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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 53-60, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190649

RESUMO

Intimate partner sexual violence has countless consequences for women suffering it. This research analyse the effect of the type of sexual coercion tactic and partner dependence on both the attribution of responsibility and the probability of leaving a relationship. In Study 1, six scenarios for different sexual tactics were presented (coaxing, coercion, and aggression) to 5 experts in order to select those with better evidence of content validity regarding the construct evaluated. In Study 2, the three selected scenarios were presented to 304 Spanish participants from the general population, analysing the effect of the type of tactic and dependence on attributed responsibility and the probability of leaving a relationship. Results showed that in the sexual aggression scenario, participants assigned the highest responsibility to the aggressorand showed the strongest likelihood of leaving the relationship. Further, results revealed that in the coaxing scenario, dependence had an indirect effect on the probability of leaving the relationship through a lower responsibility attributed to the aggressor. As a conclusion, this study emphasises the importance of the sexual tactic used by aggressors in individuals' perception about sexual coercion, contributing to increasing the visibility of this unacceptable action, especially in its more subtle and normalised form


La violencia sexual en las relaciones de pareja tiene innumerables consecuencias para las mujeres que la sufren. Esta investigación analiza el efecto del tipo de táctica de coerción sexual y la dependencia de la pareja en la atribución de responsabilidad y la probabilidad de dejar la relación. En el Estudio 1 se presentaron seis escenarios sobre diferentes tácticas sexuales(persuasión, coerción y agresión) a 5 expertos con la finalidad de seleccionar a aquellos que mostraran una mayor validez de contenido con respecto al constructo evaluado. En el Estudio 2, 304 participantes leyeron los tres escenarios seleccionados y se analizó el efecto del tipo de táctica y la dependencia en la responsabilidad atribuida y en la probabilidad de dejar la relación. Los resultados mostraron que los participantes responsabilizaban más al agresor y dejarían con más probabilidad la relación en la condición de agresión sexual que en la condición de coerción sexual o persuasión sexual. Además, los resultados revelan que en el escenario más sutil (persuasión) la dependencia tiene un efecto indirecto sobre probabilidad de dejar la relación a través de una menor responsabilidad atribuida al agresor. Como conclusión, esta investigación enfatiza la importancia que tiene la táctica sexual utilizada por el agresor en la percepción de la coerción sexual, contribuyendo a aumentar la visibilidad de este acto inaceptable, especialmente en su forma más sutil y normalizada


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Dependência Psicológica , Manobra Psicológica , Fatores de Risco
2.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231454, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287297

RESUMO

Handling of laboratory mice is essential for experiments and husbandry, but handling can increase anxiety in mice, compromising their welfare and potentially reducing replicability between studies. The use of non-aversive handling (e.g., tunnel handling or cupping), rather than the standard method of picking mice up by the tail, has been shown to enhance interaction with a handler, reduce anxiety-like behaviours, and increase exploration and performance in standard behavioural tests. Despite this, some labs continue to use tail handling for routine husbandry, and the extent to which non-aversive methods are being used is currently unknown. Here we conducted an international online survey targeting individuals that work with and/or conduct research using laboratory mice. The survey aimed to identify the handling methods currently being used, and to determine common obstacles that may be preventing the wider uptake of non-aversive handling. We also surveyed opinions concerning the current data in support of non-aversive handling for mouse welfare and scientific outcomes. 390 complete responses were received and analysed quantitatively and thematically. We found that 35% report using tail handling only, and 43% use a combination of tail and non-aversive methods. 18% of respondents reported exclusively using non-aversive methods. The vast majority of participants were convinced that non-aversive handling improves animal welfare and scientific outcomes. However, the survey indicated that researchers were significantly less likely to have heard of non-aversive handling and more likely to use tail handling compared with animal care staff. Thematic analysis revealed there were concerns regarding the time required for non-aversive methods compared with tail handling, and that there was a perceived incompatibility of tunnel handling with restraint, health checks and other routine procedures. Respondents also highlighted a need for additional research into the impact of handling method that is representative of experimental protocols and physiological indicators used in the biomedical fields. This survey highlights where targeted research, outreach, training and funding may have the greatest impact on increasing uptake of non-aversive handling methods for laboratory mice.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criação de Animais Domésticos/ética , Bem-Estar do Animal/tendências , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Manobra Psicológica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisadores , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Rev. salud bosque ; 10(1): 1-9, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1103952

