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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111010, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888587

RESUMO

Manganese (Mn) toxicity is common in plants grown on very acid soils. However, some plants species that grow in this condition can take up high amounts of Mn and are referred to as hyperaccumulating species. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of Ilex paraguariensis to accumulate Mn and the effect of excessive concentrations on plant growth and nutrition. For this, a container experiment was conducted using soils from different parent materials (basalt and sandstone), with and without liming, and at six doses of applied Mn (0, 30, 90, 270, 540 and 1,080 mg kg-1). Clonal plants grown for 203 days were harvested to evaluate yield, and leaf tissue samples were evaluated for Mn and other elements. Without liming and with high Mn doses, leaf Mn concentrations reached 13,452 and 12,127 mg kg-1 in sandstone and basalt soils, respectively; concentrations in excess of 10,000 mg kg-1 are characteristic of hyperaccumulating plants. Liming reduced these values to 7203 and 8030 mg kg-1. More plant growth accompanied increased Mn leaf concentrations, with a growth reduction noted at the highest dose in unlimed soils. Elemental distribution showed Mn presence in the mesophyll, primarily in vascular bundles, without high Mn precipitates. Interveinal chlorosis of young leaves associated with high Mn concentration and lower Fe concentrations was observed, especially in sandstone soil without liming. However, the occurrence of this symptom was not associated with decreased plant growth.


Assuntos
Ácidos/farmacologia , Ilex paraguariensis/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/induzido quimicamente , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Ácidos/análise , Compostos de Cálcio/análise , Compostos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Ilex paraguariensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilex paraguariensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ferro/metabolismo , Manganês/análise , Manganês/toxicidade , Óxidos/análise , Óxidos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110904, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800239

RESUMO

Cation diffusion facilitators (CDFs) play central roles in metal homeostasis and tolerance in plants, but the specific functions of Camellia sinensis CDF-encoding genes and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Previously, transcriptome sequencing results in our lab indicated that the expression of CsMTP8.2 in tea plant shoots was down-regulated exposed to excessive amount of Mn2+ conditions. To elucidate the possible mechanisms involved, we systematically identified 13 C. sinensis CsMTP genes from three subfamilies and characterized their phylogeny, structures, and the features of the encoded proteins. The transcription of CsMTP genes was differentially regulated in C. sinensis shoots and roots in responses to high concentrations of Mn, Zn, Fe, and Al. Differences in the cis-acting regulatory elements in the CsMTP8.1 and CsMTP8.2 promoters suggested the expression of these two genes may be differentially regulated. Transient expression analysis indicated that CsMTP8.2 was localized to the plasma membrane in tobacco and onion epidermal cells. Moreover, when heterologously expressed in yeast, CsMTP8.2 conferred tolerance to Ni and Mn but not to Zn. Additionally, heterologous expression of CsMTP8.2 in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that CsMTP8.2 positively regulated the response to manganese toxicity by decreasing the accumulation of Mn in plants. However, there was no difference in the accumulation of other metals, including Cu, Fe, and Zn. These results suggest that CsMTP8.2 is a Mn-specific transporter that contributes to the efflux of excess Mn2+ from plant cells.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Manganês/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Manganês/metabolismo , Filogenia , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Chá
3.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127614, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693260

RESUMO

Combining phytoremediation plants and microorganisms is a promising method of remediating heavy metal contaminated soil. In this study, two manganese-tolerant strains were isolated from Mn slag and identified as Bacillus cereus HM5 and Bacillus thuringiensis HM7. These two Bacillus spp. have the ability to dissolve phosphorus, produce IAA and iron carrier. A pot experiment of Broussonetia papyrifera was conducted to explore potential of B. cereus HM5 and B. thuringiensis HM7 to improve effect of remedying Mn pollution by B. papyrifera. The strains were inoculated under different Mn treated (5 mmol/L, 50 mmol/L, Mn slag) respectively and the growth, root structure, root activity, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the leaves and accumulation of Mn for B. papyrifera were determinated. The effects of the soil environment to remediation were observed, the results showed that the biomass, total root length, surface area, crossings, tips, forks and root activity of B. papyrifera with inoculated strain were higher than those of the control group. The inoculation of these two Bacillus spp. increased the absorption of Mn by B. papyrifera and the concentration of Mn in the aerial parts of plants, indicating that the two strains could promote the growth of B. papyrifera and the accumulation of Mn. In addition, microbes reduced malonaldehyde content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in leaves, suggesting that the two Bacillus spp. reduced Mn-induced oxidative stress. The principal component analysis showed that the added Bacillus strain prefer to promote plant root function maintenance and improve soil environment, rather than direct adsorption of heavy metals. These observations indicated that B. cereus HM5 and B. thuringiensis HM7 were valuable microorganisms, which could improve the remediating efficiency of B. papyrifera under Mn-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Broussonetia/fisiologia , Manganês/metabolismo , Bacillus/fisiologia , Bacillus cereus , Biomassa , Broussonetia/microbiologia , Manganês/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
4.
Nature ; 583(7816): 453-458, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669693

