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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 619, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885322

RESUMO

The present state of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) concentration in groundwater of Changchun city located within the Songnen Plain of northeastern China was evaluated in this study. Heavy metal sources, as well as triggering mechanism, were analyzed using a physicochemical, statistical and spatial approach. Results revealed that out of the 2600 samples analyzed, 214 (representing 8.24%) for Fe and 606 wells (representing 23.34%) for Mn exceeded the water standard. Organic matter-rich sediments and Fe-Mn nodules in aquifer and soil serve as sources of Fe and Mn. Organic and inorganic complex formations, as well as long residence time, were found to foster the release of Fe and Mn into groundwater. Additionally, pH and well depth was important in triggering Mn dissolution while groundwater mineralization, depth to the water table and well proximity to the river were found to have minimal/negligible effect on heavy metal mobilization. The removal of Fe and Mn from the water before use was proposed along with the sinking of deeper wells for groundwater exploitation to limit the use of polluted water.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ferro/análise , Manganês/análise
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 96: 186-193, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819693

RESUMO

A new calcium-modified and starch-stabilized ferromanganese binary oxide (Ca-SFMBO) sorbent was fabricated with different Ca concentrations for the adsorption of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in water. The maximum As(III) and Cd(II) adsorption capacities of 1% Ca-SFMBO were 156.25 mg/g and 107.53 mg/g respectively in single-adsorption systems. The adsorption of As and Cd by the Ca-SFMBO sorbent was pH-dependent at values from 1 to 7, with an optimal adsorption pH of 6. In the dual-adsorbate system, the presence of Cd(II) at low concentrations enhanced As(III) adsorption by 33.3%, while the adsorption of As(III) was inhibited with the increase of Cd(II) concentration. Moreover, the addition of As(III) increased the adsorption capacity for Cd(II) up to two-fold. Through analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), it was inferred that the mechanism for the co-adsorption of Cd(II) and As(III) included both competitive and synergistic effects, which resulted from the formation of ternary complexes. The results indicate that the Ca-SFMBO material developed here could be used for the simultaneous removal of As(III) and Cd(II) from contaminated water.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Cádmio , Cálcio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ferro , Cinética , Manganês , Óxidos , Amido , Água
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110904, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800239

RESUMO

Cation diffusion facilitators (CDFs) play central roles in metal homeostasis and tolerance in plants, but the specific functions of Camellia sinensis CDF-encoding genes and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Previously, transcriptome sequencing results in our lab indicated that the expression of CsMTP8.2 in tea plant shoots was down-regulated exposed to excessive amount of Mn2+ conditions. To elucidate the possible mechanisms involved, we systematically identified 13 C. sinensis CsMTP genes from three subfamilies and characterized their phylogeny, structures, and the features of the encoded proteins. The transcription of CsMTP genes was differentially regulated in C. sinensis shoots and roots in responses to high concentrations of Mn, Zn, Fe, and Al. Differences in the cis-acting regulatory elements in the CsMTP8.1 and CsMTP8.2 promoters suggested the expression of these two genes may be differentially regulated. Transient expression analysis indicated that CsMTP8.2 was localized to the plasma membrane in tobacco and onion epidermal cells. Moreover, when heterologously expressed in yeast, CsMTP8.2 conferred tolerance to Ni and Mn but not to Zn. Additionally, heterologous expression of CsMTP8.2 in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that CsMTP8.2 positively regulated the response to manganese toxicity by decreasing the accumulation of Mn in plants. However, there was no difference in the accumulation of other metals, including Cu, Fe, and Zn. These results suggest that CsMTP8.2 is a Mn-specific transporter that contributes to the efflux of excess Mn2+ from plant cells.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Manganês/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Manganês/metabolismo , Filogenia , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Chá
4.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 2): 115073, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629411

