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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360688

RESUMO

Plant response to osmotic stress is a complex issue and includes a wide range of physiological and biochemical processes. Extensive studies of known cultivars and their reaction to drought or salinity stress are very important for future breeding of new and tolerant cultivars. Our study focused on the antioxidant activity, accumulations of osmotica, and the content of abscisic acid in apple (cv. "Malinové holovouské", "Fragrance", "Rubinstep", "Idared", "Car Alexander") and cherry (cv. "Regina", "Napoleonova", "Kastánka", "Sunburst", "P-HL-C") cultivated in vitro on media containing different levels of polyethylene glycol PEG-6000. Our results indicated that the studied genotypes responded differently to osmotic stress manifested as reduction in the leaf relative water content (RWC) and increment in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, proline, sugars, and abscisic acid content. Overall, cherry cultivars showed a smaller decrease in percentage RWC and enzymatic activities, but enhanced proline content compared to the apple plants cultivars. Cultivars "Rubinstep", "Napoleonova", and "Kastánka" exhibited higher antioxidant capacity and accumulation of osmoprotectants like proline and sorbitol that can be associated with the drought-tolerance system.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Pressão Osmótica , Prolina/análise , Estresse Fisiológico , Açúcares/análise , Malus/química , Malus/metabolismo , Malus/fisiologia , Prolina/metabolismo , Prunus avium/química , Prunus avium/metabolismo , Prunus avium/fisiologia , Açúcares/metabolismo
2.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(7): 653-663, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196858

RESUMO

Upon damage by herbivores, plants release herbivory-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs). To find their prey, the pest's natural enemies need to be fine-tuned to the composition of these volatiles. Whereas standard methods can be used in the identification and quantitation of HIPVs, more recently introduced techniques such as PTR-ToF-MS provide temporal patterns of the volatile release and detect additional compounds. In this study, we compared the volatile profile of apple trees infested with two aphid species, the green apple aphid Aphis pomi, and the rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantaginea, by CLSA-GC-MS complemented by PTR-ToF-MS. Compounds commonly released in conjunction with both species include nonanal, decanal, methyl salicylate, geranyl acetone, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexenyl butanoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl 2-methyl-butanoate, (E)-ß-caryophyllene, ß-bourbonene and (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate. In addition, benzaldehyde and (E)-ß-farnesene were exclusively associated with A. pomi, whereas linalool, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene were exclusively associated with D. plantaginea. PTR-ToF-MS additionally detected acetic acid (AA) and 2-phenylethanol (PET) in the blends of both trees attacked by aphid species. In the wind tunnel, the aphid predator, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), responded strongly to a blend of AA and PET, much stronger than to AA or PET alone. The addition of common and species-specific HIPVs did not increase the response to the binary blend of AA and PET. In our setup, two host-associated volatiles AA + PET appeared sufficient in the attraction of C. carnea. Our results also show the importance of combining complementary methods to decipher the odor profile associated with plants under pest attack and identify behaviourally active components for predators.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Malus/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Ácido Acético/análise , Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Álcool Feniletílico/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade da Espécie , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
3.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299545

RESUMO

Red Delicious apple pomace was produced at laboratory scale with a domestic blender and different non-conventional extraction techniques were performed to isolate phenolic compounds, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), ultraturrax extraction (UTE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and pulsed electric field (PEF) extraction pre-treatment. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Phloridzin, the main phenolic compound in apples, was determined by chromatographic analysis Q-TOF-LC/MS. The results obtained with these techniques were compared in order to identify the most efficient method to recover polyphenols. The highest value of TPC (1062.92 ± 59.80 µg GAE/g fresh apple pomace) was obtained when UAE was performed with EtOH:H2O (50:50, v/v), while ASE with EtOH:H2O (30:70, v/v) at 40 °C and 50% of flush was the most efficient technique in the recovery of phloridzin. The concentration of the main phenolic compounds ranged from 385.84 to 650.56 µg/g fresh apple pomace. The obtained results confirm that apple pomace represents an interesti-ng by-product, due to the presence of phenolic compounds. In particular, phloridzin could be considered a biomarker to determine the quality of numerous apple products. Therefore, this research could be a good starting point to develop a value-added product such as a functional food or nutraceutical.


