Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 27.940
Filtrar
1.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-02-01.
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51895

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are a group of highly diverse RNA virus in the Coronaviridae family that are divided in 4 genera: alpha, beta, gamma and delta that cause disease varying from mild to severe in human and animals. There are endemic human coronavirus as the alphacoronavirus 229E and NL63 and betacoronaviruses OC43 and HKU1 that can cause influenza-like illness or pneumonia in humans. However, two zoonotic coronavirus have emerged causing severe disease in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002-2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In January 2020, the etiologic agent responsible for a cluster of severe pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China was identified as being a novel Betacoronavirus, but it is distinct from SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The complete genome sequence of this new agent has been released and different detection protocols have been developed but not fully validated yet. However, in light of the possible introduction of a suspected case related to 2019-nCoV in the America region, the Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) recommends to Member States to ensure their timely identification, the shipping of samples to National and reference laboratories and the implementation of the molecular detection protocol for 2019-nCoV, according to the laboratory capacity. WHO have published on 17 January 2020 an updated of the interim guidance for Laboratory testing for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in suspected human cases available at: https://www.who.int/healthtopics/coronavirus/laboratory-diagnostics-for-novel-coronavirus. Information on Suspected case definition; specimen collection and shipment; effective usage of global laboratory networking; testing of 2019-nCoV in reference laboratories; and reporting of cases and test results can be found in this interim guidance.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Escarro , Doenças Respiratórias , Manejo de Espécimes
2.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-02-01.
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51894

RESUMO

Los coronavirus son un grupo de virus ARN altamente diversos de la familia Coronaviridae que se dividen en 4 géneros: alfa, beta, gamma y delta, y que causan enfermedades de leves a graves en humanos y animales. Existen coronavirus humanos endémicos como los alfacoronavirus 229E y NL63 y los betacoronavirus OC43 y HKU1 que pueden causar enfermedades de tipo influenza o neumonía en humanos. Sin embargo, dos coronavirus zoonóticos que causan enfermedades graves en humanos han emergido: el coronavirus del Síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV) en 2002-2003 y el coronavirus del Síndrome respiratorio de Oriente Medio (MERS-CoV). En enero de 2020, el agente etiológico responsable de un grupo de casos de neumonía grave en Wuhan, China, fue identificado como un nuevo betacoronavirus (2019-nCoV), distinto del SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV. La secuencia genómica completa de este nuevo agente está disponible y se han desarrollado diferentes protocolos de detección, aunque aún no se han validado por completo. Sin embargo, a la luz de la posible introducción de un caso sospechoso relacionado con el 2019-nCoV en la Región de las Américas, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud / Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS / OMS) recomienda a los Estados Miembros garantizar su identificación oportuna, el envío de las muestras a laboratorios Nacionales y de referencia y la implementación del protocolo de detección molecular para 2019-nCoV, según la capacidad del laboratorio. La OMS publicó el 17 de enero de 2020 una actualización de la guía provisional para pruebas de laboratorio para el nuevo coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) en casos humanos sospechosos disponible (en inglés) en: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus/laboratory-diagnostics-for-novel-coronavirus.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Manejo de Espécimes , Escarro , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Sistema Respiratório , Doenças Respiratórias
3.
J Forensic Nurs ; 16(1): 29-35, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) personnel frequently encounter incidents related to crime, violence, and suspicious injuries. The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the knowledge levels of ED healthcare personnel in their handling of frequently encountered forensic cases. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study composed of ED healthcare personnel at all state, education and research, and university hospitals with EDs, located in Ankara, Turkey, was completed. Participants at the 15 hospitals in question were interviewed via a questionnaire developed by the researchers. RESULTS: Three hundred fifty healthcare personnel who worked agreed to participate in the study. The results show that ED healthcare personnel have less knowledge than expected of the right way to handle frequently encountered forensic cases. Very few of the healthcare professionals who participated in the study had received any training or education in the field of forensic nursing. Among participants, postgraduates, health professionals educated in forensic nursing, and healthcare staff who used additional resources to understand forensic cases, and those who had evaluated cases that presented to the ED as forensic cases, had significantly higher levels of knowledge. IMPLICATIONS: This study supports the need for professional development in forensic nursing, such as in-service training, and curriculum development for a certificate in forensic nursing to enhance the practical training of healthcare professionals who work in EDs.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Enfermagem Forense/métodos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Documentação , Feminino , Enfermagem Forense/educação , Enfermagem Forense/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo de Espécimes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(2): 244-248, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958047