RESUMO

Chromium (Cr) is a toxic element among which hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is more toxic than trivalent chromium [Cr(III)]. Chromium can be reduced or oxidized in soil because soil is a complex medium and various soil components affect redox reaction of Cr in soil. Therefore, Cr speciation in hydroponics and soil was compared and Cr uptake and speciation by lettuce grown in the media were evaluated. Higher phytotoxicity was found in Cr(III) spiked soil than in Cr(VI) spiked soil, while Cr toxicity was higher in Cr(VI) treated hydroponics than Cr(III) treated hydroponics. Chromium was mainly accumulated in lettuce roots as Cr(III), and more Cr was translocated from roots to shoots grown in Cr(VI) treated hydroponics than Cr(III) treated hydroponics. Accumulation of Cr in roots grown in Cr(III) treated nutrient solution reduced Fe, K, Ca, Mg, and P uptake in lettuce. Chromium valence state was Cr(III) in lettuce leaves and roots grown in both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) treated hydroponics and soil. Chromium speciation in hydroponically grown lettuce roots was Cr(III) coordinated with 6 oxygens in the first shell and 2 or 4 carbons in the second shell as analyzed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), which was similar to chromium acetate. The valence state of Cr in Cr(III) and Cr(VI) treated nutrient solution was not changed, while Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) in Cr(VI) spiked soil by soil organic matter. Spiking of Cr(III) induced reduction of Mn in soil, which resulted in an increase of bioavailable Mn concentration in the Cr(III) spiked soil. Therefore, the increased phytotoxic effect for lettuce in Cr(III) spiked soil can be attributed to the reduction of Mn and subsequent release of Mn(II). For Cr(III) contaminated soil, Mn speciation should be considered, and bioavailable Mn concentration should be monitored although Cr existed as Cr(III) in soil.


Assuntos
Alface , Poluentes do Solo , Cromo/análise , Hidroponia , Manganês , Oxirredução , Solo
5.
Nature ; 583(7816): 453-458, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669693

RESUMO

Manganese is one of the most abundant elements on Earth. The oxidation of manganese has long been theorized1-yet has not been demonstrated2-4-to fuel the growth of chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms. Here we refine an enrichment culture that exhibits exponential growth dependent on Mn(II) oxidation to a co-culture of two microbial species. Oxidation required viable bacteria at permissive temperatures, which resulted in the generation of small nodules of manganese oxide with which the cells associated. The majority member of the culture-which we designate 'Candidatus Manganitrophus noduliformans'-is affiliated to the phylum Nitrospirae (also known as Nitrospirota), but is distantly related to known species of Nitrospira and Leptospirillum. We isolated the minority member, a betaproteobacterium that does not oxidize Mn(II) alone, and designate it Ramlibacter lithotrophicus. Stable-isotope probing revealed 13CO2 fixation into cellular biomass that was dependent upon Mn(II) oxidation. Transcriptomic analysis revealed candidate pathways for coupling extracellular manganese oxidation to aerobic energy conservation and autotrophic CO2 fixation. These findings expand the known diversity of inorganic metabolisms that support life, and complete a biogeochemical energy cycle for manganese5,6 that may interface with other major global elemental cycles.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Crescimento Quimioautotrófico , Manganês/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Isótopos , Manganês/química , Compostos de Manganês/química , Compostos de Manganês/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Óxidos/química , Óxidos/metabolismo , Filogenia
6.
Water Res ; 182: 116003, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721701

RESUMO

The development of low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the hypolimnion of drinking water reservoirs during thermal stratification can lead to the reduction of oxidized, insoluble iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in sediments to soluble forms, which are then released into the water column. As metals degrade drinking water quality, robust measurements of metal fluxes under changing oxygen conditions are critical for optimizing water treatment. In this study, we conducted benthic flux chamber experiments in summer 2018 to directly quantify Fe and Mn fluxes at the sediment-water interface under different DO and redox conditions of a eutrophic drinking water reservoir with an oxygenation system (Falling Creek Reservoir, Vinton, VA, USA). Throughout the experiments, we monitored DO, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), water temperature, and pH in the chambers and compared the metal fluxes in the chambers with time-series of fluxes calculated using a hypolimnetic mass balance method. Our results showed that metal fluxes were highly variable during the monitoring period and were sensitive to redox conditions in the water column at the sediment-water interface. The time-series changes in fluxes and relationship to redox conditions are suggestive of "hot moments", short time periods of intense biogeochemical cycling. Although the metal concentrations and fluxes are specific to this site, the approaches for examining relationships between metals, oxygen concentrations and overall redox conditions can be applied by water utilities to improve water quality management of Fe and Mn.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Ferro/análise , Manganês/análise
7.
Waste Manag ; 114: 253-262, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682090