RESUMO

Introducción. El apego se define como aquel vínculo significativo que se establece entre personas. Cuando este se rompe, ocurre lo que se denomi-na una pérdida significativa seguida de un proceso de duelo, el cual con-siste en una reacción de dolor natural ante el desprendimiento de algo o de alguien. Durante este proceso, la espiritualidad es una estrategia central para sobreponerse a una experiencia dolorosa; sin embargo, esta también puede verse afectada por los significados que se le atribuyen. La terapia de aceptación y compromiso se emplea en distintos desórdenes psicológicos que involucran la evitación experiencial, incluyendo el duelo.Objetivo. Evaluar el duelo complicado espiritual en pacientes tratados con terapia de aceptación y compromiso, antes y después de la intervención.Materiales y métodos. Se aplicó el cuestionario Inventory of Complicated Spiritual Grief a pacientes con duelo antes y después de ser tratados con terapia de aceptación y compromiso en la Clínica del Duelo del Cen-tro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad de Guadalaja-ra, México.Resultados y conclusiones. La terapia de aceptación y compromiso ha de-mostrado ser útil en el proceso del duelo, así como en el restablecimiento de la espiritualidad, toda vez que esta es resignificada y da sentido a las experiencias dolorosas.Palabras clave: Duelo; Apego; Espiritualidad; Terapia de aceptación y compromiso.


Introduction: Attachment refers to the significant bond we establish with a person, when this is broken, what we call a significant loss occurs, followed by a grieving process: natural pain reaction to the detachment of something or someone who had a It was worth it During this, spirituality appears as a cen-tral strategy to overcome painful experiences, but it can also be affected by the meanings attributed to it. Acceptance and commitment therapy has been used in different psychological disorders that involve experiential avoidance, including grief.Objectives: The central objective of the study is to evaluate the complicated spiritual duel. Material and methods: The Inven-tory of Complicated Spiritual Grief (ICSG) was applied in pa-tients with grief, before and after being treated with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the grief clinic of the University Center of Health Sciences.Results and Conclusions: Acceptance Therapy and commitment has proven to be useful in facilitating the elaboration of grief, as well as in restoring spirituality since it is resignified and gives meaning to painful experiences.


Introdução. O apego refere-se ao vínculo significativo estabe-lecido entre pessoas, se vier a quebrar acontece uma perda significativa, seguida de um processo de luto que envolve uma reação natural de dor ao desapego. Durante esse processo, a espiritualidade é uma estratégia central para superar uma expe-riência dolorosa, no entanto, esteja afetada pelos significados atribuídos a ela. A Terapia de aceitação e comprometimento é usada em várias circunsatâncias que envolvem evasão expe-riencial, incluindo luto.Objetivo. O principal objetivo do estudo é avaliar o luto com-plicado espiritual.Materiais e métodos. O questionário Inventory of Complicated Spiritual Grief foi aplicado em pacientes com perdas significa-tivas, antes e depois de serem tratados com a Terapia de acei-tação e compromisso na clínica de luto do Centro Universidade de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade de Guadalajara.Resultados e conclusões. Terapia de aceitação e compromisso mostrou ser útil no processo de luto, bem como na restauração da espiritualidade, uma vez que é ressignificada e dá sentido à experiências dolorosas


Assuntos
Humanos , Espiritualidade , Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso , Suicídio , Pesar , Manobra Psicológica
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 677, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This is the first study of the sonic and ultrasonic vocalization in a Dipodidae rodent. For the small-sized quadrupedal northern birch mouse Sicista betulina, phylogenetically related to the bipedal jerboas (Dipodidae), we report null results for ultrasonic vocalization and investigate the acoustic cues to individual identity, sex and body size in the discomfort-related high-frequency tonal sonic calls. RESULTS: We used a parallel audio recording in the sonic and ultrasonic ranges during weighting adult northern birch mice before the scheduled hibernation in captivity. The sonic (audible) high-frequency tonal calls (ranging from 6.21 to 9.86 kHz) were presented in all individuals (7 males and 4 females). The ultrasonic calls lacked in the recordings. Two-way nested ANOVA revealed the effects of caller individual identity on all 10 measured acoustic variables and the effects of sex on four out of 10 measured acoustic variables. Discriminant function analyses with 10 acoustic variables included in the analysis showed 85.5% correct assignment of calls to individual and 79.7% correct assignment of calls to sex; both values significantly exceeded the random values (23.1% and 54.3%, respectively) calculated with randomization procedure. Body mass did not differ between sexes and did not correlate significantly with the acoustic variables.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Roedores/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Acústica/instrumentação , Animais , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Manobra Psicológica , Masculino , Roedores/psicologia , Espectrografia do Som , Ultrassom/instrumentação
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10369-10378, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495614