RESUMO

Introduction. Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted organism with high levels of resistance to the recommended first-line therapy, azithromycin. The ResistancePlus MG test concurrently detects M. genitalium, and the presence of macrolide-resistance mutations (MRM). European, UK and Australian guidelines recommend a diagnostic test that reports MRM to optimize treatment through resistance-guided therapy. Hence, for samples collected for use on other platforms, reflex testing using the ResistancePlus MG test would be beneficial.Aim. To validate the ResistancePlus MG assay using samples collected in Aptima buffer for testing on the Hologic Panther.Methodology. Positive (n=99) and negative (n=229) clinical samples collected in Aptima buffer were extracted on the MagNA Pure 96 (Roche Diagnostics), and tested with the ResistancePlus MG test on the LightCycler 480 II (Roche Diagnostics). Results were compared to matched samples collected using standard sample collection (urine or swab resuspended in PBS), with positive percent agreement (PPA), negative percent agreement (NPA) and Cohen's Kappa statistic.Results. The ResistancePlus MG test had high performance with a 200 µl input volume (PPA/NPA for M. genitalium detection, 92.9 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 85.5-96.9]/100 % [95 % CI: 97.9-100], MRM detection, 96.9 % [95 % CI: 88.2-99.5]/85.7 % [95 % CI: 66.4-95.3]) and for 1 ml input volume (PPA/NPA for M. genitalium detection, 95.9%/96.6%, MRM detection, 98.4%/90.3%). Samples remained positive after storage at room temperature beyond the manufacturer-recommended storage of <60 days (mean storage time for 1 ml extraction: 129 days).Conclusion. Samples collected using Aptima collection kits are suitable for reflex testing using the ResistancePlus MG test, allowing detection of macrolide resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Austrália , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/instrumentação , Humanos , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931330

RESUMO

The epidermal mucus protects fish against harmful environmental factors and the loss of physiological metabolites and water. It is an efficient barrier between the fish and the biosphere. The integrity of the skin mucus is thus of vital importance for the welfare and survival of the fish. Since excreted proteins and small molecules in the mucus can mirror the health status of the fish, it is a valuable matrix for monitoring stress, pathogen exposure, and nutritional effects. Several methods for sampling epidermal mucus from different fish species have previously been described, but information about their efficiency or the comparability of mucus analyses is lacking. In the present study, skin mucus from farmed Atlantic salmon was therefore sampled by three methods, including absorption or wiping with tissue paper, and scraping with a blunt blade, and the mucus proteome was analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry. The measured protein contents, numbers, compositions and the observed data quality were compared between sampling methods. Furthermore, functional annotation and classification of the identified proteins was performed. The results showed that the three skin mucus sample types differed qualitatively as well as quantitatively. The absorbed mucus was the least tainted by proteins resulting from damage inflicted to the fish epidermis by the sampling procedure. Wiped mucus showed a better protein yield than absorbed and delivered a larger proteome of identifiable proteins, with less contamination from epithelial proteins than observed for scraped mucus. We recommend that future research of mucus should use the absorption method in cases, where it is important that the mucus is devoid of proteins from the underlying epithelium, and the wiping method, when protein yield is crucial or when the proteome of the outer epithelium is of interest.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/análise , Muco/química , Proteoma/análise , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Animais , Proteômica , Pele/química , Pele/metabolismo
6.
Forensic Sci Int ; 307: 110136, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896021