Assuntos
Malus/química , Fenóis/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Etanol/química , Flavonoides/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química
4.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206325

RESUMO

In the present work, the optimization of the extraction of antioxidant compounds from apple pomace using ultrasound technology as an environmentally friendly and intensification process was developed. Different sonication powers, extraction temperatures and extraction times were studied and their influence on extraction yield and characteristics of the extracted samples (total phenolic compounds, flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity) are presented. The elaborated experimental design and the analysis of Pareto and response surface diagrams allowed us to determine the optimal extraction conditions. The conditions that allow the maximum extraction of phenolic compounds were found at 20 min, 90 °C and 50% ultrasound amplitude. Nevertheless, at these conditions, the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH decreased in the extracted samples.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Frutas/química , Malus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sonicação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
5.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209563

RESUMO

Propionic acid bacteria are the source of many metabolites, e.g., propionic acid and trehalose. Compared to microbiological synthesis, the production of these metabolites by petrochemical means or enzymatic conversion is more profitable. The components of microbiological media account for a large part of the costs associated with propionic fermentation, due to the high nutritional requirements of Propionibacterium. This problem can be overcome by formulating a medium based on the by-products of technological processes, which can act as nutritional sources and at the same time replace expensive laboratory preparations (e.g., peptone and yeast extract). The metabolic activity of P. freudenreichii was investigated in two different breeding environments: in a medium containing peptone, yeast extract, and biotin, and in a waste-based medium consisting of only apple pomace and potato wastewater. The highest production of propionic acid amounting to 14.54 g/L was obtained in the medium containing apple pomace and pure laboratory supplements with a yield of 0.44 g/g. Importantly, the acid production parameters in the waste medium reached almost the same level (12.71 g/L, 0.42 g/g) as the medium containing pure supplements. Acetic acid synthesis was more efficient in the waste medium; it was also characterized by a higher level of accumulated trehalose (59.8 mg/g d.s.). Thus, the obtained results show that P. freudenreichii bacteria exhibited relatively high metabolic activity in an environment with apple pomace used as a carbon source and potato wastewater used as a nitrogen source. This method of propioniate production could be cheaper and more sustainable than the chemical manner.


Assuntos
Malus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Propionatos/metabolismo , Propionibacterium freudenreichii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/química , Águas Residuárias , Meios de Cultura/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
6.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198648

RESUMO

Apples are seasonal fruits, and thus after harvesting apples of optimal picking maturity, it is important to prepare them properly for storage and to ensure proper storage conditions in order to minimize changes in the chemical composition and commercial quality of the apples. We studied the quantitative composition of triterpenic compounds in the whole apple, apple peel and apple flesh samples before placing them in the controlled atmosphere (CA) chambers, and at the end of the experiment, 8 months later. HPLC analysis showed that highest total amount of triterpenic compounds (1.99 ± 0.01 mg g-1) was found in the whole apple samples of the 'Spartan' cultivar stored under variant VIII (O2-20%, CO2-3%, N2-77%) conditions. Meanwhile, the highest amount of triterpenic compounds (11.66 ± 0.72 mg g-1) was determined in the apple peel samples of the 'Auksis' cultivar stored under variant II (O2-5%, CO2-1%, N2-94%) conditions. In the apple peel samples of the 'Auksis' cultivar stored under variant I (O2-21%, CO2-0.03%, N2-78.97%) conditions, the amount of individual triterpenic compounds (ursolic, oleanolic, corosolic, and betulinic acids) significantly decreased compared with amount determined before the storage. Therefore, in the apple flesh samples determined triterpenic compounds are less stable during the storage under controlled atmosphere conditions compared with triterpenic compounds determined in the whole apple and apple peel samples.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Malus/química , Triterpenos/análise
7.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066136