RESUMO

Manganese is one of the most abundant elements on Earth. The oxidation of manganese has long been theorized1-yet has not been demonstrated2-4-to fuel the growth of chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms. Here we refine an enrichment culture that exhibits exponential growth dependent on Mn(II) oxidation to a co-culture of two microbial species. Oxidation required viable bacteria at permissive temperatures, which resulted in the generation of small nodules of manganese oxide with which the cells associated. The majority member of the culture-which we designate 'Candidatus Manganitrophus noduliformans'-is affiliated to the phylum Nitrospirae (also known as Nitrospirota), but is distantly related to known species of Nitrospira and Leptospirillum. We isolated the minority member, a betaproteobacterium that does not oxidize Mn(II) alone, and designate it Ramlibacter lithotrophicus. Stable-isotope probing revealed 13CO2 fixation into cellular biomass that was dependent upon Mn(II) oxidation. Transcriptomic analysis revealed candidate pathways for coupling extracellular manganese oxidation to aerobic energy conservation and autotrophic CO2 fixation. These findings expand the known diversity of inorganic metabolisms that support life, and complete a biogeochemical energy cycle for manganese5,6 that may interface with other major global elemental cycles.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Crescimento Quimioautotrófico , Manganês/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Isótopos , Manganês/química , Compostos de Manganês/química , Compostos de Manganês/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Óxidos/química , Óxidos/metabolismo , Filogenia
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110975, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678756

RESUMO

Manganese (Mn) produces cholinergic neuronal loss in basal forebrain (BF) region that was related to cognitive dysfunction induced after single and repeated Mn treatment. All processes that generate cholinergic neuronal loss in BF remain to be understood. Mn exposure may produce the reduction of BF cholinergic neurons by increasing amyloid beta (Aß) and phosphorylated Tau (pTau) protein levels, altering heat shock proteins' (HSPs) expression, disrupting proteasome P20S activity and generating oxidative stress. These mechanisms, described to be altered by Mn in regions different than BF, could lead to the memory and learning process alteration produced after Mn exposure. The research performed shows that single and repeated Mn treatment of SN56 cholinergic neurons from BF induces P20S inhibition, increases Aß and pTau protein levels, produces HSP90 and HSP70 proteins expression alteration, and oxidative stress generation, being the last two effects mediated by NRF2 pathway alteration. The increment of Aß and pTau protein levels was mediated by HSPs and proteasome dysfunction. All these mechanisms mediated the cell decline observed after Mn treatment. Our results are relevant because they may assist to reveal the processes leading to the neurotoxicity and cognitive alterations observed after Mn exposure.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo Basal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Colinérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Manganês/toxicidade , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Animais , Prosencéfalo Basal/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo Basal/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Colinérgicos/metabolismo , Neurônios Colinérgicos/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127651, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688324