RESUMO

In forensic toxicology studies, drug concentrations must be estimated by the analytical data of formalin-fixed tissues if fresh or frozen tissue specimens are not available. We wished to investigate the stability and time-course of metabolism/degradation of drugs in formalin-fixed tissues using porcine liver homogenates (PLHs) instead of human tissue. Ten psychotropic drugs (amitriptyline, brotizolam, diazepam, diphenhydramine, estazolam, etizolam, levomepromazine, paroxetine, quetiapine and triazolam) were added to PLHs. After the PLHs had been fixed with neutral buffered formalin at room temperature, the concentrations of the drugs in the PLHs were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 2 months, 4 months and 6 months. After 6 months, the residual ratio of amitriptyline, diphenhydramine and quetiapine was 80 %-95 %; that of diazepam, paroxetine and triazolam was 10 %-45 %; and that of brotizolam, etizolam and levomepromazine was 1 %-5 %. Estazolam was not detected from the first day of formalin fixation. These data suggest that the concentrations of drugs in PLHs measured after formalin fixation decreased to varying degrees compared with their initial concentrations. These time-dependent changes in drug concentration were due to degradation during preservation in formalin solution and metabolism by hepatic microsomal enzymes.


Assuntos
Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Toxicologia Forense/métodos , Fígado/química , Psicotrópicos/análise , Psicotrópicos/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Fixadores , Formaldeído , Preservação de Órgãos , Manejo de Espécimes , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Forensic Sci Int ; 307: 110078, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923852

RESUMO

In forensic casework, sample degradation is a largely an unsolved problem that exists due to poor preservation protocols. In Indian subcontinent, the forensic blood stains are commonly exposed to different ecological conditions for months before they are collected and transferred to the forensic laboratory for analysis. Under such conditions, the question of haemoglobin (Hb) & nucleic acid stability is of utmost importance. The biological evidence, especially the blood sample that underwent extreme conditions should further be retained in an appropriate storage facility until processed for the forensic serology/DNA testing. The present study provides the spectroscopic approach of analyzing Hb and DNA degradation of forensic blood samples preserved under varied conditions (tabulated and graphically). These samples were further subjected to and DNA analysis to assess the quality of sample based on different preservation conditions. At last, this study suggests the effective and appropriate preservation protocol of sample soon after its collection.


Assuntos
Degradação Necrótica do DNA , Hemoglobinas/química , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Análise Espectral , Raios Ultravioleta , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo ABO , Manchas de Sangue , DNA/análise , Humanos
8.
Forensic Sci Int ; 307: 110139, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935660

RESUMO

Cars are often sampled for DNA to help identify occupants and their possible location(s) within the car. While DNA from the frequent driver is likely to accumulate over time, DNA from previous and/or subsequent occupants, and those whose DNA has inadvertently been transferred to the car, may also contribute to any samples collected. This study investigates how much DNA resides on various sites within cars, and who might contribute to these samples. A total of 35-36 sites, internal and external, were targeted within four cars with sole long-term drivers. In addition to the car keys, sample sites included the exterior and interior door handles (driver and passenger sides), through to the internal compartments (driver side, middle area and front passengers' side). Reference samples were collected from the exclusive drivers, their co-resident partners and, where possible, recent passengers. The driver was always observed as a contributor in DNA profiles from the driver's side and, in most instances, was the sole, major or majority contributor to the profile. The driver was also observed as a major, majority or minor contributor at several sites on the passenger side. DNA of known recent passengers, close associates of the driver and unknown individuals was collected from many sites on both the driver and passenger sides. These findings may assist in sample targeting within cars and in the evaluation of DNA evidence when propositions relate to the activities performed.


