Madeira/química , Volatilização
16.
Food Chem ; 318: 126512, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135418

RESUMO

E Se tea, prepared from the leaves of Malus toringoides (Rehd.) Hughes, is a traditional beverage, but there is little known about its chemical substances. This paper is aimed to investigate the chemical composition, antioxidant, and cytoprotective activities of the extract and fractions from E Se tea. Sixteen compounds were characterized by UHPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS. Phloridzin was the main compound, especially in ethyl acetate fraction (EAF). Moreover, EAF had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents with 197.54 ± 7.52 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract and 85.94 ± 5.39 mg rutin equivalents/g extract, respectively, and exhibited the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH: IC50 = 54.91 ± 3.38 µg/mL; ABTS: IC50 = 98.08 ± 6.92 µg/mL). Different fractions of E Se tea, especially EAF, significantly inhibited intracellular ROS generation, reduced cell apoptosis, and decreased oxidative stress damage in H2O2-induced HepG-2 cells. Therefore, the obtained results highlight that E Se tea is a promising source for functional beverage or nutritional foods.


Assuntos
Malus/química , Fenóis/análise , Chás de Ervas/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Food Chem ; 318: 126450, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151921

RESUMO

The objective of this work was the development of an on-line extraction/fractionation method based on the coupling of pressurized liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction for the separation of phenolic compounds from apple pomace. Several variables of the process were evaluated, including the amount of water of the first stage (0-120 mL), temperature (60-80 °C), solid-phase extraction adsorbent (Sepra, Isolute, Strata X and Oasis) and activation/elution solvent (methanol and ethanol). The best results were observed with the adsorbent Sepra. The temperature had a small effect on recovery, but significant differences were observed for phlorizin and a quercetin derivative. Results indicate that ethanol can be used to replace methanol as an activation, extraction/elution solvent. While using mostly green solvents (water, ethanol, and a small amount of methanol that could be reused), the developed method produced higher or similar yields of acids (2.85 ± 0.19 mg/g) and flavonoids (0.97 ± 0.11 mg/g) than conventional methods.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Malus/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Ácido Gálico/análise , Ácido Gálico/isolamento & purificação , Malus/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Florizina/análise , Florizina/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pressão , Quercetina/análise , Quercetina/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197136

RESUMO

Vitamin C is a crucial antioxidant and cofactor for both plants and humans. Apple fruits generally contain low levels of vitamin C, making vitamin C content an interesting trait for apple crop improvement. With the aim of breeding high vitamin C apple cultivars it is important to get an insight in the natural biodiversity of vitamin C content in apple fruits. In this study, quantification of ascorbic acid (AsA), dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), and total AsA (AsA + DHA) in apple pulp of 79 apple accessions at harvest revealed significant variation, indicating a large genetic biodiversity. High density genotyping using an 8 K SNP array identified 21 elite and 58 local cultivars in this germplasm, with local accessions showing similar levels of total AsA but higher amounts of DHA compared to elite varieties. Out of the 79 apple cultivars screened, ten genotypes with either the highest or the lowest concentration of total AsA at harvest were used for monitoring vitamin C dynamics during fruit development and storage. For all these cultivars, the AsA/DHA ratio in both apple pulp and peel increased throughout fruit development, whereas the AsA/DHA balance always shifted towards the oxidized form during storage and shelf life, putatively reflecting an abiotic stress response. Importantly, at any point during apple fruit development and storage, the apple peel contained a higher level of vitamin C compared to the pulp, most likely because of its direct exposure to abiotic and biotic stresses.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Frutas/química , Malus/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Genótipo , Malus/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
J Food Sci ; 85(3): 718-726, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064624

RESUMO

Red-fleshed apples are preferred because of their high content of phenolics and antioxidants. In this study, the phenolic characteristics, antioxidant properties, and antihuman cancer cell properties of the four hybrids of Malus sieversii f. niedzwetzkyana (Ledeb.) M. Roem were analyzed. In addition, the antioxidant and anti-proliferation properties of these apples were measured. Compared to "Fuji" apples, the red-fleshed apples were rich in phenolic and flavonoid chemicals, ranging from 1.5- to 2.6-fold and 1.4- to 2.4-fold, respectively. In all antioxidant methods (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and cell antioxidant capacity), "A38" obtained the highest antioxidant value, whereas "Fuji" got the lowest antioxidant value. The IC50 values ranged from 33.44 ("A38") to 73.36 mg/mL ("Fuji") for MCF-7 and 20.94 ("A38") to 39.39 mg/mL ("Fuji") for MAD-MB-231. The red-fleshed "A38" and "Meihong" exhibited higher antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in vitro because of the higher levels of phenolics, and the higher potential for development and utilization value. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative activity in vitro of four red-fleshed apple cultivars and one white-fleshed apple cultivar were compared in this study. This information should assist to give a reasonable evaluation for scientists to breed new cultivars with high phenolics and to exploit the natural polyphenol.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Malus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/classificação , Humanos , Malus/classificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004917

RESUMO

Water scarcity is one of the major factors limiting apple production. Partial root-zone drying (PRD) is a water-saving irrigation technique necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimize the amount of fruit produced with the volume of water used. The apple trees cv. Red Delicious were exposed to four treatments, including (1) control with 100% of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) needs; (2) alternate partial root-zone drying with 75% of the ETc needs (APRD75); (3) fixed partial root-zone drying with 75% of the ETc needs (FPRD75); (4) fixed partial root-zone irrigation with 50% of the ETc needs (FPRD50) in a semiarid region of Iran. Results showed that leaf water potential (Ψ leaf), and chlorophyll were significantly decreased in FPRD50 compared to control and other PRD treatments. APRD75 and FPRD75 treatments significantly enhanced (+) -catechin (+C), epicatechin (EC), chlorogenic acid (CGA), caffeic acid (CA) as well as increased water use efficiency (WUE) (by 30-40% compared to control) without significant reduction of yield. PRD reduced gibberellic acid (GA3) and kinetin, while, increased the abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) levels. The abiotic stress-responsive transcription factors (TFs) MdoMYB121, MdoMYB155, MdbZIP2, and MdbZIP48 were highly expressed in all PRD treatments. Our results demonstrated that APRD75 and FPRD75 have the potential to stimulate antioxidant defense mechanisms, hormonal signaling pathways, and expression of drought-tolerance TFs to improve WUE while maintaining crop yield. Therefore, APRD75andFPRD75 with water savings as compared to full irrigation might be a suitable strategy for irrigation apple trees under water scarcity.


Assuntos
Malus , Raízes de Plantas , Água , Irã (Geográfico) , Malus/química , Malus/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química
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