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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237502, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956377

RESUMO

Employing an integrated approach to investigate the use of Late Lower Paleolithic flint tools found at the site of Qesem Cave (Israel), we revealed a particular trace pattern related to the employment of ashes at the site. Using a designated collection of replica items and combining use-wear and residue (morphological analysis, FTIR, SEM-EDX) analyses, we revealed the intentional use of ashes in preserving foods for delayed consumption as well as hide for delayed processing. Our interpretation, we believe is the most plausible one since we were able to delineate the specific use-wear fingerprints of the intentional use of ashes for such purposes, suggesting that our approach might be useful for the recognition of other similar functional-behavioral patterns. Lastly, in support of previous findings at Qesem Cave, our current findings present evidence for the processing of organic matters intentionally mixed with ash, leading us to suggest that the inhabitants of Qesem Cave were proficient not only in the habitual use of fire but also of its main by-product, ash. Hence, we call for a reassessment of the timeline currently assigned to hominins' utilization of ash for storing and processing vegetal foods and hide.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Fogo/história , Animais , Arqueologia/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/história , História Antiga , Hominidae , Israel , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas
2.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 89, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the nutritional composition of ultra-processed foods consumed by children that attend basic health units. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with a representative probabilistic sample of 536 children aged between 6 and 59 months treated at a health unit in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Nutritional information was extracted from labels of the ultra-processed foods referred to in a 24-hour recall. The 351 foods mentioned were divided into 22 groups and 38 subgroups according to the type of product, and they were characterized according to the averages of the values for energy, total fats, saturated fats, trans fats and sodium in 100 grams of the product, in addition to presence, number, and type of "other sweeteners". The nutritional Profile Model of the Pan American Health Organization was applied for each food and for the average of nutrient content obtained for each group to examine the occurrence of critical nutrients excess. RESULTS: Ultra-processed foods contained high energy value and high levels of total fats, saturated fats, trans fats, and sodium. Out of the total of ultra-processed foods, 66% presented excess of at least one critical nutrient, with emphasis on requeijões and ultra-processed cheeses, instant noodles, and industrialized and sausage-like meats, which presented 100% of foods with excess of total fats, saturated fats and sodium. Out of the 21 groups, the following exceeded the limit established by the Pan American Health Organization: for total fats, 10 groups; for saturated fats, 11; for trans fats, 3; and sodium, 13. Requeijões and ultra-processed cheeses; industrialized and sausage-like meats; and biscuits exceeded this limit in all parameters. Out of the set of ultra-processed foods analyzed, 13.4% contained "other sweeteners" (eight different types). CONCLUSIONS: The ultra-processed foods analyzed presented unbalanced nutritional profile, and two thirds presented excess of at least one critical nutrient. Educational actions and regulatory measures are necessary to better inform the population and to discourage its consumption.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods , Comportamento Alimentar , Valor Nutritivo , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Estados Unidos
3.
Food Res Int ; 136: 109472, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846557

RESUMO

In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, the commercial restaurant sector is struggling to organize itself. Resilience is crucial for a system to be able to respond adequately to events of this magnitude, and is aimed at the recovery and adaptation of the concerned sector in view of the adversities. In the commercial restaurant sector, resilience efforts are primarily intended to protect the health of both those who consume food and those who produce it. Amid the creative initiatives of individuals within their workplaces, restaurants, even unconsciously, seek to build resilience in the pandemic by applying the food safety practices recommended by the sanitary legislation and remaining economically active. Targeting public health preparedness, in this letter, we present an overview of the stages of resilience and their interaction with the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of commercial restaurants.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Manipulação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública , Restaurantes , Betacoronavirus , Comércio , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237265, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841240