RESUMO

Recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has drawn considerable attention in recent years, as an economic solution to the resource shortage. Selective ammonia leaching is recognized as an economical and environment-friendly method, yet it is difficult to separate and reuse the valuable metals from the leachate. In this study, we proposed an NH3-(NH4)2CO3-Na2SO3 leaching system to selectively recover the valuable metals from commercial LiNixCoyMn1-x-yO2 (NCM) and spent NCM. For single-stage leaching, 79.1% of the lithium, 86.4% of the cobalt, and 85.3% of the nickel were selectively leached under optimal conditions, and a mere 1.45% of the manganese was dissolved in the solution. The leaching process in the NH3-(NH4)2CO3-Na2SO3 system was consistent with the surface chemical reaction control model. For multistage leaching, almost all metals (98.4% of the lithium, 99.4% of the cobalt, 97.3% of the nickel) could be leached and a high-purity (>99%) MnCO3 product was simultaneously obtained. The introduction of CO32- not only led to the production of MnCO3 with wide application prospects, but also greatly reduced the consumption of the reducing agent. This study is thus beneficial for recycling of the valuable metals and synthesis of the MnCO3 product from the spent LIBs.


Assuntos
Lítio , Manganês , Amônia , Carbonatos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Metais , Reciclagem
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e20840, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629669

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is reported to be common among Saudi women. Several minerals appear to be important determinants of insulin-like growth factor (IGF), the bioactivity of which regulates bone and mineral metabolism. Here we proposed that mineral status may alter the IGF system among individuals with osteoporosis. This study aims to evaluate the relationships between essential elements and IGF levels among postmenopausal Saudi women with osteoporosis. A total of 128 postmenopausal Saudi women aged ≥50 years old were recruited in this study. Diagnosis of osteoporosis was done by using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to determine the bone minerals density (BMD). Serum calcium and phosphate were determined using routine chemical analyzer. Serum Co, Mn, Ni, Cd were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serum IGF-1 and IGF-2 were determined using Luminex xMAP. Using stepwise linear regression analysis, only Cd was identified to be significantly associated with IGF1 in osteoporosis, explaining 3% (confidence interval 0.01-0.05; P = 0001) of the variance perceived. Our results suggest that Cd exposure indirectly affects BMD which may increase the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Further longitudinal study using a larger sample size is recommended to determine causality of Cd levels and IGF-1.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/análise , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Minerais/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Densidade Óssea , Cádmio/sangue , Cálcio/sangue , Cobalto/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Manganês/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Níquel/sangue , Fosfatos/sangue , Arábia Saudita
9.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127424, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599383

RESUMO

Efficiency of Mn passive treatment from mine drainage (MD) is limited, in the presence of Fe, because of the wide stability field of dissolved Mn(II) species. Physicochemical and mineralogical characterization, as well as static leaching tests at pH 7 (CTEU-9) of four samples were performed to assess Mn immobilization processes from MD and post-treatment stability of residues. Samples consisted of half-calcined dolomite, from three column reactors that treated Mn in MD. The first residue originated from real acid mine drainage treatment (R-AMD; pH 2.4; 623 mg/L Fe; 22 mg/L Mn), the second from real contaminated neutral drainage (R-CND; pH 6.7; 0.6 mg/L Mn) and the third from synthetic CND (S-CND; pH 6.8; 47 mg/L Mn). A sample of calcite (CAL) was also collected in a field oxic limestone drain that treats AMD (pH 4.1; 10.2 mg/L Fe; 12.4 mg/L Mn) on a closed mine site. Mineralogical analyses showed Mn immobilization in the form of MnOx. In R-AMD residues, Fe and Al concentrations almost doubled relative to half calcined dolomite before MD treatment, while Mn removal was inefficient. In S-CND residues, high concentrations of Mn were immobilized (>6.6 g/kg). The mineralogy of R-AMD residues showed that Fe precipitates coated the dolomite, in the form of Fe-(oxy)hydroxysulfates. Half-calcined dolomite is effective for Mn removal in S-CND, but Fe inhibits Mn treatment in AMD. Metal(loid)s in eluates were below the threshold limits, but the pH of R-CND (11.1) and S-CND (10.5) residues no longer met the discharge criteria (pH 6.0 to 9.5).


