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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361654

RESUMO

Growing attention to environmental protection leads food industries to adopt a model of "circular economy" applying safe and sustainable technologies to recover, recycle and valorize by-products. Therefore, by-products become raw material for other industries. Tomato processing industry produces significant amounts of by-products, consisting of skins and seeds. Tomato skin is very rich in lycopene, and from its seeds, high nutritional oil can be extracted. Alternative use of the two fractions not only could cut disposal costs but also allow one to extract bioactive compounds and an oil with a high nutritional value. This review focused on the recent advance in extraction of lycopene, whose beneficial effects on health are widely recognized.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Licopeno/isolamento & purificação , Lycopersicon esculentum , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo
2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443362

RESUMO

The polyphenol content of tea depends on the growing region, harvest date, the production process used, and the brewing parameters. In this study, research was undertaken that included an analysis of the influence of the brewing process parameters on the content of total polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteu), epigallocatechin gallate (HPLC), and antioxidant activity (against DPPH radicals) of fresh tea shrub leaves grown from Taiwan and of teas obtained from them (oolong, green in bags, and green loose from the spring and autumn harvest). The antioxidant potential was determined in the methanol and aqueous extracts, as well as in infusions that were obtained by using water at 65 or 100 °C and infusing the tea for 5 or 10 min. The highest content of total polyphenols and epigallocatechin gallate was found in green tea extracts from the spring harvest. However, in the case of infusions, the highest content of these compounds was found in green tea in bags. Steaming at 100 °C for 10 min, turned out to be the most favourable condition for the extraction. Oolong tea, brewed at 100 °C for 5 min was characterised by the highest antioxidant activity against stable DPPH radicals.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Camellia sinensis/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444936

RESUMO

A debate is ongoing on the significance and appropriateness of the NOVA classification as a tool for categorizing foods based on their degree of processing. As such, the role of ultra-processed food (UPF) on human health is still not completely understood. With this review, we aimed to investigate the actual level of consumption of UPF across countries and target populations to determine the impact in real contexts. Suitable articles published up to March 2021 were sourced through the PubMed and SCOPUS databases. Overall, 99 studies providing data on the level of UPF consumption expressed as the percentage of total energy intake were identified, for a total of 1,378,454 participants. Most of them were published in Brazil (n = 38) and the United States (n = 15), and the 24 h recall was the most-used tool (n = 63). Analysis of the results revealed that the United States and the United Kingdom were the countries with the highest percent energy intake from UPF (generally >50%), whereas Italy had the lowest levels (about 10%); the latter was inversely associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet. High variability was also observed based on sex, age, and body mass index, with men, young people, and overweight/obese subjects generally having higher levels of consumption compared to older subjects. Overall, our findings underline the large differences in UPF intake. Since most of the observations derived from studies conducted with food questionnaires are not specifically validated for UPF, further efforts are essential to confirm the results previously obtained and to investigate further the association between UPF consumption and health status, also considering the actual contribution within different dietary patterns, which has been less investigated to date.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299415

RESUMO

Chemical characteristics of raw and processed Istarski prsut (PDO) produced from two different pig genotypes were studied with special emphasis on amino and fatty acid composition and factors of lipid stability. Raw hams of Large White (LW)xLandrace (L), and (LWxL)xDuroc (D) pig genotypes were used in the study (20 hams of each genotype). All left raw hams from each carcass were processed in accordance with the PDO specification of Istarski prsut, and other half (the right ones) of LWxL)xD genotype were used for analyses of raw hams (fresh muscles). Istarski prsut was evaluated on the basis of the chemical parameters of the raw and matured lean ham. The process of dry curing significantly influenced the chemical properties of Istarski prsut. Despite the higher content of intramuscular fat and polyunsaturated fatty acids, the fat of (LWxL)xD ham was much more resistant to hydrolysis and oxidation, suggesting that fatty acid profile and other factors, also play a significant role. Significant differences between pig genotypes in the amino acid and fatty acid profiles were found. The analyzed Istarski prsut may be distinguished by prints of multivariate chemometric statistical analysis, based on their amino acid and fatty acid compositions.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Lipídeos/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carne de Porco/análise , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Genótipo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Suínos/classificação , Suínos/genética
5.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299427