RESUMO

Roasting is the most common method of processing coffee. During roasting, aromatic compounds are generated due to various reactions, which are important for developing color, flavor and aroma. Acrylamide is an undesirable carcinogenic substance that is metabolically activated and formed during the coffee roasting process. Coffea arabica was first found in Ethiopia, and Ethiopia can produce a large volume of coffee. The major coffee-producing areas in Ethiopia are Hararghe, Sidama, Gimbi/Nekemte, Yergachefe and Limu. The primary purpose of this study was to quantify the acrylamide contents of brewed and roasted coffee collected from street coffee sellers and industrial processors found in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and optimize the roasting conditions for Sidama coffee. The acrylamide contents were determined by HPLC using a DAD at 210 nm, the antioxidant property were examined using a UV-spectrophotometer, and moisture and nutrient composition of coffee was determined using the method described by the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). The roasting temperature and time were optimized based on the acrylamide content, nutritional composition and antioxidant property of the coffee using central composite design. The roasting temperature and time significantly affected (p<0.05) the acrylamide level, nutritional composition and antioxidant property of the coffee. The acrylamide contents of street and industrial processed powdered coffee were 346 ±19 to 701±38µg/kg and 442±14 to 906±7µg/kg, respectively. Brewed coffee from street vendors and industrial processing had acrylamide contents of 25±2 to 49±1µg/L and 63±2 to 89±4µg/L, respectively. The EC50 values for scavenging radicals for the optimized coffee ranged from 171±0 to 111±4 µg/L. The optimal roasting temperature and time were 190°C and 6 minutes, at this temperature and time the acrylamide content decreased, and the antioxidant and nutritional compositions of the coffee improved.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Coffea/química , Café/química , Nutrientes/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Sementes/química
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236738, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735599

RESUMO

Ultra-processed food consumption has been associated with several health outcomes such as obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The deleterious nutrient profile of these products, and the presence of food additives, neoformed contaminants and contact materials such as phthalates and bisphenol may be some of the potential pathways through which ultra-processed food influences disease outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods and urinary biomarker concentrations of parent compounds or their metabolites including Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHP), Di-isononyl phthalate (ΣDiNP), Monocarboxynonyl phthalate (mCNP), Mono (3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (mCPP), Monobenzyl phthalate (mBzP), Bisphenol A (BPA), Bisphenol F (BPF) and Bisphenol S (BPS), in the US. Participants from the cross-sectional 2009-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, aged 6+ years, with urinary measures and with one 24-hour dietary recall were included in the study. Ultra-processed foods were identified based on the NOVA classification system, a four-group food classification based on the extent and purpose of industrial food processing. Linear regression was used to compare average urinary creatinine-standardized concentrations across quintiles of energy contribution of ultra-processed foods. Models incorporated survey sample weights and were adjusted for different sociodemographic and life-style variables. Adjusted geometric means of ΣDiNP, mCNP, mCPP, mBzP and BPF increased monotonically from the lowest to the highest quintile of ultra-processed food consumption. As both phthalates/bisphenol and ultra-processed foods have been previously associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, general/abdominal obesity and hypertension, our results suggest the possibility of contact materials in ultra-processed foods as one link between ultra-processed food and these health outcomes. Future studies could confirm findings and further explore these mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Dieta , Fast Foods , Fenóis/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estrogênios não Esteroides/urina , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Sulfonas/urina , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236807, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760141

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is the etiological agent of listeriosis, a major foodborne disease and an important public health concern. Contamination of meat with L. monocytogenes occurs frequently at the slaughterhouse. Our aims were; 1) to investigate the distribution of L. monocytogenes in the processing areas of four swine slaughterhouses; 2) to describe the diversity of L. monocytogenes strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; 3) to identify persistent L. monocytogenes strains and describe their distribution; 4) to investigate the associations between persistence of strains and their following characteristics: detection in food isolates, detection in human clinical isolates, and the presence of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) resistance genes. Various operation areas within the four swine slaughterhouses were sampled on four occasions. A total of 2496 samples were analyzed, and L. monocytogenes was successfully isolated from 243 samples. The proportion of positive samples ranged from 32 to 58% in each slaughterhouse and from 24 to 68% in each operation area. Fifty-eight different pulsotypes were identified and eight pulsotypes, present in samples collected during 4 visits, were considered persistent. The persistent pulsotypes were significantly more likely to be detected in food (P < 0.01, exact χ²) and human clinical cases (P < 0.01, exact χ²), respectively. Among pulsotypes harboring the BAC bcrABC resistance cassette or the emrE multidrug transporter gene, 42.8% were persistent compared to 4.5% for pulsotypes without these resistance genes (P < 0.01, exact χ²). Our study highlights the importance of persistent L. monocytogenes strains in the environmental contamination of slaughterhouses, which may lead to repeated contamination of meat products. It also shows that the presence of disinfectants resistance genes is an important contributing factor.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Listeriose/diagnóstico , Carne/microbiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Compostos de Benzalcônio/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sorogrupo , Suínos
7.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 1031-1041, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788512