RESUMO

Phosphate (P) fertilization is a commonly used agronomic practice. However, research on bioremediation is very limited. This study's principal objective was to evaluate the role of P in the growth and heavy metals (HMs) accumulation of Polygonum pubescens Blume cultured in Mn-contaminated soil. To this end, the effects of sodium dihydrogen phosphate (SDP) and single superphosphate (SSP) on the growth, Mn bioremediation efficiency, organ HMs, and physiological parameters related to antioxidant stress of P. pubescens were examined. The results showed that both SDP and SSP increased soil pH and available P but decreased available HMs. Phosphate significantly (P < 0.05) promoted P. pubescens height and biomass. Average height increased by 36.1% and 32.6% with SDP and SSP, respectively, with corresponding biomass increases of 71.8% and 135%. Phosphate significantly (P < 0.05) reduced Mn concentrations, especially in leaves, where the values decreased by >50.0% for DSP and SSP. Total Mn significantly (P < 0.05) decreased with DSP amendment but significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 38.5% with SSP (200 mg kg-1) through an increase in biomass. Phosphate significantly (P < 0.05) decreased all organ HM concentrations and translocation, indicating that less HM stress occurred with P amendment. The changes in reactive oxygen species, antioxidants and non-antioxidant materials further supported these results. Pearson correlation analysis revealed negative relationships between soil available P and HMs, indicating a novel role of P in HM passivation. The uncommonly high Ca concentrations in leaves suggested that Ca plays a vital role in promoting growth and alleviating HM stress in P. pubescens, which warrants further study.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Manganês/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Biomassa , Manganês/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Fosfatos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Polygonum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2738, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483131

RESUMO

Almost half of all enzymes utilize a metal cofactor. However, the features that dictate the metal utilized by metalloenzymes are poorly understood, limiting our ability to manipulate these enzymes for industrial and health-associated applications. The ubiquitous iron/manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD) family exemplifies this deficit, as the specific metal used by any family member cannot be predicted. Biochemical, structural and paramagnetic analysis of two evolutionarily related SODs with different metal specificity produced by the pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus identifies two positions that control metal specificity. These residues make no direct contacts with the metal-coordinating ligands but control the metal's redox properties, demonstrating that subtle architectural changes can dramatically alter metal utilization. Introducing these mutations into S. aureus alters the ability of the bacterium to resist superoxide stress when metal starved by the host, revealing that small changes in metal-dependent activity can drive the evolution of metalloenzymes with new cofactor specificity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Metaloproteínas/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Domínio Catalítico , Evolução Molecular , Ferro/química , Isoenzimas/classificação , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Manganês/química , Metaloproteínas/química , Metaloproteínas/genética , Mutação , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/química , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxidos/metabolismo
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110712, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502905

RESUMO

Exposure to manganese (Mn) can cause male reproductive damage and lead to abnormal secretion of sex hormones. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in the neuromodulation of vertebrate reproduction. Astrocytes can indirectly regulate the secretion of GnRH by binding paracrine prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) specifically to the EP1 and EP2 receptors on GnRH neurons. Prior studies assessed the abnormal secretion of GnRH caused by Mn exposure, but the specific mechanism has not been reported in detail. This study investigated the effects of Mn exposure on the reproductive system of male mice to clarify the role of PGE2 in the abnormal secretion of GnRH in the hypothalamus caused by exposure to Mn. Our data demonstrate that antagonizing the EP1 and EP2 receptors of PGE2 can restore abnormal levels of GnRH caused by Mn exposure. Mn exposure causes reduced sperm count and sperm shape deformities. These findings suggest that EP1 and EP2, the receptors of PGE2, may be the key to abnormal GnRH secretion caused by Mn exposure. Antagonizing the PGE2 receptors may reduce reproductive damage caused by Mn exposure.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Manganês/toxicidade , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP1/metabolismo , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP2/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , Manganês/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP2/antagonistas & inibidores
9.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127043, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445999

RESUMO

Electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) is characterized by high silicon content, and thus, is an important silicon source. While considerable research has been conducted on bioleaching EMR for silicon recovery, sufficient information is not available on the impact of specific silicate mineral structures in EMR on silicon bioleaching. In the present study, the mineral composition of EMR was determined firstly, and then the leaching effect of Paenibacillus mucilaginosus on these different silicate minerals were investigated by shake flask experiments. Results showed that the silicon in EMR was mainly composed of quartz, sericite, muscovite, biotite, olivine and rhodonite; Paenibacillus mucilaginosus had a significantly different weathering and decomposition effects on different silicate minerals. Among them, sericite, muscovite and biotite with layered structure had the most obvious silicon leaching effect, followed by rhodonite with island structure, while silicon leaching from olivine with chained structure and quartz with frame structure was much more difficult. One can roughly judge the adaptability of bioleaching of silicon in EMR using Paenibacillus mucilaginosus if the main form of silicate minerals in EMR is determined.