RESUMO

The valorization of food industry by-products as sources of bioactive compounds is at the forefront of research in functional foods and nutraceuticals. This study focuses on bioactives of apple cider by-products (ACBPs) with putative cardio-protective properties. Total lipids (TLs) were extracted from ACBPs of apple varieties that are low (ACBP1), medium (ACBP2), and high (ACBP3) in tannins and were further separated into polar lipids (PLs) and neutral lipids (NLs). The functionality of these lipid extracts and of their HPLC-derived lipid fractions/PL subclasses were assessed in vitro against human platelet aggregation induced by the thrombotic and inflammatory platelet agonists platelet-activating factor (PAF) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The fatty acid profile of PLs and their most bioactive lipid fractions were evaluated by GC-MS analysis. The PL extracts exhibited higher specificity against the PAF-induced platelet aggregation compared to their anti-ADP effects, while TL and NL showed lower bioactivities in all ACBPs. HPLC analysis unveiled that the most bioactive PL from all ACBPs were those in PL fraction 3 containing phosphatidylcholines (PCs). PLs from all ACBPs and their PC bioactives were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and especially in the essential omega-6 (n-6) linoleic acid (LA) and omega-3 (n-3) alpha linolenic acid (ALA), with favorably low values of the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, thus providing a rationale for their higher anti-inflammatory bioactivities. Within this study, highly bioactive PL compounds with strong anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet properties were identified in ACBPs, which can be potentially utilized for producing cardio-protective functional foods and/or nutraceuticals.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Frutas/química , Ácido Linoleico/farmacologia , Malus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/farmacologia , Doadores de Sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Alimento Funcional/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Fosfatidilcolinas/farmacologia
8.
Food Chem ; 362: 130134, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087709

RESUMO

As allergy towards apples is widespread, the evaluation of various cultivation and postharvest influences on the allergenic potential is of great importance. Therefore, the analysis of the Mal d 1 content was the focus of this study, originally dealing with investigating the influence of a selenium biofortification on apple quality. The Mal d 1 content of apples was in most cases reduced when the fruits were biofortified with selenium. Apple variety and climatic conditions were identified as further influencing factors for the Mal d 1 content of the fruits. The separate analysis of the peel and the fruit flesh showed that the content of Mal d 1 in the fruit flesh was significantly lower in the biofortified samples than in the controls. In conclusion, the results indicate that the selenium biofortification of apples and biochemical mechanism behind can reduce the allergenic potential regarding the content of Mal d 1.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Plantas/análise , Biofortificação , Malus/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Selênio , Alimentos Fortificados , Frutas/química , Alemanha , Selênio/análise
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 2227-2237, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087307

RESUMO

Commercial pectin production is based on vacuum evaporation and alcohol precipitation (VEAP) using large quantities of expensive and flammable alcohol. This process has high production costs that have greatly limited the commercial use of refined pectins. This study demonstrates a new technology using a diaultrafiltration (DUF) process in a pilot plant, which is a low-cost, green, and ecologically friendly way to produce pectin. In terms of the structure and quality of their products, a comparison of the two methods suggest that DUF provides significant (p < 0.05) flux enhancement, high pectin purity, and separation of the main pectin backbones, with higher molar mass (Mw) and less polydispersity (Mw/Mn) of pectin samples. An analysis of the 1D and 2D NMR spectra reveals that the DUF process removes most free impurities extracted along with the pectin macromolecules, making this method preferable to use. An analysis of power and chemical consumption demonstrates that the new process is preferable over existing methods due to lower energy consumption and higher product quality. It also possesses a flexible technical design that allows it to produce semi-products from various raw materials.


Assuntos
Flores/química , Frutas/química , Química Verde , Helianthus/química , Malus/química , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Álcoois/química , Precipitação Química , Química Verde/instrumentação , Estrutura Molecular , Peso Molecular , Controle de Qualidade , Ultrafiltração , Vácuo , Resíduos
10.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946582

RESUMO

Notable parts of the population in Europe suffer from allergies towards apples. To address this health problem, the analysis of the interactions of relevant allergens with other substances such as phenolic compounds is of particular importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between the total phenolic content (TPC), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, antioxidant activity (AOA), and the phenolic compound profile and the content of the allergenic protein Mal d 1 in six apple cultivars. It was found that the PPO activity and the content of individual phenolic compounds had an influence on the Mal d 1 content. With regard to the important constituents, flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids, it was found that apples with a higher content of chlorogenic acid and a low content of procyanidin trimers and/or epicatechin had a lower allergenic potential. This is probably based on the reaction of phenolic compounds (when oxidized by the endogenous PPO) with proteins, thus being able to change the conformation of the (allergenic) proteins, which further corresponds to a loss of antibody recognition. When apples were additionally biofortified with selenium, the composition of the apples, with regard to TPC, phenolic profile, AOA, and PPO, was significantly affected. Consequently, this innovative agronomic practice seems to be promising for reducing the allergenic potential of apples.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Plantas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Malus/efeitos adversos , Malus/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Selênio/química , Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Catecol Oxidase/química , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Polifenóis/análise , Selênio/análise
11.
Food Chem ; 359: 129855, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940475