RESUMO

To accelerate the fermentation rate and reduce the adverse effects of undesirable microorganism contamination on rice noodle quality, the pure inoculum fermentation method was used to produce fermented rice noodles. The results indicated that the pure inoculum fermented rice slurry required 10 h to reach a stable pH value. While, the pH value of the natural, pure and natural inoculum fermented rice slurries required 54, 18 and 20 h to stabilize, respectively. Free amino acids and lactic acid concentrations of the pure inoculum fermented rice slurry were higher than those of the natural and natural inoculum fermented rice slurries. The pure inoculum fermentation modified the proximate composition and lowered the pasting viscosities of the rice flour. The texture, cooking and eating qualities of the pure inoculum fermented rice noodles were similar to those of the natural fermented ones. In addition, the pure inoculum fermented rice noodles had higher relative contents of aldehydes than other fermented rice noodles and thus had a better flavor. Therefore, pure inoculum fermentation accelerated the fermentation rate and improved the rice noodle flavor while maintaining the texture, cooking and eating qualities of the rice noodles.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Oryza/microbiologia , Aldeídos/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Paladar , Fatores de Tempo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235472, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603372

RESUMO

Refrigerated ready-to-eat (RTE) dips often have pH and water activity combinations conducive to the proliferation of foodborne pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes. This study conducted product assessments of five refrigerated RTE dips: baba ghanoush, guacamole, hummus, pesto, and tahini, along with individual dip components including avocado, basil, chickpeas, cilantro, eggplant, garlic, and jalapeno pepper. Dips and dip components were inoculated with 2 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes and stored at 10°C for 28 days. The pathogen was enumerated throughout storage and growth rates were determined using the DMFit program to compute the time required for L. monocytogenes to achieve a 1 log CFU/g increase in population. Survival and growth rates varied significantly between the refrigerated RTE dips and dip components assessed in this study. For dips, L. monocytogenes progressively decreased in baba ghanoush, pesto, and tahini. In contrast, the pathogen proliferated in both hummus and guacamole and the highest growth rate was observed in guacamole (0.34±0.05 log CFU/g per day) resulting in a 1 log CFU/g increase in population in 7.8 days. L. monocytogenes proliferated in all dip components with the exception of eggplant and garlic. The pathogen achieved the highest growth rate in chickpeas (2.22±1.75 log CFU/g per day) resulting in a computed 1 log CFU/g increase in only 0.5 days. Results from this study can aid in understanding how L. monocytogenes behaves in refrigerated RTE dips and dip components and data can be utilized in understanding product formulations and in risk assessments.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cicer/microbiologia , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140735, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679499

RESUMO

Thraustochytrids such as Aurantiochytrium are heterotrophic microorganisms that are known to produce valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). In this study, Aurantiochytrium sp. strain L3W was used to remove dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) from bean-boiling (BB) and miso-processing (MP) wastewater and to simultaneously produce PUFAs. Strain L3W removed 52% of the DOC and 37% of the DN from sterilized BB wastewater and produced biomass that contained 137 mg/g of fatty acids (FAs), including 96.2 mg/g of DHA. Growth of strain L3W in sterilized MP wastewater resulted in the production of biomass containing 147.6 mg/g of FAs, including 97.8 mg/g of DHA, and removal of 47% of the DOC and 55% of the DN from the wastewater. The biomass of strain L3W was digestible by the enzymes extracted from the stomachs of rainbow trout. These results confirmed the potential for use of strain L3W to remove DOC and DN from food processing wastewater and to produce PUFAs. This study also provided the first evidence that the raw biomass of Aurantiochytrium sp. can be used as a fish feed additive.


Assuntos
Estramenópilas , Águas Residuárias , Animais , Aquicultura , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Ácidos Graxos , Manipulação de Alimentos
11.
Food Chem ; 332: 127327, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615380

RESUMO

The effect of variation in acid gel pH during cream cheese production was investigated. The gel microstructure was denser and cheese texture firmer, as the pH decreased from pH 5.0 to pH 4.3, despite the viscoelasticity of these gels remaining similar during heating. Protein hydration and secondary structure appeared to be key factors affecting both cheese microstructure and properties. Proteins within the matrix appeared to swell at pH 5.0, leading to a larger corpuscular structure; greater ß-turn structure was also observed by synchrotron-Fourier transform infrared (S-FTIR) microspectroscopy and the cheese was softer. A decrease in pH led to a denser microstructure with increased aggregated ß-sheet structure and a firmer cheese. The higher whey protein loss at low pH likely contributed to increased cheese hardness. In summary, controlling the pH of acid gel is important, as this parameter affects proteins in the cheese, their secondary structure and the resulting cream cheese.