Assuntos
Manganês/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Carbonato de Cálcio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Magnésio , Manganês/análise , Mineração , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Magy Onkol ; 64(2): 104-111, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520003

RESUMO

"PET based" molecular imaging has significant role in personalized medicine. New radiopharmaceuticals are continuously introduced into the daily practice of detecting diseases and assessing the effectiveness of therapy. In recent years theragnostic applications have come to the forefront of radiopharmaceutical development. This article discusses, among others, radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 18F and 68Ga isotopes required for the diagnosis of neuroendocrine and prostate tumours, furthermore the inhibitors of the fibroblast activation protein. The increasing variety of metallic radioisotopes (44Sc, 64Cu, 52Mn, 86Y, 89Zr) will help meet the need for new biomarkers and will greatly facilitate the introduction of the new generation of PET radiopharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Radioisótopos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Radioisótopos de Cobre , Humanos , Masculino , Manganês , Escândio , Zircônio
11.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 20-26, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569801

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to summarise the available information regarding the partition of toxic metal (Cd, Hg, Mn, Pb) levels in the maternal/foetal unit from large epidemiological studies. We performed a systematic search of PubMed/MedLine, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science for papers on Cd, total Hg, Mn or Pb levels in the maternal/cord blood that were published in English (n > = 200; 2010-2017). Data on year of publication, sample size, location, year of survey, and main results were extracted. We found a total of 35 papers. Most studies included large convenience samples of healthy pregnant women. The maternal/cord blood was properly used as a biomarker of prenatal exposure to toxic metals. The partition of these toxic metal levels in the maternal/foetal unit was metal-specific. Cd median levels (IQR) in cord blood reported worldwide were much lower [∼ 70 % < LOD = ± 0.11 µg/L] than those found in maternal blood [0.23 µg/L (0.15-0.35), ∼ 65 % > LOD]. Considering that Cd was under LOD in 70 % of the cord blood, Cd cord:maternal ratio as well as Cd cord proportion were not provided. Total Hg median levels (IQR) in cord blood [0.75 µg/L (0.40-1.19), ∼30 % < LOD = ±0.35 µg/L] were usually higher than in maternal blood [0.55 µg/L (0.40-0.85), ∼ 10 % < LOD = ±0.15 µg/L]. Hg cord:maternal ratio was 1.34 (1.00-1.91), and infants born would have Hg cord:(cord + maternal) proportion ranged from 0.50 to 0.63. Mn was the only metal that was detected in 100 % in both maternal (LOD : ±0.50 µg/L) and cord (LOD = ±0.2 µg/L) blood. Mn median levels (IQR) in cord blood [32.96 µg/L (26.90-40.10)] were 2 times higher than in maternal blood [14.01 µg/L (11.50-17.58)]. Mn cord:maternal ratio was 2.35 (1.09-3.80), and infants born would have Mn proportion ranged from 0.52 to 0.79. Pb median levels (IQR) in cord blood [5.79 µg/L (4.34-8.38), ∼ 5% < LOD : ±2.07 µg/L] were usually equal to or lower than those reported in maternal blood [8.07 µg/L (5.79-10.76), ∼ 1% < LOD = ±1.03 µg/L]. Pb cord:maternal ratio was 0.71 (0.59-0.96), and infants born would have Pb proportion ranged from 0.37 to 0.49. Globally, the results indicate that total Hg and Mn levels were lower in maternal blood but higher in cord blood. However, much greater variability was seen with Cd and Pb. At delivery, total Hg and Pb levels in maternal blood were strong predictors of cord blood levels. Our findings empty that understanding the partition, levels and correlations of toxic metals in the maternal/cord blood may help to elucidate the adverse effects of these metals on foetuses and neonates.