Assuntos
Automóveis , Impressões Digitais de DNA , DNA/análise , Feminino , Genética Forense , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Manejo de Espécimes , Tato
9.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-01-28.
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51897

RESUMO

In January 2020, the etiologic agent responsible for a cluster of severe pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was identified as a novel beta-coronavirus (2019-nCoV), distinct than SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (1) (2) (3). The complete genomic sequence of this new agent is available and different detection protocols have been developed, although they have not been fully validated yet. However, in light of the possible introduction of a suspected case related to 2019-nCoV in the Region of the Americas, the Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization (PAHO / WHO) recommends that Member States ensure its timely identification either by the shipment of the samples to national or reference laboratories, or the implementation of the molecular detection protocol for 2019-nCoV, depending on the laboratory's capacity. To date, the pathogenic potential and transmission dynamics of 2019-nCoV is not fully understood. For this reason and in the light of the knowledge of other similar viruses (e.g., MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV), it is necessary to maintain and strengthen biosafety measures including personal protection procedures, to work with samples from suspected cases of respiratory pathogen infection.


Assuntos
Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Manejo de Espécimes , Coronavirus , Pneumonia , Pessoal de Laboratório
10.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-01-28.
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51896

RESUMO

En enero de 2020, el agente etiológico responsable de un grupo de casos de neumonía grave en Wuhan, China, fue identificado como un nuevo betacoronavirus (2019-nCoV), distinto del SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV (1) (2) (3). La secuencia genómica completa de este nuevo agente está disponible y se han desarrollado diferentes protocolos de detección, aunque aún no se han validado por completo. Sin embargo, a la luz de la posible introducción de un caso sospechoso relacionado con el 2019-nCoV en la Región de las Américas, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud / Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS / OMS) recomienda a los Estados Miembros garantizar su identificación oportuna, el envío de las muestras a laboratorios Nacionales o de referencia y la implementación del protocolo de detección molecular para 2019-nCoV, según la capacidad del laboratorio. Hasta la fecha, no es completamente claro el potencial patogénico ni la dinámica de transmisión del 2019-nCoV. Por esta razón y a la luz del conocimiento de otros virus similares (MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV), es necesario mantener y fortalecer las medidas de bioseguridad y elementos de protección personal para el trabajo con muestras sospechosas de infección con patógenos respiratorios.


Assuntos
Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Manejo de Espécimes , Coronavirus , Pneumonia , Pessoal de Laboratório
11.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(2): e4737, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950509

RESUMO

In this paper, we present the incurred sample reanalysis (ISR) data for cefuroxime in various ocular tissues of rabbits. Based on the cefuroxime concentration vs. time profile in various ocular tissues, three chosen time points enabled ISR assessment. Cefuroxime was quantitated in the ocular tissues using a published liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry method operated under the multiple reaction-monitoring mode in positive ion mode. Regardless of the ocular tissue, the linearity range was 12.7-2760 ng/ml with a correlation coefficient (r2 ) of ≥0.996. All of the ISR samples representing various ocular tissues met the acceptance criteria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the ISR of ocular tissues in any species.


Assuntos
Cefuroxima/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Olho/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Modelos Lineares , Coelhos , Manejo de Espécimes
12.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110063, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790891

RESUMO

Diagnosis of carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings has always been a challenging task due to the susceptibility to alterations of the optical state and degradation of blood samples during sampling, transport and storage, which highly affects the analysis with spectrophotometric methods. Methodological improvements are then required urgently because of increased reports of cases with discrepancies between results of the measured biomarker carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and reported symptoms. Total blood CO (TBCO) measured chromatographically was thus proposed in a previous study as alternative biomarker to COHb. This approach was investigated in this study by comparing the two biomarkers and assessing the effects of various storage parameters (temperature, preservative, time, tube headspace (HS) volume, initial saturation level, freeze- and thaw- and reopening-cycles) over a period of one month. Results show that while for TBCO, concentrations are relatively stable over the observation period regardless of parameters such as temperature, time and HS volume, for COHb, concentrations are altered significantly during storage. Therefore, the use of TBCO as alternative biomarker for CO poisonings has been proposed, since it provides more valid results and is more stable even under non-optimal storage conditions. Additionally, it can be used to predict COHb in cases where sample degradation hinders optical measurement. Furthermore, a correction formula for COHb and TBCO is provided to be used in laboratories or circumstances where optimal storage or analysis is not possible, to obtain more accurate results.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/diagnóstico , Monóxido de Carbono/sangue , Carboxihemoglobina/análise , Medicina Legal/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Gasosa , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Oximetria , Manejo de Espécimes , Espectrofotometria
13.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125040, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604200