Assuntos
Manganês/metabolismo , Paenibacillus/metabolismo , Silício/química , Silicatos de Alumínio , Eletrólitos , Compostos Ferrosos , Íons , Compostos de Ferro , Compostos de Magnésio , Minerais , Silicatos/química , Dióxido de Silício
10.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126619, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443277

RESUMO

Laccase, a unique class of multicopper oxidase, presents promising potential as a biocatalyst in many industrial and biotechnological applications. Recently, it has been significantly applied in many metal-polluted sites due to its Manganese (Mn)-oxidation ability. Here, we demonstrate the Mn(II)-oxidase activity of laccase obtained from Bacillus sp. GZB. The CotA gene of GZB was transformed in E. coli BL21 and overexpressed. The purified laccase (LACREC3-laccase) displayed the absence of a peak at 610 nm that is usually found in blue-laccase. Further, the LACREC3-laccase exhibited high activity and stability at different pH and temperatures with substrates 2, 2'-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) and syringaldazine, respectively. It also functioned in the presence of various metals and enzyme inhibitors. Most notably, LACREC3-laccase formed insoluble brown Mn(III)/Mn(IV)-oxide particles from Mn(II) mineral, exhibiting its Mn(II)-oxidase activity. In addition to native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and buffer test, we developed an 'agarose gel plate' assay to evaluate Mn(II) oxidation activity of laccase. Furthermore, using the leucoberbelin blue assay, a total of 44.45 ± 0.45% Mn(IV)-oxides were quantified, in which 5.87 ± 0.61% autoxidized after 24 h. The Mn(II) oxidation mechanisms were further predicted by trapping Mn(III) using pyrophosphate during Mn(II) to Mn(IV) conversion by LACREC3-laccase. Overall, the laccase of GZB has excellent activity and stability plus an ability to oxidize Mn(II). This study is the first report on a non-blue laccase, exhibiting Mn(II)-oxidase activity. Thus, it offers a novel finding of the Mn(II) oxidation processes that can be a valuable way of Mn(II)-mineralization in various metal-polluted environments.


Assuntos
Bacillus/fisiologia , Lacase/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Bacillus/metabolismo , Difosfatos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Manganês/química , Compostos de Manganês , Oxirredução , Óxidos
11.
Aquat Toxicol ; 224: 105484, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380302

RESUMO

One of the consequences of global mining is the exposure of metals into the environment, caused by the rupture of tailings dams. Excess of metals, such as aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) can cause serious damage to fauna and flora. The presence of these metals, associated with the temperature increase that occurs nowadays can potentially increase biochemical and metabolic rates in plant tissues and may affect growth. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of the metals Al and Mn into the biomass' growth of the macrophyte Ricciocarpos natans, under two temperatures (25 and 27 °C). R. natans individuals (n = 10 ± 0.5 cm wide) were exposed during 30 days to Al (1.5; 2.5 and 5.0 mg L-1) and Mn (0.7; 1.5 and 3.0 mg L-1) at temperatures and photoperiod-controlled germination chambers. Fresh macrophyte masses were determined gravimetrically to determine the kinetic growth using a logistic model. With that, it was noticed that the presence of Al interfered negatively in the increase of the R. natans biomass, mainly in the highest concentrations and at 27 °C. Mn, on the other hand, affected the increase in biomass, mainly in the highest concentration. As a result, the growth coefficients (µ) changed, being up to 4 times lower in the Al bioassays and up to 2 times higher than the control in the Mn bioassays. However, the dry R. natans biomass individuals that were exposed to the treatments was reduced when compared to the control, except for the lower concentration of Mn. These results contribute to the understanding of the environmental changes that can occur due to metals contained in mining tailings in aquatic ecosystems and the influence of global warming on the metabolic processes of the growth of aquatic macrophytes.