Assuntos
Queijo/análise , Gorduras/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Proteínas/química , Reologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Viscosidade
12.
Food Chem ; 333: 127423, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659660

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the effect of thickness of samples, air velocity and infrared power on the drying kinetics and quality attributes of blanched eggplant slices during infrared drying. The drying experiments were made by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on a Box-Behnken design (BBD). Experiments were conducted at a thickness of 3, 5, and 7 mm, air velocity of 0.5, 1.25, and 2 m/s, as well as at infrared power 1000, 1500, and 2000 W. The drying time was affected by operating parameters. The drying processes increased total phenolic content and potassium content, significantly. The total color difference (ΔE) was in the range of 10.22-25.14. In the end, this process was optimized for reaching the best experimental condition.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Raios Infravermelhos , Solanum melongena/química , Fenóis/análise , Potássio/análise
13.
Food Chem ; 332: 127401, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610261

RESUMO

Tofu gel was made by using citric acid (0.14%) in combination with varied volumetric ratios (e.g., 0-4%) of nano fish bone (NFB). The gel properties were investigated by colorimetry, penetration tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. As the volumetric ratio increased from 0 to 3%, the soluble calcium concentrations of soymilk linearly increased from 1.78 to 6.42 mg/mL. Correspondently, yield, moisture and texture values of the tofu gel increased continuously (p < 0.05) while syneresis and whiteness decreased (p < 0.05). Furthermore, ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds increased by 140%, 40% and 10%, respectively. With the addition of NFB, the α-helices of the soybean proteins changed to ß-sheets and random coil structures. Additionally, the tofu gel network became more orderly and denser. The results confirmed that NFB can be utilized as a functional coagulant ingredient to improve the properties of acid-induced tofu gels.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Peixes , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Animais , Géis , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
14.
Food Chem ; 332: 127417, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629332

RESUMO

The use of UHPH sterilization in the absence of SO2 has been used to eliminate wild microorganisms and inactivate oxidative enzymes. A white must of the Muscat of Alexandria grape variety was continuously processed by UHPH at 300 MPa (inlet temperature: 23-25 °C). The initial microbial load of the settled must was 4-log CFU/mL for both yeast and moulds, and slightly lower for bacteria. After UHPH processing, no microorganisms were detected in 1 mL. UHPH musts remain without fermentative activity for more than 60 days. Concentrations of the thermal markers indicated the absence of thermal damage in the UHPH-treated musts, since 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was not detected. In addition, the must treated by UHPH keeps terpene concentrations similar to those of the untreated controls. A strong inactivation of the oxidative enzymes was observed, with no browning at room temperature for more than 3 days. The antioxidant value of the UHPH-treated must was 156% higher than the control.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esterilização/métodos , Vinho/análise , Bactérias/enzimologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Fungos/enzimologia , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Humanos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Paladar , Temperatura , Vitis/química
15.
Food Chem ; 332: 127429, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645678

RESUMO

Thermal processing is a traditional method for processing hawthorn into food or medicine. In this study, the compositions of free and bound phenolic compounds in raw hawthorn were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry, and the effect of thermal processing on phenolics and antioxidant activity was determined. Among the phenolics identified in unheated hawthorn, 26 were soluble, while only 10 were insoluble-bound. Thermal processing caused a significant reduction in total soluble phenolics content, but an increase in total insoluble-bound phenolics (p < 0.05). Procyanidin B2 and epicatechin showed the largest decreases in content, and were not detected in well-cooked hawthorn. The antioxidant activity also clearly decreased, with the chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B2, hyperoside, and isoquercetin contents correlating significantly (p < 0.05) with antioxidant activity. In general, the effect of thermal processes on phenolics and antioxidant activity was dependent on the types of phenolics and processing conditions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Crataegus/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida , Temperatura Alta , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
16.
Food Chem ; 332: 127486, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663756

RESUMO

Activated complex theory (ACT), apart from Van 't Hoff equation, has long been applying as an alternative tool to connect the kinetics (reaction rate constant, k) and thermodynamics parameters (including standard enthalpy of activation, △H++; standard entropy of activation, △S++; standard Gibbs free energy of activation, △G++). The study mainly focuses on ACT application in food systems, especially oil and fruit juice processing. Considering there are several improper calculations or mistakes often found in papers published recently in 2014-2019, three considerations are presented when applying the ACT, including 1) Understand that the reaction should be a single chemical elementary step; 2) Ensure that the units used should be consistent; 3) Effectively analyze the kinetics and thermodynamic parameters by choosing proper temperatures. This study is expected to further improve the understanding and correct application of this well-known theory in future work.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Entropia , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Cinética , Óleos/química , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
17.
Food Chem ; 332: 127391, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603920