Assuntos
Estudos Epidemiológicos , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/epidemiologia , Troca Materno-Fetal , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Adulto , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Chumbo/toxicidade , Manganês/farmacocinética , Manganês/toxicidade , Mercúrio/farmacocinética , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Gravidez
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110712, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502905

RESUMO

Exposure to manganese (Mn) can cause male reproductive damage and lead to abnormal secretion of sex hormones. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in the neuromodulation of vertebrate reproduction. Astrocytes can indirectly regulate the secretion of GnRH by binding paracrine prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) specifically to the EP1 and EP2 receptors on GnRH neurons. Prior studies assessed the abnormal secretion of GnRH caused by Mn exposure, but the specific mechanism has not been reported in detail. This study investigated the effects of Mn exposure on the reproductive system of male mice to clarify the role of PGE2 in the abnormal secretion of GnRH in the hypothalamus caused by exposure to Mn. Our data demonstrate that antagonizing the EP1 and EP2 receptors of PGE2 can restore abnormal levels of GnRH caused by Mn exposure. Mn exposure causes reduced sperm count and sperm shape deformities. These findings suggest that EP1 and EP2, the receptors of PGE2, may be the key to abnormal GnRH secretion caused by Mn exposure. Antagonizing the PGE2 receptors may reduce reproductive damage caused by Mn exposure.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Manganês/toxicidade , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP1/metabolismo , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP2/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , Manganês/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP2/antagonistas & inibidores
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(25): 31233-31242, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483719

RESUMO

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with heavy metal exposure during adolescent development. However, the direct clinical evidence is limited. To investigate the possible association between environmental heavy metal exposure and ADHD, a case-control study was conducted with children aged 6-14 years in Guangzhou, China. Results showed that median concentrations of chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), tin (Sn), barium (Ba), and lead (Pb) in the urine of the case group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Children with ADHD had significantly higher levels of 8-OHdG and MDA compared with those from the control group. In addition, correlations between urinary Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, and Sn were significantly correlated with 8-OHdG and MDA concentrations in urine. After the case and control groups were combined together and the first quartile was used as the reference category, odds ratios (ORs) of ADHD for children increased significantly with the quartile increasing of urinary Co, Cu, and Sn. Our study provides a clinical evidence that Co, Cu, and Sn exposure, particularly Sn exposure, may be an environmental risk of the incurrence of ADHD for children. Furthermore, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, and Sn exposures were significantly correlated with DNA and lipid damage.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Metais Pesados/análise , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Manganês
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(29): 36688-36703, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564317

RESUMO

Nanocomposites containing mixed metal oxides show excellent phosphate removal results and are better compared to individual metal oxides. In this research, cerium/manganese oxide nanocomposites, embedded on the surface of modified cellulose pine wood shaving, were synthesized by a simple technique that is both eco-friendly and economically feasible. No toxic or petroleum chemicals were employed during preparation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface area analysis, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy were performed to study the shape and size of nanocomposites as well as composition of elements present on the surface of the nanocomposites. Adsorption isotherm (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich) and kinetic studies (pseudo first and second-order, Elovich and Weber-Morris) were carried out to determine the adsorption mechanism for phosphate removal from contaminated water. The maximum adsorption capacity of nanocomposites was found to be 204.09 mg/g, 174.42 mg/g, and 249.33 mg/g for 100 mg, 300 mg, and 500 mg, respectively. The results indicate that the nanocomposites were able to decrease the phosphorus concentration from 10 to 0.01 ppm, below the threshold limit required by EPA guidelines in the USA. We also demonstrated that the media could be regenerated and reused five times without loss of performance.