Assuntos
Alumínio/toxicidade , Temperatura Alta , Hydrocharitaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Manganês/toxicidade , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Alumínio/metabolismo , Biomassa , Brasil , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hydrocharitaceae/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Mineração , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 196: 110538, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244118

RESUMO

The use of phytoremediation was an efficient strategy for the restoration of mine slag and the addition of modifier was favorable for improving the phytoremediation efficiency. Herein, spent mushroom compost (SMC) was added in manganese (Mn) slag to reveal the phytoremediation potential of Paulownia fortunei seedlings. The transportation, subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Mn in P. fortunei, the diurnal variation of photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities in P. fortunei leaves were measured to reveal the effect of SMC (mass ratios of 10%, M+) on the phytoremediation of Mn slag. Results showed that the addition of SMC increased the accumulation content of Mn by 408.54% due to the increased biomass of P. fortunei seedlings. After SMC amendment, the maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pn) increased and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities decreased significantly (p < 0.05), which was beneficial to the tolerance of leaves to Mn stress. SMC amendment maintained the cell structural integrity of P. fortunei seedlings observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Additionally, SMC amendment decreased the damage level of Mn to the cell of P. fortunei seedlings by using function groups (-CH3 and -COOH) to bond Mn in the cell walls and vacuoles. SMC amendment reduced the Mn toxicity to P. fortunei seedlings and improved the phytoremediation capacity.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Compostagem , Lamiales/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Fotossíntese , Plântula/metabolismo
13.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 1084-1087, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029144

RESUMO

The objective of the current study was to evaluate increasing levels of manganese hydroxychloride (MHC) in 45-wk-old white leghorn laying hens, using yolk and shell manganese (Mn) content as a potential marker for Mn concentration. A total of 80, 45-wk-old white leghorns were assigned to 6 dietary treatments, each consisting of 14 individually caged laying hens, with the exception of the reference diet containing 10 individually caged laying hens. The experiment consisted of a reference diet that contained 70 ppm of supplemental inorganic Mn in the form of Mn oxide and 5 experimental treatments each containing 0, 15, 30, 60, and 90 ppm supplemental MHC. Experimental birds were subjected to a 21 D depletion phase in which no supplemental Mn was included in the diet; however, during this time reference fed birds were fed the control diet (70 ppm Mn). After the 21 D depletion phase, the depleted birds were fed experimental diets for a 35 D evaluation period. Yolk and shell Mn content were analyzed at the end of the depletion phase and during the experimental phase on day 5, 10, 15, 25, and 35. During the experimental phase, Mn was replenished in the yolk and shell in all experimental treatments containing supplemental Mn; however, dose and time impacted the rate of replenishment. The yolk tended to be more sensitive to variations in Mn level as increases in Mn inclusion significantly (P < 0.05) increased concentration. These data demonstrate the ability to deplete and replenish Mn, and the use of egg yolk Mn concentration as measurement for determining changes in dietary Mn. At the conclusion of the experiment at 35 D, 60 ppm of Mn hydroxychloride seemed to be adequate in replenishing Mn to the level of the reference.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Casca de Ovo/química , Gema de Ovo/química , Manganês/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Manganês/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Manganês/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Manganês/metabolismo , Óxidos/administração & dosagem , Óxidos/metabolismo
14.
Adv Immunol ; 145: 187-241, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081198

RESUMO

Metals are essential components in all forms of life required for the function of nearly half of all enzymes and are critically involved in virtually all fundamental biological processes. Especially, the transition metals iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and cobalt (Co) are crucial micronutrients known to play vital roles in metabolism as well due to their unique redox properties. Metals carry out three major functions within metalloproteins: to provide structural support, to serve as enzymatic cofactors, and to mediate electron transportation. Metal ions are also involved in the immune system from metal allergies to nutritional immunity. Within the past decade, much attention has been drawn to the roles of metal ions in the immune system, since increasing evidence has mounted to suggest that metals are critically implicated in regulating both the innate immune sensing of and the host defense against invading pathogens. The importance of ions in immunity is also evidenced by the identification of various immunodeficiencies in patients with mutations in ion channels and transporters. In addition, cancer immunotherapy has recently been conclusively demonstrated to be effective and important for future tumor treatment, although only a small percentage of cancer patients respond to immunotherapy because of inadequate immune activation. Importantly, metal ion-activated immunotherapy is becoming an effective and potential way in tumor therapy for better clinical application. Nevertheless, we are still in a primary stage of discovering the diverse immunological functions of ions and mechanistically understanding the roles of these ions in immune regulation. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of metal-controlled immunity. Particular emphasis is put on the mechanisms of innate immune stimulation and T cell activation by the essential metal ions like calcium (Ca2+), zinc (Zn2+), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+/Fe3+), and potassium (K+), followed by a few unessential metals, in order to draw a general diagram of metalloimmunology.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Metais/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Animais , Cálcio/química , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/fisiologia , Enzimas , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Íons/química , Íons/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Ferro/fisiologia , Manganês/metabolismo , Manganês/fisiologia , Metais/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Potássio/química , Potássio/metabolismo , Potássio/fisiologia , Zinco/química , Zinco/deficiência , Zinco/fisiologia
15.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125543, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050340