RESUMO

The objectives of the present work were to investigate the influence of Gum Arabic (GA) on the physicochemical properties and ultra-high temperature (UHT) processability of ß-lactoglobulin(ß-lg)-stabilized d-limonene emulsions. Moreover, we also wanted to evaluate the antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of ß-lg-GA bilayer d-limonene emulsions. Physicochemically stable bilayer emulsions could be formed with an optimal concentration of GA (1.00 wt%), which showed a higher tolerance to both flocculation and coalescence, as well as better protective effects on d-limonene against UHT-treatment that up to 94.32% of d-limonene was retained in emulsions. Likewise, it is also noteworthy that no obvious difference in the minimal inhibitory concentration could be found between bilayer emulsions with or without UHT processing. Moreover, the antimicrobial effects of the bilayer emulsions with UHT treatment were shown to be dose-dependent, which was evidenced from the results of scanning electron microscopy and the determination of released cell constituents. Keywords: ß-lactoglobulin; gum arabic; d-limonene emulsion; physicochemical stability; UHT processability, antimicrobial efficiency.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Emulsões/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Limoneno/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Elasticidade , Emulsões/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Goma Arábica/química , Temperatura Alta , Lactoglobulinas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viscosidade
18.
Food Chem ; 333: 127531, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679420

RESUMO

The effect of roasting of chia seed at different temperatures (90, 120, 150 and 180 °C) on bioactive constituents in extracts and on the quality of oil was evaluated. At higher temperatures, crude protein and ash contents increased, whereas total phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid, and antioxidant activities decreased. The predominant phenolic constituents were myrcetin, and rosmarinic, 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoic, caffeic, and gallic acids, which all decreased with increasing temperatures. Notably, myrcetin content ranged from 75.59 mg/100 g (at 100 °C) to 85.49 mg/100 g (for control). Tocopherols (É£ and α type) were predominant nutrients and their levels ranged from 654.86 mg/100 g (at 180 °C) to 698.32 mg/100 g (for control). Concentrations of linolenic (59.84%), linoleic (20.57%), and oleic (10.09%) acids from unroasted chia seeds were higher than those from roasted ones. This study revealed that chia seeds should be heated at temperatures below or equal to 90 °C in order to preserve their nutrient profile.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Óleos Vegetais/química , Salvia/química , Sementes/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos
19.
Food Chem ; 332: 127414, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615379

RESUMO

The reasons for the change in the water retention capability of salted pork caused by potassium chloride (KCl) instead of sodium chloride (NaCl) were investigated. Accompanied by the gradually increased substitution rate of KCl, the oxidative degradation of protein, water content, water activity (aw), gap, as well as water loss in salted pork were increased, and the results showed significant differences (p < 0.05). LF-NMR results indicated that NaCl was replaced by KCl, which can observably increased the mobility of water in the salted pork (p < 0.05). All indexes showed excellent correlation. NaCl was replaced by KCl, which affected the water retention capability of salted pork, because K+ promoted changes in the meat's physicochemical properties. The KCl replacement group presented higher water content, while displayed lower water retention capability.


Assuntos
Carne/análise , Cloreto de Potássio/química , Água/química , Animais , Manipulação de Alimentos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Oxirredução , Proteínas/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Suínos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645941

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the food safety conditions in home kitchens from the Brazilian Federal District. A previously validated instrument composed of 77 items (in four blocks) was used to evaluate the safety conditions in home kitchens. A survey was carried out with on-site application with 226 home kitchens' food handlers in the Federal District, Brazil to evaluate Brazilian home kitchens' good practices. Of the home kitchen food handlers, most of them were female (64.6%), had completed undergraduate education (29.2%), and were 45-59 years old (23.5%). The visited households had an average of 3.38 ± 1.48 residents that ate some of their meals at home, and 40% declared the monthly family income to be between 5 and 15 Brazilian minimum wages (MW). Regarding the reliability of the instrument, from the KR-20 test, it was verified that the instrument presents good internal consistency (α = 0.758). According to the instrument classification, the home kitchens' sample was considered as at a medium risk of food contamination (46.5% of them presented from 51 to 75% of conformities to the instrument). There was a statistical difference between house-kitchens with a family income from zero to one minimum wage (MW) and those receiving from 5 to 15 MW (p = 0.017), as well as between those from zero to one MW and who earn above 15 MW (p = 0.009). The result of the on-site evaluation shows that the instrument was able to measure food safety conditions in Brazilian Federal District domestic kitchens. Such findings can contribute positively to the development of actions in health education that help in the adoption of good practices of food manipulation and, consequently, in the reduction in foodborne disease outbreaks in residences.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Família , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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