RESUMO

Strawberry is the most consumed berry fruit worldwide due to its unique aroma and flavor. Drying fruits to produce a powder represents one of the possible conservation methods to extend their shelf-life. The aim of the present study was to compare the influence of freezing and different drying methods on the volatile profile of strawberry using the HS-SPME/GC-MS method, in addition to analysis of strawberry jam volatiles. A total of 165 compounds were identified, accounting for 85.03-96.88% of the total volatile compositions. Results and PCA showed that freezing and each drying process affected the volatile profile in a different way, and the most remarkable representative differential volatiles were ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, mesifurane, (E)-nerolidol, γ-decalactone, 1-hexanol, and acetoin. Shade air-dried, frozen, freeze-dried, and oven-dried 45 °C samples retained more of the fruity and sweet aromas of strawberry, representing more than 68% of the total aroma intensity according to the literature. In contrast, the microwave-drying method showed drastic loss of fruity esters. Strawberry jams demonstrated complete destruction of esters and alcohols in most jams, while terpenes were significantly increased. These findings help better understand the aroma of strawberry and provide a guide for the effects of drying, freezing, and jam processing.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Fragaria/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Álcoois/análise , Dessecação/métodos , Ésteres/análise , Aromatizantes/análise , Fragaria/metabolismo , Liofilização/métodos , Congelamento , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Paladar
6.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299432

RESUMO

Physiologically dropped immature Citrus reticulata Blanco fruits are regarded as waste and discarded in the citrus orchard but are a good source of bioactive compounds including flavonoids, antioxidants and total phenols. A study was undertaken to identify and quantify these bioactive compounds and to investigate the influence of different drying techniques, namely freeze drying and hot air oven drying, on flavonoids namely flavanone glycosides, antioxidant potential and total phenol content in immature dropped fruits of Citrus reticulata Blanco. Flavonoids were quantified in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidant activity were investigated with three assays azino-bis [3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid]) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) and total phenol content was determined. Freeze dried samples of 12 and 14 mm size retained maximum hesperidin flavonoid content (27.03% and 27.20%) as compared to the hot air dried samples (17.99%) and retained higher phenolic content ranged from 50.54-54.19 mg GAEL-1. The antioxidant activity in freeze dried fruits was from 12.21-13.55 mM L-1 Trolox and 15.27-16.72 mM L-1 Trolox with ABTS, DPPH assay and FRAP values ranging from 7.31-9.07 mM L-1 Trolox. Significant positive correlation was found between the flavonoid hesperidin with antioxidant assays and total phenolic content (TPC). The results showed that waste citrus fruits can act as potential source of bioflavonoids, especially hesperidin, and antioxidants for pharmaceutical as well as nutraceutical industry.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Flavonoides/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Antioxidantes , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Citrus/metabolismo , Citrus/fisiologia , Dessecação/métodos , Flavonas/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Liofilização/métodos , Frutas/química , Glicosídeos/análise , Hesperidina/análise , Temperatura Alta , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
7.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208715

RESUMO

Vegetable processing pomace contains valuable substances such as natural colors that can be reused as functional ingredients. Due to a large amount of water, they are an unstable material. The aim of our research was to assess how the pretreatment method (thermal or nonthermal) affects the properties of powders obtained from beet juice and pomace after the freeze-drying process. The raw material was steamed or sonicated for 10 or 15 min, and then squeezed into juice and pomace. Both squeezed products were freeze-dried. The content of dry substance; L*, a*, and b* color parameters; and the content of betalain pigments were analyzed. Pretreatments increased the proportion of red and yellow in the juices. Steam and ultrasound caused a significant reduction in parameter b* in the dried pomace. A significant increase in betanin in lyophilizates was observed after pretreatment with ultrasound and steam for 15 min. As a result of all experiments, dried juices and pomaces can also be used as a colorant source. However, there is higher potential with pomaces due to their additional internal substances as well as better storage properties. After a few hours, juice was sticky and not ready to use.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/química , Betalaínas/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes , Beta vulgaris/metabolismo , Betacianinas/química , Betalaínas/química , Cor , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Liofilização , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205651