RESUMO

Environmentally friendly and cost-effective techniques are required to reclaim land degraded during mining activities. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals (HMs) in vegetables grown on contaminated soils can increase human health risks. The potential effects of hardwood biochar (HWB) was assessed for chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb) bioavailability in mine-contaminated soils and their subsequently bioaccumulation in crops and associated health risk. HWB was applied to chromium-manganese mine contaminated soils at the rate of 3% to investigate the efficiency of HWB for the second crop in crop rotation technique. Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) and spinach (Spinaccia oleracea) were grown as second crop in the same pots which were already used for rice cultivation as first crop (without adding further amendments). Application of HWB decreased the concentrations of Cr, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Pb in cilantro by 25.5%, 37.1%, 42.5%, 34.3%, and 36.2%, respectively as compared to control. In spinach, the reduction in concentrations of Cr was 75.0%, Zn 24.1%, Cu 70.1%, Mn 78.0%, and Pb 50.5% as compared to control. HWB significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the HMs uptake in spinach cultivated in the amended soils as compared to the spinach in control. Bioaccumulation factor results also indicate that HWB decreased the bioaccumulation of selected HMs in cilantro and spinach, thus reducing health risks. Results of the study clearly demonstrate that the use of HWB can significantly reduce HMs in vegetables, associated health risk and improve food quality, therefore can be used as soil amendment for reclamation of mine-degraded soils.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Coriandrum/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cobre/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Manganês/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Oryza/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras/metabolismo , Zinco/análise
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(4): 3147-3160, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037164