RESUMO

To assess the level of uncertainty related to storage and physical preparation, 27 combined samples of moss species Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt and their duplicates were collected within three forest areas. Each sample was divided into three sub-samples subjected to further treatment: D - drying (20-25 °C), F - freezing (-20 °C), and A - acclimatization (4 °C). After 7 days, all the samples were split into two sub-samples for physical preparation, dry (P1) and wet (P2) cleaning, respectively. Subsequently, the samples were milled, digested in a closed microwave system and analysed for Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn using the flame (FAAS) and graphite furnace (GFAAS) atomic absorption spectrometry. In four out of eight metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni), the lowest mean values were in the samples stored at -20 °C, however, in two cases (Cd, Pb), the acclimatization procedure also led to lower concentrations. Except for Mn and Zn, the higher contents of elements were found in samples that were dry cleaned after storage. The level of sample storage uncertainty (srstor) varied from 4.8% to 24.0%. The uncertainty related to preparation was in the range of 3.0-21.0%. Only for Co, the contribution of srstor uncertainty to the budget of uncertainty was lower than that from physical preparation. For the other elements, this contribution was at a similar level (Ni, Zn) or higher (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb). In most cases, the lower srprep values were obtained when the samples were dry cleaned after storage, regardless of the storage conditions.


Assuntos
Briófitas/química , Florestas , Oligoelementos/análise , Incerteza , Bryopsida/química , Manejo de Espécimes , Espectrofotometria Atômica
14.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 183-188, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430392

RESUMO

2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) is a compound used in the early 1900s as a weight-loss drug but later prohibited due to its severe adverse effects, including death. It has however been attracting interest, due to its weight-loss properties, and appears to be re-emerging in forensic casework. As 2,4-DNP is available for use in industry and as a pesticide and easily accessible online, the dissemination of this drug can be fast. The compound exerts its effects through inhibition of ATP synthesis, and corresponding thermogenic energy loss which can be fatal. A method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of 2,4-DNP in blood and urine specimens using GC-MS with hydrogen as carrier gas is described. The method was validated and displayed acceptable performance parameters with linearity (R2 higher than 0.998), inter-assay imprecision (lower than 10.6%), intra-assay imprecision (lower than 10.7%), and extraction efficiency (92.1%). Stability of 2,4-DNP in blood and urine was studied, and the drug was stable up to 30 days refrigeration or frozen. Six cases in United States suspected to be related to 2,4-DNP were analyzed. Three cases were found to be positive for 2,4-DNP. Concentrations of 2,4-DNP were in the range of 61.6-220 mg/L in urine and <3-114 mg/L in blood. Based on our findings, we suggest that medical examiners and forensic toxicologists be aware of the reappearance of 2,4-DNP, including this compound as a target in death investigations related to weight-loss drugs.


Assuntos
2,4-Dinitrofenol/sangue , 2,4-Dinitrofenol/urina , Fármacos Antiobesidade/sangue , Fármacos Antiobesidade/urina , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , 2,4-Dinitrofenol/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/efeitos adversos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Feminino , Toxicologia Forense , Humanos , Masculino , Manejo de Espécimes , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 209-213, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433497