Assuntos
Cério , Nanocompostos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Manganês , Compostos de Manganês , Óxidos , Fosfatos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Águas Residuárias
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234136, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520947

RESUMO

Groundwater treatment sludge is a Fe/Mn-bearing waste that is mass produced in groundwater treatment plant. In this study, sludge was converted to a magnetic adsorbent (MA) by adding ascorbate. The sludge was weakly magnetised in the amorphous form with Fe and Mn contents of 28.8% and 8.1%, respectively. After hydrothermal treatment, Fe/Mn oxides in the sludge was recrystallised to siderite and rhodochrosite, with jacobsite as the intermediate in the presence of ascorbate. With an increment in ascorbate dosage, the obtained magnetic adsorbent had a significant increase in chromate adsorption but a decrease in magnetisation. When the Mascorbate/MFe molar ratio was 10, the produced MA-10 was a dumbbell-shaped nanorod with a length of 2-5 µm and a diameter of 0.5-1 µm. This MA-10 showed 183.2 mg/g of chromate adsorption capacity and 2.81 emu/g of magnetisation. The mechanism of chromate adsorption was surface coprecipitation of the generated Cr3+ and Fe3+/Mn4+ from redox reaction between chromate and siderite/rhodochrosite on MA-10, separately. This study demonstrated an efficient recycling route of waste sludge from groundwater treatment to produce MA for treating chromate-bearing wastewater.


Assuntos
Cromatos/química , Magnetismo , Nanotubos/química , Esgotos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Carbonatos/química , Compostos Férricos/química , Ferro/química , Cinética , Manganês/química , Oxirredução , Óxidos/química
16.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127398, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593818

RESUMO

Arsenic endosmosis causes a severe threat to human health within the developing countries. This study assessed the levels of geogenic arsenic and other heavy metals affecting the release of As in the aquifers within the drinking water sources in Bhojpur district of Bihar, India. Eighteen water samples were collected in triplicates from hand-dug wells in six neighboring villages in proximity to the River Ganga namely Bakhorapur, Gaziapur, Parasrampur (or Kanhachhapara), Saraiya, Paiga and Gundiinin. The physicochemical parameters, ionic content and heavy metal analysis of the collected water samples indicated the region to be highly contaminated with arsenic, zinc, manganese and iron. The arsenic and iron concentration ranged between 24.3 and 168.07 µg/L and 0.17-1.16 mg/L respectively, indicating the excessive withdrawal of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes with a significant correlation between both the metals. Elevated concentration of zinc in the region attributed to the excessive application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Concentration of manganese was also in the higher range of 0.05-1.15 mg/L, primarily due to the urbanized industrial activities. Human health risk assessment within two population groups in the region indicated that the overall water quality is slightly contaminated but the risk associated with it is low. Water Quality Index ranged from 29 to 48, signifying the water quality to be poor. Residual sodium carbonate values indicated that few water sample sources are not suitable for irrigation purposes whereas, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values were within the acceptable limits to be used for irrigation.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Arsênico/análise , Água Potável/química , Humanos , Índia , Ferro/análise , Manganês/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Qualidade da Água , Poços de Água
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(26): 32695-32706, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514924

RESUMO

We investigated the growth and physiological responses of the submerged aquatic plant species Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara to 80 mg L-1 manganese (Mn) with different doses of ascorbic acid (AsA 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 mg L-1) after 21 days of treatment. Mn stress significantly reduced the final leaf number and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities of V. natans, while increased the malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and proline contents, and peroxidase (POD) activity, with no significant differences in plant relative growth rate (RGR) and photosynthetic pigment contents. With increasing doses of AsA supplementation (≤ 50 mg L-1), the MDA content gradually decreased, while the proline, soluble protein, and photosynthetic pigment contents, antioxidase (except POD) activities, and RGR of V. natans increased. AsA levels ≥ 100 mg L-1 exacerbated Mn toxicity in V. natans by significantly reducing the antioxidase activities and photosynthetic pigment contents and even triggering plant lethal effects. These results suggest that the Mn stress induced in this investigation could bring about oxidative stress and influence the growth of V. natans. Moreover, the optimal AsA dose that can alleviate Mn-induced oxidative stress was 41.37-50.25 mg L-1 according to the regression analysis based on plant growth and enzymatic responses.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico , Hydrocharitaceae , Animais , Catalase , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Malondialdeído , Manganês , Estresse Oxidativo , Folhas de Planta , Superóxido Dismutase
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2738, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483131