RESUMO

We evaluated the effects of source of corn silage and trace minerals on lactational performance and total-tract digestibility (TTD) of nutrients in 16 Holstein cows averaging 82 (standard error = 3) days in milk in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 28-d periods. The diets consisted [dry matter (DM) basis] of 55% conventional (CON) or brown midrib-3 (BM3) corn silage, 2% chopped wheat straw, and 43% grain mix with either sulfate (STM) or hydroxy (HTM) sources of copper, manganese, and zinc trace minerals. The targeted supplemental concentrations of copper, zinc, and manganese were 194, 1,657, and 687 mg/d, respectively. The dietary treatments were CON-STM, CON-HTM, BM3-STM, and BM3-HTM. The dietary nutrient composition of the BM3 diets averaged 32.1% amylase neutral detergent fiber on an organic matter basis (aNDFom) and 6.9% undigested neutral detergent fiber at 240 h (uNDF240om; % of DM), and CON diets averaged 36.2% aNDFom and 8.6% uNDF240om (% of DM). The average supplemental concentrations of copper, zinc, and manganese for the STM diets were 10, 41, and 64 mg/kg, respectively, and the average supplemental concentrations of copper, zinc, and manganese for the HTM diets were 10, 40, and 62 mg/kg, respectively. The average total dietary concentrations of copper, zinc, and manganese for the STM diets were 17, 104, and 60 mg/kg, respectively, and the average total dietary concentrations of copper, zinc, and manganese for the HTM diets were 17, 91, and 66 mg/kg, respectively. Data were summarized by period and analyzed as a replicated Latin square design with fixed model effects for corn silage, trace minerals, corn silage × trace mineral interaction, period within replicated square, and replicated square using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Cow within replicated square was a random effect. Cows fed the BM3 diets had greater dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield (28.1 and 47.0 kg/d) than cows fed the CON diets (27.5 and 44.7 kg/d). We found no significant interaction between corn silage and trace minerals for DMI and milk yield. Cows fed the HTM diets (28.1 kg/d) had a greater DMI than cows fed the STM diets (27.5 kg/d). Cows fed the BM3 diets had greater TTD of DM and OM (72.8 and 74.1% of DM) than cows fed the CON diets (71.1 and 72.3% of DM). Cows fed the HTM diets had a tendency for greater TTD of aNDFom than cows fed the STM diets (56.8 vs. 54.9% of DM). Cows fed the CON diets ruminated longer during the day than cows fed the BM3 diets (524 vs. 496 min/d). Corn silage with greater NDF digestibility and lower uNDF240om enhanced DMI, milk yield, and TTD of DM and OM, and hydroxy trace minerals improved DMI and tended to improve TTD of aNDFom. The source of corn silage and trace minerals should be taken into consideration when formulating diets for high-producing dairy cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Animais , Cobre/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Lactação , Manganês/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Zea mays , Zinco/metabolismo
17.
Microb Cell Fact ; 19(1): 17, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Citric acid, a commodity product of industrial biotechnology, is produced by fermentation of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. A requirement for high-yield citric acid production is keeping the concentration of Mn2+ ions in the medium at or below 5 µg L-1. Understanding manganese metabolism in A. niger is therefore of critical importance to citric acid production. To this end, we investigated transport of Mn2+ ions in A. niger NRRL2270. RESULTS: we identified an A. niger gene (dmtA; NRRL3_07789), predicted to encode a transmembrane protein, with high sequence identity to the yeast manganese transporters Smf1p and Smf2p. Deletion of dmtA in A. niger eliminated the intake of Mn2+ at low (5 µg L-1) external Mn2+ concentration, and reduced the intake of Mn2+ at high (> 100 µg L-1) external Mn2+ concentration. Compared to the parent strain, overexpression of dmtA increased Mn2+ intake at both low and high external Mn2+ concentrations. Cultivation of the parent strain under Mn2+ ions limitation conditions (5 µg L-1) reduced germination and led to the formation of stubby, swollen hyphae that formed compact pellets. Deletion of dmtA caused defects in germination and hyphal morphology even in the presence of 100 µg L-1 Mn2+, while overexpression of dmtA led to enhanced germination and normal hyphal morphology at limiting Mn2+ concentration. Growth of both the parent and the deletion strains under citric acid producing conditions resulted in molar yields (Yp/s) of citric acid of > 0.8, although the deletion strain produced ~ 30% less biomass. This yield was reduced only by 20% in the presence of 100 µg L-1 Mn2+, whereas production by the parent strain was reduced by 60%. The Yp/s of the overexpressing strain was 17% of that of the parent strain, irrespective of the concentrations of external Mn2+. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that dmtA is physiologically important in the transport of Mn2+ ions in A. niger, and manipulation of its expression modulates citric acid overflow.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/fisiologia , Manganês/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/fisiologia , Biotecnologia/métodos , Fermentação , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Metiltransferases/genética
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050138

RESUMO

Micronutrients provide a potentially interesting alternative to fungicides for the protection of crops against fungal pathogens. Here we studied the effect of foliar-applied manganese (Mn) in the form of MnSO4 on severity of anthracnose disease, caused by Colletotrichum lagenarium in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plant. The study was done aimed to characterize the optimum dose and application time of Mn fertilizer on disease suppression as well as to identify the defense mechanisms by which Mn-treated plants resist to fungal disease. In preliminary tests, Mn was applied at different concentrations (1.8, 4.5 and 7.2 mM) and various time points (three days before or two hours before inoculation, or three days after inoculation). Results showed that application of Mn either before or after inoculation suppressed the fungal infection in leaves and cotyledons, with a higher efficiency when applied three days prior to inoculation. However, all applied concentrations of Mn equally reduced the disease severity. Mn treatment in the absence of the pathogen promoted lignification and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Also, pre-inoculation Mn treatment enhanced pathogen-induced lignification, callose or ROS production and reduced pathogen-induced cell death. The increase of lignin, callose and ROS induction by Mn application were 34, 30 and 31 % compared to control, respectively. Together, the results suggested the effectiveness of Mn treatments on anthracnose alleviation in cucumber plants. The findings here have a practical importance in plant physiology studies to identify the resistance-relevant mechanisms to pathogens and in sustainable agriculture to control the fungal diseases by a safe method.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum/fisiologia , Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Manganês/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Cucumis sativus/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Manganês/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
19.
Talanta ; 210: 120678, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987183