RESUMO

When using non-FTA cards in commercial multiplex STR kits for direct PCR, pretreatment steps with specific buffers are recommended. Here, we designed a rapid direct PCR method utilizing a non-FTA card, Oral Cell Sampling Kit, by omitting the pretreatment step involving Prep-n-Go™ Buffer, and it showed compatibility with the GlobalFiler™ Express PCR Amplification Kit, GlobalFiler™ PCR Amplification Kit, and PowerPlex® Fusion system. To optimize the PCR conditions, we tested the method with different final PCR volumes and cycles. Finally, we conducted a performance test using 50 Korean buccal samples and confirmed the high performance of the method, detecting more than 90% of the samples with full profiles when using GlobalFiler™ PCR Amplification Kit and PowerPlex® Fusion system at 29 cycles in a 10 µL final PCR volume. Thus, we report a simple direct PCR set-up to analyze reference samples collected using a non-FTA card manufactured in Korea.


Assuntos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Manejo de Espécimes/instrumentação , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Mucosa Bucal/química , República da Coreia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
16.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 84-89, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454431

RESUMO

Impressions of friction ridges left on a surface are important evidence for identifying an individual and can be used to confirm his or her presence at the scene of an incident. Factors influencing the durability of fingerprints include the physiological characteristics and cleanliness of the individual, environmental factors, and time. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of atmospheric factors, gender, hand cleanliness and time on the width of friction ridge impressions and the amount of material forming the print. The research shows that factors such as gender, ambient conditions, and hand cleanliness affect the width of the ridge impressions and the quantity of material forming the print. The passage of time significantly reduces both the width of the ridge impressions and the quantity of the material forming the print.


Assuntos
Dermatoglifia , Higiene das Mãos , Manejo de Espécimes , Adulto , Escuridão , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Luz , Masculino , Microscopia , Fatores Sexuais , Creme para a Pele , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110049, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785509

RESUMO

Crime-scenes are the heart of any investigation in terms of recovery of key forensic evidence - fingermarks and DNA. Yet, quite often, the operational work of the forensic units, in which different chemicals and reagents for fingermarks development are applied, can also be highly destructive to the property and the environment. Hence, for both ecological and intelligence purposes, an operational method that minimizes that damage would be ideal. In this study, an "out-of-the-box" approach is proposed; rather than working at the crime scene itself, gel-lifters were used as a transferring tool for the latent forensic evidence, fingermarks and DNA, to be developed by applying black wet-powder (Wetwop®) in a controlled laboratory environment, leaving the crime-scene undisturbed. The results show a promising potential, as this indirect method proved to be robust and successful for non-porous surfaces, and even for aged fingermarks. In addition, this study gave a new perspective into the accepted notion regarding the difference between male and female donors, showing a direct correlation of the size and weight of the hands to the natural pressure applied by the donor. Moreover, the indirect nature of the method highlights the importance of the interaction between the type of surface and the latent fingermark constituents, primarily water, and its effect on the survivability and quality of the developed fingermark. Due to the growing demand of keeping crime scenes and exhibits unharmed by both police and intelligence forces, the new approach of this application provides a valuable asset for future operational field-work.


Assuntos
Dermatoglifia , Manejo de Espécimes/instrumentação , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Adulto , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Propriedades de Superfície , Tato
18.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110055, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785512