RESUMO

Almost half of all enzymes utilize a metal cofactor. However, the features that dictate the metal utilized by metalloenzymes are poorly understood, limiting our ability to manipulate these enzymes for industrial and health-associated applications. The ubiquitous iron/manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD) family exemplifies this deficit, as the specific metal used by any family member cannot be predicted. Biochemical, structural and paramagnetic analysis of two evolutionarily related SODs with different metal specificity produced by the pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus identifies two positions that control metal specificity. These residues make no direct contacts with the metal-coordinating ligands but control the metal's redox properties, demonstrating that subtle architectural changes can dramatically alter metal utilization. Introducing these mutations into S. aureus alters the ability of the bacterium to resist superoxide stress when metal starved by the host, revealing that small changes in metal-dependent activity can drive the evolution of metalloenzymes with new cofactor specificity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Metaloproteínas/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Domínio Catalítico , Evolução Molecular , Ferro/química , Isoenzimas/classificação , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Manganês/química , Metaloproteínas/química , Metaloproteínas/genética , Mutação , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/química , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxidos/metabolismo
19.
Waste Manag ; 113: 342-350, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580102

RESUMO

This review paper aims to present and analyse data from the most recent literature (between 2007 and 2019) published on the topic of manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) recovery from zinc-based spent batteries through hydrometallurgical methods. In a first attempt, a detailed comparative assessment of the metals leaching performance (as well as the experimental variables that influence its performance) reported in the various studies with strong acid or bases, potentially supplemented by complexing or reducing agents, as well as the reactions involved, are reviewed and discussed. All data point out that the use of a reductant is needed to fully solubilize Mn from spent batteries during the leaching process. Comparison of the data seem to indicate that most reductants have similar performance and, therefore, the choice of a reductant should be focused on low cost or even waste materials. In a second attempt, the separative processes mostly described in the literature to recover Mn and Zn from leachates are reviewed emphasizing the strengths and weaknesses of each technique. Solvent extraction is the most widely tested process for this aim. A thorough comparison of existing data indicates that, in general, neutral extractants have higher potential for selective separation of Zn and Mn. Furthermore, although chemical precipitation is a simple process, low pure final metal hydroxide products are expected to be achieved when alkaline precipitation is implemented comparatively to the Mn oxidative precipitation where Mn can be recovered selectively as a solid of manganese (IV) oxide.


Assuntos
Manganês , Zinco , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Metais , Reciclagem
20.
Toxicology ; 441: 152504, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445656

RESUMO

Manganese (Mn) is essential for animal development and homeostasis. However, anthropogenic activities increase the concentration of Mn in the environment and lead to increased risk of exposure to high doses of the metal. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of high doses of Mn on the male reproductive system of swiss mice. The 22-day old mice were randomly sorted into four groups and exposed to 0 (control), 15, 30 and 60 mg of MnCl2/kg/day, via daily gavages for 45 days. After the exposure, the mice were euthanized and sperm, hormonal and oxidative stress endpoints were evaluated in the testis, seminal vesicle and hypothalamus. Exposure to Mn promoted weight reduction of androgen-dependent organs, as well as alteration of the levels of fecal androgenic metabolites. Sperm parameters were drastically affected in all treated groups and the antioxidants tested (catalase and glutathione-disulfide reductase activities, and non-protein thiols content) decreased in the testis. However, only a few endpoints were altered in the seminal vesicle. For the hypothalamus, there was a reduction in acetylcholinesterase activity, suggesting a neurotoxic potential of Mn. In conclusion, Mn may affect the hypothalamic-gonadal axis by impairing the development of androgen-dependent organs, testicular redox status and Leydig cell maturation.


Assuntos
Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Manganês/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Androgênios/análise , Animais , Fezes/química , Genitália Masculina/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue
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