RESUMO

High-pressure processing (HPP) has emerged over the last 2 decades as a good alternative to traditional thermal treatment for food safety and shelf-life extension, supplying foods with similar characteristics to those of fresh products. Currently, HPP has also been proposed as a useful tool to reduce food contaminants, such as pesticides and mycotoxins. The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of HPP technology at 600 MPa during 5 min at room temperature on alternariol (AOH) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) mycotoxins reduction in different juice models. The effect of HPP has also been compared with a thermal treatment performed at 90 °C during 21 s. For this, different juice models, orange juice/milk beverage, strawberry juice/milk beverage and grape juice, were prepared and spiked individually with AOH and AFB1 at a concentration of 100 µg/L. After HPP and thermal treatments, mycotoxins were extracted from treated samples and controls by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and determined by HPLC-MS/MS-IT. The results obtained revealed reduction percentages up to 24% for AFB1 and 37% for AOH. Comparing between different juice models, significant differences were observed for AFB1 residues in orange juice/milk versus strawberry juice/milk beverages after HPP treatment. Moreover, HPP resulted as more effective than thermal treatment, being an effective tool to incorporate to food industry in order to reach mycotoxins reductions.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/química , Bebidas/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Frutas/química , Leite/química , Vitis/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Lactonas/química , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Micotoxinas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
9.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 76: 105625, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147916

RESUMO

Ultrasound has a significant effect on the rate of various processes in food, perfume, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, bio-fuel, materials, or fine chemical industries, despite some shortcomings. Combination with other conventional or innovative techniques can overcome these limitations, enhance energy, momentum and mass transfer, and has been successfully demonstrated in many recent studies. Various ultrasound combined hybrid and innovative techniques are systematically summarized in this review for the first time. Ultrasound can be combined with diverse conventional techniques including Soxhlet, Clevenger, enzyme, hydrotropes, ionic liquids, Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES) or Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES), to enhance mixing and micro-mixing, reduced thermal and concentration gradients, and selective extraction. Moreover, combinations of ultrasound with other innovative techniques such as microwave, extrusion, supercritical fluid, subcritical and pressure liquids, Instant controlled pressure drop (DIC), Pulsed Electric Field (PEF), Ultra-Violet (UV) or Infra-Red (IR) radiations, Counter-current chromatography (CCC), or centrifugal partition chromatographs (CPC) can enable reduced equipment size, faster response to process control, faster start-up, increased production, and elimination of process steps. The theories and applications of these ultrasound combined hybrid and innovative techniques as well as their advantages and limitations are compared, and further perspectives are proposed. This review provides new insights into advances in ultrasound combined techniques and their application at research, educational, and industrial level in modern food and plant-based chemistry.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Ondas Ultrassônicas
10.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 2802-2815, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146414

RESUMO

Over the past few years, the market for cheese substitutes has been growing on account of the simple and cost-effective production of these cheese-like products. It is well established that the functional properties of cheeses are directly related to their composition. Therefore, the variation of fat in cheese substitutes certainly affects the characteristics of the cheeses. The purpose of this review was to summarize the latest research on the effects of milk fat replacement with vegetable oils on the rheological, textural, and microstructural properties of cheese analogues. The findings suggest that the primary effects of modifying fat in cheese analogues are associated with an alteration in the interactions among the components of the protein matrix, which varies because of milk fat extraction. Overall, changes in the functional properties of analogous cheeses will depend on the type of oil, the percentage of fat modification, and the type of cheese produced.


Assuntos
Queijo/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Leite/química , Reologia , Animais
11.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 2939-2948, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146418

RESUMO

Catfish (Sciades herzbergii) are widely captured in Brazilian Northeast but have low commercial value. The processing of catfish into an innovative product with longer shelf life can add value to the fish and improve sustainability. The objective of this study was to investigate the stability during 60 days of refrigerated storage smoked sausages produced by two different smoking processes (traditional smoking [TS] and liquid smoking [LS]). The smoking processes affected fat and ash contents, hardness, and CIE (Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage) color (L* and b* values). TS sausages had higher fat content and yellowness (b* value). LS sausages had higher ash content (15 days of storage) and lightness (L* value). The sausage's hardness was higher at 45 days of storage for TS and at 60 days for LS sausages. During refrigerated storage, there were decreases in crude protein (309.12-263.49 g/kg, 1-30 days, respectively), water holding capacity (89.77%-87.39%, 1-45 days, respectively), and redness (a* value) (10.35-6.09, 1-30 days, respectively), and increases in hardness (TS = 31.92-55.92 N, 1-45 days, respectively; LS = 32.88-61.18N, 160 days, respectively) and TBARS values (1.56-2.38 mg malonaldehyde/kg, 1-60 days, respectively). The microbial quality was kept within Brazilian legislation limits. Therefore, liquid smoked catfish sausage consists of a convenient innovative product, which is easier to process and control and provides a product with good physicochemical, microbial, and biochemical characteristics for up to 60 days of storage. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Catfish, a low commercial value fish (by catch from shrimp operations), can be processed into a high value smoked sausage. Liquid smoking was easier to process, environment friendly, and easier to control compared to traditional smoking. It provided a nutritional, easy to prepare at home, and microbial safe product with a shelf life under refrigeration up to 60 days. It can be successfully used to warrant sustainability in the fish chain.


Assuntos
Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Animais , Brasil , Peixes-Gato , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Dureza , Refrigeração , Fumaça
12.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 3188-3194, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146420

RESUMO

Food processors invest significant resources into environmental sampling to detect contamination with potential pathogens, particularly Listeria monocytogenes. To facilitate these efforts, multiple environmental sampling tests (ESTs) have been developed and commercialized that minimize workload, turnaround time, and cost while providing convenient colorimetric detection. For presumptive-positive ESTs, we hypothesized that a relatively minor additional investment could provide, in addition to species confirmation, valuable strain typing data for tracking pathogen spread through a facility, identifying harborage sites, and distinguishing sporadic from persistent or resident contaminants. This hypothesis is based on the demonstrated compatibility of polymorphic locus sequence typing (PLST) with crude samples including food enrichments. Five Listeria ESTs were tested here: broth-based InSite (Hygiena), Path-Chek (Mericon), and Pathfinder (Hardy Diagnositics); and gel-based Petrifilm (3M) and HardyChrom (Hardy Diagnostics). ESTs were inoculated with strains representing two common L. monocytogenes serotypes and nonpathogenic Listeria innocua. Following incubation, broths or suspended colonies were heat treated to inactivate bacteria. Lysates or purified DNAs were prepared and used as templates in PCRs targeting the previously described PLST loci LmiMT1 and LisMT2. Single clear products were obtained from all inoculated ESTs; uninoculated controls were negative. PCR products were subjected to Sanger sequencing, yielding high-quality chromatograms. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed identities to previously determined sequences and revealed relatedness to serotype-matched strains represented in GenBank databases. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Multiple environmental sampling tests have been commercialized in recent years to facilitate the proactive detection of pathogens, particularly Listeria monocytogenes, within food processing facilities. Coupling a positive detection test with strain typing would enhance its value by providing data that can be used to track pathogen spread through a facility, identify harborage sites, and distinguish sporadic from resident contamination.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Listeria/química , Listeria/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
13.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 2990-3000, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146421

RESUMO

Effects of infrared ray roasting (IRR) on the oxidation stability and flavors of virgin rapeseed oil (VROs) at 110-170°C were investigated and compared with traditional roller roasting (TRR). Results showed that IRR samples showed lower acid and peroxides values, higher oxidation stability index, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than TRR ones. IRR samples displayed better thermal expansion of rapeseed for internal fragmentation from microstructures, which facilitated the release of tocophenols (652.63-748.78 mg/kg) and 4-vinylsyringol (7.54-678.19 mg/kg), compared with TRR ones with tocophenols (652.63-689.28 mg/kg) and 4-vinylsyringol (7.54-524.18 mg/kg) contributing to better oxidation stability. Moreover, important volatile compounds, including pyrazines, isothiocyanates, nitriles and aldehydes, were formed quantitatively more in IRR than TRR samples, which was attributed to better heat transfer efficiency and internal fragmentation promoting complex reactions inside rapeseed. Therefore, IRR has more positive roasting effects on VROs than TRR. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Virgin rapeseed oil is a massively consumed flavor vegetable oil, but the traditional high-temperature roller seed roasting process can cause serious quality problems. Our work applied a novel roasting technology, infrared ray roasting to rapeseed pretreatment. The results show that this new type of roasting technology is more efficient and stable and has important applications in the production of virgin rapeseed oil with better oxidative stability and flavor.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/química , Aromatizantes/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Óleo de Brassica napus/química , Sementes/efeitos da radiação , Brassica napus/efeitos da radiação , Culinária , Aromatizantes/efeitos da radiação , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Temperatura Alta , Raios Infravermelhos , Oxirredução , Sementes/química
14.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065743

RESUMO

Dietary plant polyphenols are natural bioactive compounds that are increasingly attracting the attention of food scientists and nutritionists because of their nutraceutical properties. In fact, many studies have shown that polyphenol-rich diets have protective effects against most chronic diseases. However, these health benefits are strongly related to both polyphenol content and bioavailability, which in turn depend on their origin, food matrix, processing, digestion, and cellular metabolism. Although most fruits and vegetables are valuable sources of polyphenols, they are not usually consumed raw. Instead, they go through some processing steps, either industrially or domestically (e.g., cooling, heating, drying, fermentation, etc.), that affect their content, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability. This review summarizes the status of knowledge on the possible (positive or negative) effects of commonly used food-processing techniques on phenolic compound content and bioavailability in fruits and vegetables. These effects depend on the plant type and applied processing parameters (type, duration, media, and intensity). This review attempts to shed light on the importance of more comprehensive dietary guidelines that consider the recommendations of processing parameters to take full advantage of phenolic compounds toward healthier foods.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Política Nutricional , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 352: 109267, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102464

RESUMO

The use of bacteriocins is a promising alternative to improve food security through the biocontrol of food pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Gram-negative produced microcin J25(G12Y), known as (MccJ25(G12Y)) is a variant of the well-studied and characterized antimicrobial peptide, microcin J25 (MccJ25). In the present work, we explored the activity of this microcin against Gram-negative bacteria linked to foodborne diseases. We evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of MccJ25(G12Y) in solid medium against a collection of pathogenic and food-altering strains and studied its activity and stability in meat and dairy food systems. We show that MccJ25(G12Y) exhibited the same in vitro antimicrobial spectrum as its parental microcin (MccJ25) against different Gram-negative foodborne pathogens and spoilage strains. We highlight that low concentrations of MccJ25(G12Y) between 0.45 and 29.4 µM were able to inhibit a substantial number of pathogens, including Salmonella, Escherichia, Shigella and Enterobacter genus. We also demonstrate the antimicrobial effectiveness of the peptide against Escherichia coli O157:H7 NCTC 12900, Enterobacter cloacae CECT 194, and Salmonella enterica CECT 4396 in fish and beef burgers and yogurt. MccJ25(G12Y) was added or not to food matrices inoculated with the foodborne pathogens at 105 CFU/g or mL. Afterward, food products were stored at 4 °C and selective media for the specific enumeration were used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of each pathogen to MccJ25(G12Y). The viability of the three pathogens was significantly reduced in the different food biological environments. In yogurt, the peptide decreased E. coli numbers on day 5 by about 4 log 10 CFU/mL as compared to non-treated samples. For S. enterica and E. cloacae no viable cells were detected at the end of the treatment. Adding MccJ25(G12Y) to fish burgers decreased E. cloacae numbers during storage 2 log10 CFU/g on the first day, reaching a difference of about 5 log 10 CFU/g after 10 days compared to non-treated control. Finally, the peptide decreased E. coli O157:H7 numbers on the beef burgers samples during storage on day 10 by about 3 log 10 CFU/g as compared to non-treated samples. The stability analysis demonstrated that MccJ25(G12Y) is capable of remaining active in these food matrices for a considerable time during the storage at refrigeration temperatures. These results reinforce the studies on the potential applicability of this microcin as a biopreservative in the food industry.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 352: 109265, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116257

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is a potentially fatal foodborne pathogen that can be found in various ready-to-eat (RTE) products. It tolerates adverse conditions such as high salt concentrations and refrigerated storage, thus, the elimination of the pathogen in food processing often relies on heat processing. The objective of this study was to create a model to predict the effect of salt on heat tolerance of L. monocytogenes in meat and seafood products during heat treatments conducted at 57 to 65 °C to reduce numbers by ≥3 log10 cycles. Salt concentrations, up to 6% in the water phase (WPS%), were applied to cover a variety of lightly salted RTE meat and seafood products. The experimental work involved samples of ground pork tenderloin, ground chicken breast fillet and skinned, ground salmon fillet adjusted to different WPS% i.e., 3.6 and 5.2 WPS% for pork samples, 2.0, 3.0, 3.5 and 6.0 WPS% for chicken samples and 3.0 and 6.0 WPS% for salmon samples. All samples were inoculated with late-stationary phase L. monocytogenes cultures. For pork samples, a two-strain mixture of a pork isolate (MS22254) and an environmental isolate (MS22246) was applied. For chicken and salmon samples, a seafood isolate (MS22258) and isolate MS22246 was applied as single cultures. Samples were vacuum-packed in sterile bags, immerged in water bath, and held at constant temperatures of 57, 60 and 65 °C for pork samples and 58, 61 and 62.5 °C for chicken and salmon samples. For survivor curves, where at least 3 log10-reduction were obtained, heat tolerance was expressed as decimal reduction times, D-values. D-values were observed to increase with increasing WPS%. The effect of salt on heat tolerance of L. monocytogenes was defined as the relative increase (RI-value) in D-value obtained when salt had been added to the food. The effect of WPS% on RI-values was independent of heating temperatures, foods and strains. For secondary modelling, RI-values were transformed using the natural logarithm, ln(RI) and fitted to a linear model as a function of WPS%. Model validation, with 56 independent values collected from the scientific literature, resulted in bias and accuracy factors of 0.89 and 1.26, respectively, suggesting acceptable performance with tendency to slightly under-predict. The developed predictive model can be used to guide the design of heat processes for manufacturers of lightly preserved and mildly processed meat and seafood products requiring more than 3 log10 reduction of L. monocytogenes to ensure safety.


Assuntos
Produtos Pesqueiros/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Termotolerância/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta
17.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 75: 105589, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015685

RESUMO

In this study combined effect of ultrasound-induced acoustic cavitation and microbubbles during meat brining on pork loin (Longissimus dorsi) was evaluated. Cylindrical shape (diameter 15 mm, height 80 mm) pork loin samples were cut and immersed in 200 g L-1 NaCl brine and treated with the following brining methods for 180 min: static brining (SB), ultrasound assisted brining (US) and ultrasound combined with microbubbles in brine (USMB). Ultrasound was generated with 20 kHz frequency, 5,09 W/cm2 maximum intensity and 100 W maximum power. Microbubbles in brine were produced by a gas-liquid mixing pump. Effect of ultrasound and microbbubles on NaCl content and diffusion in pork loin, mass balance, water binding capacity (WBC), protein denaturation and meat tissue microstructure were evaluated. The US and USMB brinings enhanced the NaCl diffusion into meat compared to meat brined under static conditions. The constant diffusion coefficient (D) model precisely described the NaCl diffusion kinetics during brinings. The ultrasound and microbbubles resulted in microscopic pores on the surface of myofibers. Decreasing WBC was observed for all brining methods. Myosin was not detectable in any of the brining methods. Denaturation temperature of actin showed a decreasing tendency with increasing brining time independently the brining methods.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbolhas , Carne de Porco , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Difusão , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Água/química
18.
Biomolecules ; 11(5)2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946460