RESUMO

Body fluid analysis has played a crucial role in ascertaining various characteristics and has greatly aided in reconstructing events during crime scene investigation. It is often presumed that crimes that involve violence and mental disturbances such as murder or sexual assault provide good sources of body fluids such as blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, urine and tears. Tears are secreted in response to any emotional or stressful situations and may be found deposited on surfaces such as bedding, tissue paper or cloth. In the absence of the commonly noted body fluids such as blood or saliva, tears can play an important role that can lead to personal identification by examining the biochemistry and molecular aspects to obtain a full DNA profile. Additionally, identification of an individual may be done by carefully observing certain unique eye characteristics such as heterochromia which is highly individualistic. Characteristics of eyewear such as spectacles and contact lenses have unique properties and prescription criteria for correcting an individual's eyesight that can provide vital clues in understanding the visual ability of an individual. In crime scene investigation, the presence or absence of eyewear provides immense evidentiary value that has greatly aided in solving cases such as Janet Abaroa's Murder. This paper provides a systematic review of the possibility of using tears and eyewear for the purpose of forensic investigation and to statistically support the inferences with prescription databases which may be initiated across different populations. Forensic Optometry is yet to get streamlined along with the routinely followed investigative techniques and scientifically explored although no standard protocols exist to analyse eyewear. The use of behavioural optometry is gaining attention in the context of driving laws of different countries and is a simple but powerful indicator of abnormal behaviour. It is speculated that the last seen image referred to as an 'Optogram' of an individual may be captured in the retina since our eyes functions like a camera. Although this claim is considerably unexplored, it is quite possible that the last seen image of a criminal, objects or a place may be noted that can positively help in linking individuals at the scene of crime or identify the primary crime location. In this review, the potential for new insights into the analysis of tears, eye and eyewear characteristics have been explored.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato , Impressões Digitais de DNA , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Óculos , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Lágrimas/química , Bases de Dados Factuais , Epitélio Anterior/química , Olho/patologia , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Prescrições , Manejo de Espécimes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Corpo Vítreo/química
19.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110057, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health professionals who work in emergency services must be prepared for the recognition, collection, storage, preservation and documentation of all physical traces related to injuries or crime, because failures in these processes may compromise any forensic analysis. We, therefore, investigated emergency health professionals' levels of knowledge about these processes and their abilities to implement them in practice during the care of victims of violence in an emergency unit of a specialized trauma hospital. METHODS: This was a survey to describe the knowledge of professionals working in the emergency department of the Sergipe Urgent Care Hospital (HUSE) in Sergipe state, Northeast Brazil about the preservation of forensic traces and their ability to implement the necessary related processes in practice. Their knowledge of the preservation of forensic materials and their abilities to implement the processes related to their preservation were assessed using the Portuguese version of the Questionnaire on the Preservation of Forensic Traces in Victim Assistance. RESULTS: A total of 144 health professionals completed the questionnaire, of whom 23 (16 %) were physicians, 33 (22.9 %) nurses and 88 (61.1 %) nursing technicians. Most physicians (15/65.2 %) reported knowing between 50 and 70 % of the required procedures, and the majority of nurses and nursing technicians knew less than 50 % (15/45.5 % and 72/81.8 %, respectively). Regarding their actual implementation, most physicians and nurses reported performing between 50 % and 70 % of the procedures (22/95.7 % and 15/45.5 %, respectively), while nursing technicians reported performing less than 50 % (55/62.5 %). CONCLUSION: Most professionals in the three professions (physician, nurse and nursing technician) knew less than 50 % of the required procedures for the documentation, collection and preservation of forensic traces, which explains the low implementation of most of the actions, particularly those related to the collection and preservation of traces.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Documentação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Manejo de Espécimes , Adulto , Brasil , Vítimas de Crime , Feminino , Ciências Forenses , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Crit Rev Anal Chem ; 50(1): 50-61, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767558

RESUMO

Determination of intracellular concentration becomes essential for the drugs having target receptors or bioactivation site inside the cells. Majority of the antiviral drugs are nucleoside analogs and their intracellular phosphorylated metabolites are active. The anticancer drugs of the cellular enzyme and nucleoside analog category are also required to be undergone intracellular drug level analysis. In this review, we have sequentially described the cell isolation protocols, cell lysis techniques and sample preparation approach to be followed for quantification of intracellular levels of selected antiviral and anticancer drugs. Major limitations for intracellular analyte quantification and their possible way out has been discussed. Currently, no literature is available summarizing these important aspects including bioanalysis of intracellular quantification of either antiviral or anticancer drugs. This review, thus, can be considered to be first of its kind and will be highly useful in providing guidance for intracellular drug analysis aiming determination of the site-specific bioavailability.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/análise , Antivirais/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Separação Celular , Fracionamento Químico , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA