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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(10)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064597

RESUMO

Food texture is one of the important quality indicators in foodstuffs, along with appearance and flavor, contributing to taste and odor. This study proposes a novel magnetic food texture sensor that corresponds to the tactile sensory capacity of the human tooth. The sensor primarily consists of a probe, linear slider, spring, and circuit board. The probe has a cylindrical shape and includes a permanent magnet. Both sides of the spring are fixed to the probe and circuit board. The linear slider enables the smooth, single-axis motion of the probe during food compression. Two magnetoresistive elements and one inductor on the circuit board measured the probe's motion. A measurement system then translates the measurement data collected by the magnetoresistive elements into compression force by means of a calibration equation. Fundamental experiments were performed to evaluate the range, resolution, repetitive durability of force, and differences in the frequency responses. Furthermore, the sensor was used to measure seven types of chicken nuggets with different coatings. The difference between the force and vibration measurement data is revealed on the basis of the discrimination rate of the nuggets.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Produtos da Carne , Animais , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Paladar
2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210033, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105596

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usual consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and its association with body mass index (BMI), physical activity (PA), age, and sex in adults living in Brasília City, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: A total of 506 individuals aged ≥ 20 years old were interviewed. Dietary intake was assessed with two non-consecutive 24-h food recalls. The distributions of usual intakes of energy and the amount of UPF were estimated using the Iowa State University method. The association of age, BMI, PA, and sex with the proportions of UPF consumption (%Kcal and %grams) was investigated with linear regression models. RESULTS: UPF represented 9.2% of the total dietary consumption (grams/day) and 25% of total energy intake. Compared to eutrophic, subjects with obesity consumed a higher percentage of UPF in grams, whereas subjects with overweight had a higher percentage of UPF in kilocalories. The share of UPF in energy intake was lower in male than female individuals, and PA and age were inversely associated with UPF consumption. CONCLUSION: Careful monitoring of intake of UPF is recommended. Its consumption should be reduced among people with overweight/obesity and sedentary individuals. Appropriate choices for methods to evaluate the usual distribution of intake will strengthen future analysis of UPF assessment.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Manipulação de Alimentos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 779: 146373, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030249

RESUMO

A near-zero waste treatment system for food processing wastewater was developed and studied. The wastewater was treated using an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), polished using an outdoor photobioreactor for microalgae cultivation (three species were studied), and excess sludge was treated using hydrothermal carbonization. The study was conducted under arid climate conditions for one year (four seasons). The AnMBR reduced the total organic carbon by 97%, which was mostly recovered as methane (~57%) and hydrochar (~4%). Microalgal biomass productivity in the AnMBR effluent ranged from 0.25 to 0.8 g·L-1·day-1. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) uptake varied seasonally, from 18 to 45 mg·L-1·day-1 and up to 5 mg·L-1·day-1, respectively. N and P mass balance analysis demonstrated that the process was highly efficient in the recovery of nitrogen (~77%), and phosphorus (~91%). The performance of the microalgal culture changed among seasons because of climatic variation, as a result of variation in the wastewater chemistry, and possibly due to differences among the microalgal species. Effluent standards for irrigation use were met throughout the year and were achieved within two days in summer and 4.5 days in winter. Overall, the study demonstrated a near-zero waste discharge system capable of producing high-quality effluent, achieving nutrient and carbon recovery into microalgae biomass, and energy production as biogas and hydrochar.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Águas Residuárias , Biomassa , Carbono , Manipulação de Alimentos , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Água
4.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946249

RESUMO

Food processing generates a large amount of bio-residues, which have become the focus of different studies aimed at valorizing this low-cost source of bioactive compounds. High fruit consumption is associated with beneficial health effects and, therefore, bio-waste and its constituents arouse therapeutic interest. The present work focuses on the main Portuguese fruit crops and revises (i) the chemical constituents of apple, orange, and pear pomace as potential sources of functional/bioactive compounds; (ii) the bioactive evidence and potential therapeutic use of bio-waste generated in the processing of the main Portuguese fruit crops; and (iii) potential applications in the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. The current evidence of the effect of these bio-residues as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents is also summarized. Conclusions of the revised data are that these bio-wastes hold great potential to be employed in specific nutritional and pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Resíduos , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Cosméticos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Hidrólise , Malus , Estrutura Molecular , Pectinas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Portugal , Pyrus
5.
Mar Drugs ; 19(5)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946320

RESUMO

The province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, generates tons of shrimp processing by-product every year. Shrimp contains omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and astaxanthin (Astx), a potent antioxidant that exists in either free or esterified form (Astx-E). In this study, shrimp oil (SO) was extracted from the shrimp processing by-product using the Soxhlet method (hexane:acetone 2:3). The extracted SO was rich in phospholipids, n-3 PUFA, and Astx-E. The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated to mature adipocytes in the presence or absence of various treatments for 8 days. The effects of SO were then investigated on fat accumulation, and the mRNA expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. The effects of fish oil (FO), in combination with Astx-E, on fat accumulation, and the mRNA expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis were also investigated. The SO decreased fat accumulation, compared to untreated cells, which coincided with lower mRNA expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes. However, FO and FO + Astx-E increased fat accumulation, along with increased mRNA expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes, and glucose transporter type 4 (Glut-4), compared to untreated cells. These findings have demonstrated that the SO is a rich source of n-3 PUFA and Astx-E, and has the potential to elicit anti-adipogenic effects. Moreover, the SO and FO appear to regulate adipogenesis and lipogenesis via independent pathways in 3T3-L1 cells.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Ésteres/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos/farmacologia , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Frutos do Mar , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/genética , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/isolamento & purificação , Ésteres/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Lipogênese/genética , Camundongos , Óleos/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos , Xantofilas/isolamento & purificação , Xantofilas/farmacologia
6.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946376

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are naturally occurring phytochemicals that have attracted growing interest from consumers and the food industry due to their multiple biological properties and technological applications. Nevertheless, conventional extraction techniques based on thermal technologies can compromise both the recovery and stability of anthocyanins, reducing their global yield and/or limiting their application in food systems. The current review provides an overview of the main innovative processes (e.g., pulsed electric field, microwave, and ultrasound) used to recover anthocyanins from agri-food waste/by-products and the mechanisms involved in anthocyanin extraction and their impacts on the stability of these compounds. Moreover, trends and perspectives of anthocyanins' applications in food systems, such as antioxidants, natural colorants, preservatives, and active and smart packaging components, are addressed. Challenges behind anthocyanin implementation in food systems are displayed and potential solutions to overcome these drawbacks are proposed.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Indústria Alimentícia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Poult Sci ; 100(6): 101171, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975049

RESUMO

This study compares kinetic parameters of Salmonella and Enterococcus faecium in moisture enhanced, reconstructed comminuted chicken patties prepared with different pump rates during double pan-broiling with various set-up temperatures. Fresh 1.5-kg chicken breast meat was course grounded, inoculated with S. Typhimurium and Tennessee, or E. faecium, followed by adding NaCl (2.0%) + Na-tripolyphosphate (0.5%) solutions to achieve pump rates of 1%, 5%, or 11.1%. Meat samples were manually manufactured into patties with the thickness of 2.1 cm and diameter of 10.4 cm. Patties were packaged with polyvinyl chloride films in the foam-tray stored at 4°C for 42 h before double pan-broiling set at 200°, 300°, or 425°F for 0 to 420 s. Counts of pathogens were analyzed on xylose-lysine-Tergitol-4 and bile esculin agars with tryptic soy agar layers. Microbial data and kinetic parameters (n = 9, United States Department of Agriculture [USDA]-Integrated-Predictive-Modeling-Program/USDA-Global-Fit software) were analyzed by the Mixed Model Procedure (SAS). Double pan-broiling reduced >5-log10 CFU/g (P < 0.05) of Salmonella after 360 (200°F), 180 to 225 (300°F), and 150 to 165s (425°F), and of E. faecium after 270 s (300°F), and 180 s (425°F) across all samples. D-values (Mafart-Weibull model) of Salmonella and E. faecium in 1% moisture enhanced samples cooked at 200 to 425°F (102.7-248.2 and 115.5-271.0 s) were lower (P < 0.05) than 11.1% samples (119.8-263.7 and 122.5-298.3 s). Salmonella were more susceptible (P < 0.05) to heat than E. faecium. "Shoulder-time" (Buchanan-Two-Phase model) of Salmonella cooking at 200° to 425°F increased (P < 0.05) from 82.3-229.0 to 116.6-246.2 s as pump rate increased from 1 to 11.1%, whereas this phenomenon was not shown for E. faecium. Results indicate that Salmonella were resistant to heat in chicken patties with greater pump rate. E. faecium can be used as a surrogate for Salmonella to validate thermal inactivation in chicken products.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecium , Animais , Galinhas , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/veterinária , Culinária , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Salmonella
8.
Food Chem ; 358: 129884, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933976

RESUMO

The ability of histidine to scavenge sugar-derived 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds was investigated using aqueous methanolic model systems containing histidine or histamine in the presence of glucose, methylglyoxal, or glyoxal. The samples were prepared either at room temperature (RT) or at 150 °C and analyzed using ESI-qTOF-MS/MS and isotope labeling technique. Replacing glucose with [U-13C6]glucose allowed the identification of glucose carbon atoms incorporated in the products. Various sugar-generated carbonyl compounds ranging in size from C1 to C6 were captured by histidine or histamine. The majority of the fragments incorporated were either C3 or C2 units originating from glyoxal (C2) or methylglyoxal (C3). The ESI-qTOF-MS/MS analysis indicated that histamine could react with either of the two carbonyl carbons of methylglyoxal utilizing the α-amino group and/or the imidazolium moiety. Furthermore, when histidine was added to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) generating model system, it completely suppressed the formation of PhIP due to scavenging of phenylacetaldehyde.


Assuntos
Carnosina/química , Histamina/química , Histidina/química , Aldeído Pirúvico/química , Acetaldeído/análogos & derivados , Acetaldeído/química , Carnosina/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Glucose/química , Glioxal/química , Glioxal/metabolismo , Histidina/metabolismo , Imidazóis/química , Marcação por Isótopo , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo , Açúcares/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura
9.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947110

RESUMO

HPP at 600 MPa alone, and in combination with US at 20 kHz (200 W), was applied to minimally processed potatoes of two commonly grown cultivars in Ireland. Changes in colour and microbial load (Enterobacteriaceae, total aerobic count, Salmonella, yeasts, and moulds) were monitored in vacuum-packaged potatoes during 14 days of storage at 4 °C. HPP and HPP/US significantly (p < 0.05) affected the colour parameters a*, b*, L*, and ΔE of minimally processed potatoes compared to the controls. Microbial growth was delayed in most of the treated samples with respect to those untreated (controls), while HPP completely inactivated Enterobacteriaceae in both cultivars. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were not altered in the treated samples of both varieties when compared to the controls. The levels of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid were decreased after both treatments, with a significant (p < 0.05) increase in quinic acid in the treated samples as opposed to those untreated. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the levels of glycoalkaloids, namely α-chaconine and α-solanine, in HPP- and HPP/US-treated potatoes was also observed. These findings suggest that HPP and US can extend the shelf-life of minimally processed potatoes with a negligible impact on their antioxidant activity and phenolic content.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Pressão , Solanum tuberosum , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Cor , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fenóis , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia
10.
Food Chem ; 358: 129845, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933954

RESUMO

This study investigates the enhancing effect of power ultrasound (US, 80 W) on the drying characteristics, quality properties and microstructure of jackfruit slices treated with infrared (IR) treatments of 900 W, 1200 W and 1500 W in the meantime. Results showed that when ultrasound was applied, the drying time was reduced by 31%, 35% and 25% compared to pure IR 900 W, 1200 W and 1500 W, respectively. Meanwhile, Deff values of dried samples were improved. The application of ultrasound significantly increased vitamin C retention and total phenolic content at IR 900 W. The micrographs indicate that ultrasound provided a more porous microstructure of dried jackfruit slices thus accelerating the drying process. The color characteristics of IR-US samples showed no significant change compared to IR drying slices. This study shows that infrared assisted with ultrasound can be a potential method for industrial production of dried jackfruit slices.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Dessecação/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Fenóis
11.
Food Chem ; 358: 129802, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933979

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterize the antioxidant potential, bioactive and volatile compounds of the stones from fruits of Cornus mas. Both fresh and roasted stones show a high antioxidant potential (166.48-509.74 µmol TE/g dw stones), which significantly depends on the cultivars. The roasted stones preserved 43.6% (DPPH; 'Raciborski') to 97.2% (FRAP; 'Alesha') of the antioxidant activity of the non-roasted stones. In the stones, two iridoids and ellagic acid were determined. During roasting, loganic acid remained stable, whereas cornuside was completely degraded. The analyses showed a 30-fold increase in the concentration of ellagic acid and in the formation of two of its derivatives. The major aroma compound of the roasted stones was furfural, but we also identified 18 pyrazine derivatives. This study is the first attempt to valorize Cornelian cherry stones via roasting. The roasted stones can be a coffee substitute, or aromatic and bioactive additions to cereal coffees.


Assuntos
Cornus/química , Nozes/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Antioxidantes/química , Fracionamento Químico , Ácido Elágico/análise , Ácido Elágico/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Iridoides/análise , Iridoides/química , Odorantes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
12.
Food Chem ; 358: 129848, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933981

RESUMO

Autumn green tea (AT) has poor taste quality for its strong astringency. This study aims to improve the taste quality as well as the aroma of AT by Eurotium cristatum (MF800948) fermentation and to produce a fermented autumn green tea (FT). Results showed that the aroma quality of AT was improved, and the content of terpene alcohols that impart characteristic flowery aroma to FT significantly increased. The umami intensity of FT was comparable to that of AT while the astringency tasted much weaker mainly due to the oxidation of the catechins. The results also confirmed that theabrownins exhibited strong umami taste, not astringent taste. Finally, a metabolic map was analyzed to show the effect of E. cristatum (MF800948) on the quality of AT, and to visualize the changes of differential compounds in AT and FT. The work provides insights into the quality improvement of autumn green tea.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/metabolismo , Fermentação , Paladar , Chá/química , Catequina/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Odorantes , Estações do Ano , Terpenos/análise
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 348: 109151, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940535

RESUMO

Foodborne outbreaks associated with transmission of norovirus are increasingly becoming a public health concern. Foods can be contaminated with faecal material at the point of production or during food preparation, in both the home and in commercial premises. Transmission of norovirus occurs through the faecal-oral route, either via person-to-person contact or through faecal-contamination of food, water, or environmental surfaces. Understanding the role and pathways of norovirus transmission - either via food handlers' hands, contaminated foods or the environment - remains a key public health priority to reduce the burden of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis. However the proportion of norovirus that is typically transferred remains unknown. Understanding this is necessary to estimate the risk of infection and the burden of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus. In this paper we present a novel method of capture, concentration and molecular detection of norovirus from a wider range of complex food matrices than those demonstrated in existing published methods. We demonstrate that this method can be used as a tool to detect and quantify norovirus from naturally contaminated food, and for monitoring norovirus transfer between food handlers' gloved hands, food or the environment. We measure the effect of introducing contamination at different food production process stages, to the final food product, to determine whether this could cause infection and disease. Between 5.9 and 6.3 Log10 cDNA copies/µl of norovirus GII were inoculated onto food handlers' gloved hands, food or the environment and 1.1-7.4% of norovirus contamination was recovered from all samples tested. When interpreted quantitatively, this percentage equates to levels predicted to be sufficient to cause infection and disease through consumption of the final food product, demonstrating a public health risk. Overall detection and quantification of norovirus from foods, food handlers' gloved hands and the environment, when suspected to be implicated in foodborne transmissions, is paramount for appropriate outbreak investigation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/transmissão , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Norovirus/genética , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Fezes/virologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos
14.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103778, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875207

RESUMO

Bacteria can play different roles and impart various flavors and characteristics to food. Few studies have described bacterial microbiota of butter. In this study, next-generation sequencing was used to determine bacterial content of raw milk butter, processed during a challenge test, depending on cream maturation temperature and on the presence or not of L. monocytogenes. Two batches were produced. pH and microbiological analyses were conducted during cream maturation and butter storage. DNA was also isolated from all samples for 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis. For butter made from cream matured at 14 °C, a growth potential of L. monocytogenes of - 1.72 log cfu/g was obtained. This value corresponds to the difference between the median of counts at the end of storage and the median of counts at the beginning of storage. This butter (pH value of 4.75 ± 0.04) was characterized by a dominance of Lactococcus. The abundance of Lactococcus was significantly higher in inoculated samples than in control samples (p value < 0.05). Butter made from cream matured at 4 °C (pH value of 6.81 ± 0.01) presented a growth potential of 1.81 log cfu/g. It was characterized by the abundance of psychrotrophic bacteria mainly Pseudomonas. This study demonstrated that cream maturation temperature impacts butter microbiota, affecting thus product's characteristics and its ability to support or not the growth of pathogens like L. monocytogenes.


Assuntos
Manteiga/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite/microbiologia , Animais , Manteiga/análise , Bovinos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/metabolismo , Leite/química , Temperatura
15.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103788, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875216

RESUMO

The production of volatile compounds in naturally fermented green table olives from Manzanilla cultivar was investigated. A total of 62 volatile compounds were detected after 24 weeks of fermentation. To clarify the contribution of yeasts to the formation of these compounds, such microorganisms were isolated from the corresponding fermenting brines. Five major yeast strains were identified: Nakazawaea molendinolei NC168.1, Zygotorulaspora mrakii NC168.2, Pichia manshurica NC168.3, Candida adriatica NC168.4, and Candida boidinii NC168.5. When these yeasts were grown as pure cultures in an olive-derived culture medium, for 7 days at 25 °C, the number of volatiles produced ranged from 22 (P. manshurica NC168.3) to 60 (C. adriatica NC168.4). Contribution of each yeast strain to the qualitative volatile profile of fermenting brines ranged from 19% (P. manshurica NC168.3) to 48% (Z. mrakii NC168.2 and C. adriatica NC168.4). It was concluded that C. adriatica NC168.4 presented the best aromatic profile, being a solid candidate to be part of a novel starter culture to enhance the organoleptic properties of naturally fermented green table olives.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Olea/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Leveduras/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/instrumentação , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Olea/metabolismo , Sais/química , Sais/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/genética , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação
16.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103789, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875217

RESUMO

Lentilactobacillus parabuchneri, a member of the non-starter microbiota in cheese, was recently associated with fast and effective histamine-formation ability, a safety issue. The present study was performed to investigate Lentilactobacillus parabuchneri KUH8, a histamine-producer (HP) in reduced-salt Cheddar cheese. Four cheeses were manufactured: 1) normal-salt (NS); 2) reduced-salt (RS); 3) normal-salt with HP (NS+HP); 4) reduced-salt with HP (RS+HP). Two replicates were produced with milk from the same batch, and the cheeses ripened at 10 and 15 °C. Cheeses were sampled immediately after manufacture and after 1, 3 and 6 months of ripening. Ultra-high-performance-liquid chromatography indicated that with the HP, histamine reached higher levels in reduced-salt cheeses (3.5-3.7% S/M) at 15 °C (86, 1112, 2149 and 3149 mg kg-1), compared to normal-salt cheeses (5.4-6.3% S/M) at 10 °C (78, 584, 593 and 1389 mg kg-1), at each respective cheese-sampling point. Higher salt-content reduced the growth rate of non-starter microbiota, but after six months the levels in all cheeses were similar, according to the ripening temperature: at 10 °C (8.05-8.30 log10 cfu g-1), and at 15 °C (6.00-6.94 log10 cfu g-1). A correlation between increased histamine levels, non-starter-cell development and pH was found. This study highlights the importance of normal-salt content and low-ripening temperature as measures to control histamine-formation and to improve safety in cheese.


Assuntos
Queijo/análise , Queijo/microbiologia , Histamina/metabolismo , Lactobacillaceae/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Histamina/análise , Leite/química , Leite/microbiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809470

RESUMO

Muslim tourism is one of the most rapidly developing sectors in the international tourism industry. Nevertheless, halal food performance and its relationship with international Muslim traveler decision-making and behaviors have not been sufficiently examined. The present research explored the influence of halal food performance, which encompasses availability, health/nutrition, accreditation, and cleanness/safety/hygiene factors, on the Muslim traveler retention process at a non-Islamic destination. A survey methodology with a quantitative data analytic approach was employed to achieve research goals. Our findings indicated that halal food performance increased destination trust and destination attachment, which in turn influenced Muslim traveler retention. Additionally, the efficacy of the higher-order framework of halal food performance was defined. Both destination trust and attachment mediated the effect of halal food performance on retention. A halal-friendly destination image included a moderating influence on the retention process. The effectiveness of the proposed theoretical framework for explicating Muslim traveler behaviors was uncovered. This research better introduces the importance of halal food performance and its attributes for the elicitation of Muslim traveler approach responses and behaviors at a non-Islamic destination to researchers and practitioners.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , 51675 , Manipulação de Alimentos , Islamismo , Carne/análise
18.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 13, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the Nova score for the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and evaluate its potential in reflecting the dietary share of UPF in Brazil. METHODS: This study was conducted in São Paulo with a convenience sample of 300 adults. Using a tablet, participants answered a 3-minute electronic self-report questionnaire on the consumption of 23 subgroups of UPF commonly consumed in Brazil, regarding the day prior the survey. Each participant score corresponded to the number of subgroups reported. The dietary share of UPF on the day prior to the survey, expressed as a percentage of total energy intake, was calculated based on data collected on a 30-minute complete 24-hour dietary recall administered by trained nutritionists. The association between the score and the dietary share of UPF was evaluated using linear regression models. The Pabak index was used to assess the agreement in participants' classification according to the fifths of Nova score and the fifths of dietary share of UPF. RESULTS: The average dietary share of UPF increased linearly and significantly with the increase of the Nova score for the consumption of ultra-processed foods. We found a substantial agreement in participants' classification according to the fifths of the distribution of scores and the fifths of the dietary share of UPF (Pabak index = 0.67). Age was inversely associated with a relatively high frequency of UPF consumption (upper fifth of the distribution) for both score and dietary share of UPF. CONCLUSION: The Nova score for the consumption of ultra-processed foods, obtained in a quick and practical manner, shows a good potential in reflecting the dietary share of UPF in Brazil.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Manipulação de Alimentos , Adulto , Brasil , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos
19.
Food Chem ; 355: 129525, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799266

RESUMO

Available nuclear gene sequences for meat detection are still rare and little applicability in the investigation of new types of meat adulteration such as fox, mink and raccoon dog was performed. In the present work, we developed a reliable qualitative and quantitative detection method for fur-bearing animal meat based on droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Three sets of primers and probes targeted nuclear genes for fox, mink and raccoon dog were designed for ddPCR system; In addition, turkey was selected as internal reference to transform the copy numbers to the fraction of target species. Results indicated that the dynamic ranges of three fur-bearing animals were all from 1% to 90%; the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for three fur-bearing animals were same, with LOD 0.1% (w/w) and LOQ 1% (w/w). Moreover, we confirmed that different additives had no effect on quantification accuracy in the ddPCR assay.


Assuntos
Pelo Animal , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Carne/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Animais , Primers do DNA/genética , Limite de Detecção , Mamíferos
20.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806878

RESUMO

High-pressure homogenization (HPH) is one of the food-processing methods being tested for use in food preservation as an alternative to pasteurization. The effects of the HPH process on food can vary depending on the process parameters used and product characteristics. The study aimed to investigate the effect of pressure, the number of passes, and the inlet temperature of HPH processing on the quality of cloudy blackcurrant juice as an example of food rich in bioactive compounds. For this purpose, the HPH treatment (pressure of 50, 150, and 220 MPa; one, three, and five passes; inlet temperature at 4 and 20 °C) and the pasteurization of the juice were performed. Titratable acidity, pH, turbidity, anthocyanin, vitamin C, and total phenolics content, as well as colour, and antioxidant activity were measured. Heat treatment significantly decreased the quality of the juice. For processing of the juice, the best were the combinations of the following: one pass, the inlet temperature of 4 °C, any of the used pressures (50, 150, and 220 MPa); and one pass, the inlet temperature of 20 °C, and the pressure of 150 MPa. Vitamin C and anthocyanin degradation have been reported during the HPH. The multiple passes of the juice through the machine were only beneficial in increasing the antioxidant capacity but negatively affected the colour stability.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Frutas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Ribes/química , Pressão
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