RESUMO

Enzymatic browning control of cloudy fruit juice with natural substances has received much attention for improving its nutritional and commercial value. This study explored the anti-browning potential of Rosa roxburghii in apple juice. The anti-browning effects and mechanisms were evaluated by serial measurements of appearance, browning index, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, UPLC-QE-Orbitrap-MS identification, inhibition kinetics and molecular docking. The results showed that Rosa roxburghii juice (0.25%-1.25% w/w) could effectively inhibit browning and PPO activity of apple juice. Ascorbic acid (1.67 g/100 g) as a reducing agent was a main anti-browning factor. Furthermore, seven phenolic compounds in Rosa roxburghii were screened as PPO inhibitors. Representative phenolic inhibitors induced mixed or competitive inhibition of PPO, mainly driven by hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds. This work demonstrates that Rosa roxburghii is a promising natural anti-browning ingredient to control the browning of cloudy apple juice due to abundant ascorbic acid and PPO inhibitors.


Assuntos
Catecol Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Malus/química , Rosa/metabolismo , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
12.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921801

RESUMO

Waste valorization represents one of the main social challenges when promoting a circular economy and environmental sustainability. Here, we evaluated the effect of the polyphenols extracted from apple peels, normally disposed of as waste, on the amyloid aggregation process of κ-casein from bovine milk, a well-used amyloidogenic model system. The effect of the apple peel extract on protein aggregation was examined using a thioflavin T fluorescence assay, Congo red binding assay, circular dichroism, light scattering, and atomic force microscopy. We found that the phenolic extract from the peel of apples of the cultivar "Fuji", cultivated in Sicily (Caltavuturo, Italy), inhibited κ-casein fibril formation in a dose-dependent way. In particular, we found that the extract significantly reduced the protein aggregation rate and inhibited the secondary structure reorganization that accompanies κ-casein amyloid formation. Protein-aggregated species resulting from the incubation of κ-casein in the presence of polyphenols under amyloid aggregation conditions were reduced in number and different in morphology.


Assuntos
Amiloide/química , Caseínas/química , Malus/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica
13.
Food Chem ; 356: 129658, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838604

RESUMO

A novel fluorescent probe (RA), based on the rosamine skeleton bearing acrylate group, has been reasonably designed and prepared, which employed an addition-cyclization-elimination sequence reaction mechanism to detect cysteine. RA displayed rapid response to cysteine within 1.5 min, and exhibited satisfactory selectivity for cysteine over H2S, glutathione (Glu), and homocysteine (Hcy), due to the formation of seven-membered lactam favored kinetically. Fluorescence ratio was utilized to detect cysteine from 6.0 to 20.0 µM with a detection limit of 0.29 µM. More, RA was used to monitor cysteine in BSA, water, milk, milk powder, cabbage, radish, apple, and pear.


Assuntos
Cisteína/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/química , Leite/química , Plantas/química , Rodaminas/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Água/química , Animais , Brassica/química , Brassica/metabolismo , Glutationa/química , Homocisteína/química , Limite de Detecção , Malus/química , Malus/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/química , Pyrus/metabolismo , Raphanus/química , Raphanus/metabolismo
14.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 57(3): 281-300, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855926

RESUMO

As demand for regional and organically produced foodstuff has increased in Europe, the need has arisen to verify the products' origin and production method. For food authenticity tracking (production method and origin), we examined 286 samples of wheat (Triticum aestivum), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and apples (Malus domestica) from different regions in Germany for their stable isotope compositions of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and sulphur. Single-variate authentication methods were used. Suitable isotope tracers to determine wheat's regional origin were δ18O and δ34S. δ13C helped to distinguish between organic and conventional wheat samples. For the separation of the production regions of potatoes, several isotope tracers were suitable (e.g. δ18O, δ2H, δ15N, δ13C and δ34S isotopes in potato protein), but only protein δ15N was suitable to differentiate between organic and conventional potato samples. For the apple samples, 2H and 18O isotopes helped to identify production regions, but no significant statistical differences could be found between organically and conventionally farmed apples. For food authenticity tracking, our study showed the need to take the various isotopes into account. There is an urgent need for a broad reference database if isotope measurements are to become a main tool for determining product's origin.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Isótopos/análise , Malus/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Triticum/química , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Deutério/análise , Alemanha , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Agricultura Orgânica , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Isótopos de Enxofre/análise
15.
Food Chem ; 355: 129636, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799241

RESUMO

The potential of MIRS was investigated to: i) differentiate cooked purees issued from different apples and process conditions, and ii) predict the puree quality characteristics from the spectra of homogenized raw apples. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was tested both, on the real spectra of cooked purees and their reconstructed spectra calculated from the spectra of homogenized raw apples by direct standardization. The cooked purees were well-classified according to apple thinning practices and cold storage durations, and to different heating and grinding conditions. PLS models using the spectra of homogenized raw apples can anticipate the titratable acidity (the residual predictive deviation (RPD) = 2.9), soluble solid content (RPD = 2.8), particle averaged size (RPD = 2.6) and viscosity (RPD ≥ 2.5) of cooked purees. MIR technique can provide sustainable evaluations of puree quality, and even forecast texture and taste of purees based on the prior information of raw materials.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Malus/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Culinária , Frutas/química , Química Verde , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Paladar , Viscosidade
16.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920200

RESUMO

Seventy-three samples of alcoholic beverages and juices that were purchased on the Polish market and home-made were analyzed for their elemental profiles. The levels of 23 metals were determined by ICP-MS (Ag, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Tl), ICP-OES (Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ti and Zn) and CVAAS (Hg) techniques in twenty-five samples of ciders widely available on the Polish market; six samples of home-made ciders; two samples of juices used in the production of these ciders; and forty samples of low-percentage, flavored alcoholic beverages based on beer. The gathered analytical data confirmed that the final elemental fingerprint of a product is affected by the elemental fingerprint of the ingredients used (apple variety) as well as the technology and equipment used by the producer, and in the case of commercial ciders, also the impact of type of the packaging used was proven. These factors are specific to each producer and the influence of the mentioned above parameters was revealed as a result of the performed analysis. Additionally, the inclusion of the home-made ciders in the data set helped us to understand the potential origin of some elements, from the raw materials to the final products. The applied statistical tests revealed (Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA) the existence of statistically significant differences in the concentration of the following metals: Ag, Al, B, Bi, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Na, Ni, Ti and Zn in terms of the type of cider origin (commercial and home-made). In turn, for different packaging (can or bottle) within one brand of commercial cider, the existence of statistically significant differences for Cu, Mn and Na was proved. The concentrations of all determined elements in the commercial cider from the Polish market and home-made cider samples can be considered as nontoxic, because the measured levels of elements indicated in the regulations were lower than the allowable limits. Moreover, the obtained results can be treated as preliminary for the potential authentication of products in order to distinguish the home-made (fake) from the authentic products, especially for premium-class alcoholic beverages.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Malus/química , Metais/isolamento & purificação , Oligoelementos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Íons/química , Íons/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas , Metais/química , Polônia , Análise Espectral , Oligoelementos/química
17.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921423

RESUMO

Malus hupehensis (M. hupehensis), an edible and medicinal plant with significant antioxidant and hypoglycemic activity, has been applied to new resource foods. However, the structural characterization and biological effects of its polysaccharides (MHP) are less known. The optimum extraction parameters to achieve the highest extraction efficiency (47.63%), the yield (1.68%) and purity of MHP (89.6%) by ultrasonic-assisted aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) were obtained under the liquid-to-solid ratio of 23 g/mL, ultrasonic power of 65 W, and ultrasonic time of 33 min. According to the analysis results, MHP was composed of Man, GlcA, Rha, GalA, Glc, Gal, Xyl, Ara, and Fuc, in which Ara and Gal were the main components, and the content of GlcA was the lowest. In in vitro activity analysis, MHP showed a significant antioxidant capacity, and an inhibition activity of α-glucosidase and the advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation in the BSA/Glc reaction model. MHP interacted with α-glucosidase and changed the internal microenvironment of the enzyme, and inhibited the AGEs formation, which provides more evidence for the antihyperglycemic mechanism of MHP. The results suggest that ATPS is an efficient and environmentally friendly solvent system, and M. hupehensis has broad application prospects in functional foods, healthcare products, and pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Malus/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ultrassom , Água/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dicroísmo Circular , Etanol/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Monossacarídeos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sais/química , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
18.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800895

RESUMO

The biological activity of apple pectin extracted conventionally or enzymatically using endo-xylanase and endo-cellulase, was tested in vitro. The analyses were performerd in tetraplicates and the statistical significance of the differences were assessed using ANOVA, Tukey post hoc and LSD (the least significant difference) tests. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to determine the structural components that have a crucial importance for antioxidant and antitumor properties of pectins. The pectins extracted by enzymes contained up to four times more ferulic acid and showed twice as great ability to neutralize free radicals and Fe(III) reduction. The antiradical potential positively correlated with phenols, fucose and rhamnose content. In the assays performed on HT-29 human adenocarcinoma and B16F10 melanoma cell cultures, the "green" pectins, contrary to acid isolated ones, exhibited remarkable anti-neoplastic potential while being nontoxic to nontransformed L929 cell line. The pectins in the dose of 1 mg/mL were capable of inhibiting adhesion (max 23.1%), proliferation (max 40.4%), invasion (max 76.9%) and anchorage-independent growth (max 90%) of HT-29 cells (significance level p < 0.001). These pectin preparations were slightly less active towards B16F10 cells. The enzyme-isolated apple pectins may be useful as a functional food additive and an ingredient of the ointment formulas for post-surgical melanoma treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Celulase/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Malus/química , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Pectinas/farmacologia , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Humanos , Melanoma/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
19.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808961

RESUMO

Aromatic volatile compounds are important contributors to fruit quality that vary among different cultivars. Herein, headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine changes in volatile compounds and related gene expression patterns in "Ruixue" and "Fuji" apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) during fruit development and maturation. Volatile compounds detected in the fruit of both cultivars exhibited similar trends across different developmental stages. In the early stages of "Ruixue" fruit development (60 days after full bloom), there were fewer volatile compounds, mainly aldehydes (87.0%). During fruit maturation (180 days after full bloom), the types and amounts of volatile compounds increased, mainly including esters (37.6%), and alkenes (23.2%). The total volatile concentration, the types of major volatile compounds, and their relative content in both cultivars varied across different stages. Gene expression analysis indicated that the upregulation of MdLOX, MdAAT2, and MdADH3 was associated with increased aroma compound content, especially esters, during fruit development in both cultivars. Changes in the expression of MdArAT, MdACPD, MdADH3, MdAAT2, and MdLOX may lead to differences in volatile compounds between apple cultivars.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Malus/química , Malus/genética , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Açúcares/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
20.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801641

RESUMO

Polyphenols within fruits and vegetables may contribute to health benefits due to their consumption, with the anthocyanin sub-set also adding colour. The Lemonade™ apple variety has green skin and white flesh, with low anthocyanin content, while some apple varieties have high anthocyanin content in both the skin and flesh. Effects of red compared with white-fleshed apples were studied in healthy human subjects in a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention trial. Twenty-five healthy subjects consumed dried daily portions of the red-fleshed or placebo (white-fleshed) apple for two weeks, followed by one-week washout and further two-week crossover period. During the study, volunteers provided faecal samples for microbiota composition analysis and blood samples for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression analysis. Subtle differences were observed in the faecal microbiota of subjects that were fed the different apples, with significant (p < 0.05) reductions in relative abundances of Streptococcus, Ruminococcus, Blautia, and Roseburia, and increased relative abundances of Sutterella, Butyricicoccus, and Lactobacillus in subjects after consuming the red apple. Changes in PBMC gene expression showed 18 mRNA transcripts were differentially expressed between the two groups, of which 16 were immunoglobulin related genes. Pathway analysis showed that these genes had roles in pathways such as immunoglobulin production, B cell-mediated immunity, complement activation, and phagocytosis. In conclusion, this study shows that anthocyanin-rich apples may influence immune function compared to control apples, with changes potentially associated with differences in the faecal microbiota.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polifenóis/química , Adulto Jovem
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