RESUMO

A hybrid of metal-organic frameworks (Fe, Mn) and Au nanoparticles anchored carbon nanotubes (Au/MOFs(Fe, Mn)/CNTs) was fabricated by a facile one-step hydrothermal process. The Au/MOFs(Fe, Mn)/CNTs exhibit highly enhanced peroxidase-like activity, because of the increased active sites, the enhanced partial charge density and electron transfer among the Fermi level of MOFs, Au and CNTs, as well as the synergistic action of Fe and Mn. The hybrid nanomaterials with high catalytic velocity (Vmax = 17.65 × 10-7 M s-1) and affinity (Km = 0.33 mM) for substrates of H2O2 display a great detection performance in the range of 0.34-53.05 nM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.18 nM (S/N = 3). Based on the cascade reaction of the artificial peroxidase and glucose oxidase (GOx), the glucose was further better detected in a linear range of 0.005-0.3 µM with a LOD of 0.002 µM (S/N = 3). Notably, considering the regulated peroxidase-like activity by sulfadimethoxine (SDM) aptamer, the concentration of SDM ranging from 0.54 to 41.58 µg L-1 was also detected with a LOD of 0.35 µg L-1 (S/N = 3). The as-synthesized hybrid nanozymes hold promising applications as the multifunctional sensing platform in environmental and biologic target detection with the combination of corresponding enzyme or specific aptamer.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Ferro/química , Manganês/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Peroxidase/análise , Sítios de Ligação , Transporte de Elétrons , Ouro/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo
20.
mSphere ; 5(1)2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915219

RESUMO

Early epidemiological studies implicated manganese (Mn) as a possible caries-promoting agent, while laboratory studies have indicated that manganese stimulates the expression of virulence-related factors in the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans To better understand the importance of manganese homeostasis to S. mutans pathophysiology, we first used RNA sequencing to obtain the global transcriptional profile of S. mutans UA159 grown under Mn-restricted conditions. Among the most highly expressed genes were those of the entire sloABC operon, encoding a dual iron/manganese transporter, and an uncharacterized gene, here mntH, that codes for a protein bearing strong similarity to Nramp-type transporters. While inactivation of sloC, which encodes the lipoprotein receptor of the SloABC system, or of mntH alone had no major consequence for the overall fitness of S. mutans, simultaneous inactivation of sloC and mntH (ΔsloC ΔmntH) impaired growth and survival under Mn-restricted conditions, including in human saliva or in the presence of calprotectin. Further, disruption of Mn transport resulted in diminished stress tolerance and reduced biofilm formation in the presence of sucrose. These phenotypes were markedly improved when cells were provided with excess Mn. Metal quantifications revealed that the single mutant strains contained intracellular levels of Mn similar to those seen with the parent strain, whereas Mn was nearly undetectable in the ΔsloC ΔmntH strain. Collectively, these results reveal that SloABC and MntH work independently and cooperatively to promote cell growth under Mn-restricted conditions and that maintenance of Mn homeostasis is essential for the expression of major virulence attributes in S. mutans IMPORTANCE As transition biometals such as manganese (Mn) are essential for all forms of life, the ability to scavenge biometals in the metal-restricted host environment is an important trait of successful cariogenic pathobionts. Here, we showed that the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans utilizes two Mn transport systems, namely, SloABC and MntH, to acquire Mn from the environment and that the ability to maintain the cellular levels of Mn is important for the manifestation of characteristics that associate S. mutans with dental caries. Our results indicate that the development of strategies to deprive S. mutans of Mn hold promise in the combat against this important bacterial pathogen.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Aptidão Genética , Manganês/metabolismo , Óperon , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Streptococcus mutans/metabolismo , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transporte Biológico , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de RNA
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