RESUMO

Formulations with lactate as an antimicrobial and high-pressure processing (HPP) as a lethal treatment are combined strategies used to control L. monocytogenes in cooked meat products. Previous studies have shown that when HPP is applied in products with lactate, the inactivation of L. monocytogenes is lower than that without lactate. The purpose of the present work was to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the piezo-protection effect of lactate. Two L. monocytogenes strains (CTC1034 and EGDe) were independently inoculated in a cooked ham model medium without and with 2.8% potassium lactate. Samples were pressurized at 400 MPa for 10 min at 10 °C. Samples were subjected to RNA extraction, and a shotgun transcriptome sequencing was performed. The short exposure of L. monocytogenes cells to lactate through its inoculation in a cooked ham model with lactate 1h before HPP promoted a shift in the pathogen's central metabolism, favoring the metabolism of propanediol and ethanolamine together with the synthesis of the B12 cofactor. Moreover, the results suggest an activated methyl cycle that would promote modifications in membrane properties resulting in an enhanced resistance of the pathogen to HPP. This study provides insights on the mechanisms developed by L. monocytogenes in response to lactate and/or HPP and sheds light on the understanding of the piezo-protective effect of lactate.


Assuntos
Membrana Externa Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , DNA Bacteriano , Etanolamina/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriose/microbiologia , Membranas/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Pressão , Propilenoglicóis/metabolismo , Suínos , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Vitamina B 12/biossíntese
19.
Meat Sci ; 178: 108525, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932729

RESUMO

Drying behavior and instrumental color development of beef slices untreated or pretreated with salt or salt and vinegar solutions were monitored by determining the moisture content and the color change by measuring CIELAB values during drying at 50, 60, and 70 °C. Time-series hyperspectral imaging (400-1000 nm) was applied with regard to the development of non-invasive measurement systems based on robust models to predict moisture and color independent of the pre-treatment and drying temperature. Samples pretreated with salt dried the slowest which became more prominent at increasing drying temperatures and the least color change (∆E = 23) was observed at 60 °C drying temperature. Robust prediction models for moisture content and CIELAB values irrespective of pre-treatment and processing conditions were developed successfully and improved by wavelengths selection with high R2 (0.94-0.98) and low RMSEP (1.05-5.22) which will support the future development of simple and cost-effective applications regarding non-invasive product monitoring systems for beef drying processes.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Ácido Acético/química , Animais , Bovinos , Cor , Feminino , Imageamento Hiperespectral/métodos , Cloreto de Sódio/química
20.
Meat Sci ; 178: 108526, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945979

RESUMO

Pemmican is a meat product principally comprised of dried meat and fat that has served as a source of sustenance in cold, harsh climates and/or a means of preservation of meat for some Indigenous peoples, fur traders, polar explorers, military and police. Pemmican is acclaimed for its high nutrient density and long shelf life. However, for a meat product that has historically played a significant role and is often cited as the ultimate endurance food, there is a surprising paucity of scientific literature. The present study aims to review the literature to document the history of pemmican, its preparation, nutritional evaluation and additional use in the diet of animals. In view of food security and crisis situations in the world today, meat science may have a role to play in reviving, reformulating and potentially developing new processing strategies for a product like pemmican as a culturally appropriate food, with extended use as emergency provisions or for endurance athletes.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/história , Animais , Armazenamento de Alimentos , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Valor Nutritivo
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