RESUMO

Cattle lameness is an important welfare concern that also has an economic impact on the dairy industry. It can be a significant problem among pasture-based herds. Our objectives were to identify cow- and herd-level factors related to lameness and hoof lesions in dairy cows grazing year-round in Minas Gerais, Brazil. We performed a cross-sectional study in 48 pasture-based dairy herds, visiting each farm in a single visit. We evaluated 2,262 cows for mobility score (0-3) and 392 cows for hoof lesions. We used a questionnaire and checklist to capture herd management data. All information obtained was used to build multivariable models. The factors associated with lameness were low body condition score, longer time spent in the corral, being kept in paddocks during the drought period, and poor hygiene. For hoof lesions, track features were the most significant factor in determining the likelihood of heel horn erosion, white line fissure, and sole hemorrhage-by more than 3 times. Different factors related to unhygienic conditions such as leg cleanliness, frequency of cleaning, and longer time spent in the corral were associated with infectious hoof lesions. Poor human-animal relationship was related to sole hemorrhage, but patient handling of cows on the track was a protective factor against interdigital hyperplasia. The results of this study suggest that improving hygiene conditions, track features, and cow handling can improve dairy cattle mobility scores in pasture-based farms under tropical conditions. These findings also represent a first step toward planning actions aimed at decreasing lameness and hoof lesions in the studied region.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Casco e Garras/patologia , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Lista de Checagem , Estudos Transversais , Meio Ambiente , Fazendas/classificação , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Marcha , Manobra Psicológica , Higiene , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Registros/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Clima Tropical
6.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 22(3): 501-520, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395328

RESUMO

Reducing the frequency of drug administration in the treatment of exotic pets is advantageous because it may decrease handling frequency and thus potential stress and injury risk for the animal, increase owner compliance with the prescribed treatment, and decrease need for general anesthesia in patients that cannot be handled safely. Increasing efficient drug plasma concentration using sustained-released delivery systems is an appealing solution. Potential candidates that could provide a promising solution have been investigated in exotic pets. In this article, the technologies that are the closest to being integrated in exotic pet medicine are reviewed: osmotic pumps, nanoparticles, and hydrogels.


Assuntos
Animais Exóticos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Medicina Veterinária/instrumentação , Animais , Aves , Implantes de Medicamento , Peixes , Manobra Psicológica , Hidrogéis , Bombas de Infusão/economia , Bombas de Infusão/veterinária , Lipossomos , Mamíferos , Nanomedicina/tendências , Nanopartículas , Osmose/fisiologia , Coelhos , Ratos , Répteis , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Medicina Veterinária/métodos
7.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(4): 310-316, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187986

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analizar la estructura factorial de la escala OLQ-13 y estudiar la relación directa entre el sentido de coherencia y los estilos de vida en estudiantes de enfermería universitarios/as. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en 384 estudiantes de los tres primeros cursos del Grado de Enfermería de la Universidad de Jaén (España). Se estudió la consistencia interna de la escala OLQ-13 con el alfa de Cronbach de cada dimensión y del total de la escala, la fiabilidad test-retest con el coeficiente de correlación intraclase (CCI) y la validez de constructo con el análisis factorial exploratorio, el análisis factorial confirmatorio y la técnica de grupos conocidos. Resultados: La consistencia interna de la escala fue de 0,809. El CCI para la fiabilidad test-retest fue de 0,91. El análisis factorial exploratorio reveló tres factores que explicaron el 50,13% de la varianza. El análisis factorial confirmatorio mostró índices de ajuste aceptables para el modelo propuesto (CFI = 0,965; RMSA = 0,041; GFI = 0,963; SRMR = 0,041). Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas de sentido de coherencia entre los subgrupos de estudiantes con estilos de vida saludables y no saludables (p<0,001). Conclusiones: El estudio confirma la multidimensionalidad de la escala OLQ-13, en la que se identifican tres factores: significación, comprensión y manejabilidad externa, y comprensión y manejabilidad interna. El OLQ-13 puede ser una escala válida y fiable para su uso en población universitaria española


Objective: To analyze the factor structure of the OLQ-13 scale and to study the direct relationship between sense of coherence and lifestyles in university students of nursing. Method: Cross-sectional study.Location: University of Jaén. Andalusia, Spain.Participants: 384 students from the first three years of the nursing degree in the University of Jaén.Main measurement: Internal consistency was studied by Cronbach's alpha, reliability test-retest was measured by intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) and construct validity was analysed by exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and known-groups technique. Results: The internal consistency of the scale was adequate (Cronbach alfa = 0.809). The ICC for the reliability test-retest was 0.91. The exploratory factor analysis showed 3 factors explaining 50.13% of the variance. The confirmatory factor analysis showed f goodness-of-fit indexes for the proposed model CFI=0.965; RMSA=0.041; GFI=0.963; SRMR=0.041. Statistically significant differences in sense of coherence were found among the subgroups of students with healthy and unhealthy lifestyles (p <0.001). Conclusions: The study confirms the multidimensionality of the OLQ-13 scale, in which 3 factors were identified: external meaningful, comprehensibility and manageability, and internal comprehensibility and manageability. The OLQ-13 may be a valid and reliable scale for use in the Spanish university population


Assuntos
Humanos , Senso de Coerência/classificação , Psicometria/instrumentação , Manobra Psicológica , Compreensão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Qualidade de Vida , Autoimagem , Autocuidado , Estilo de Vida Saudável
8.
Work ; 63(3): 415-426, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-automated tool handles transmit a large magnitude of vibration to operators' hands, causing discomfort and pain. Therefore, the need for a better handle design is a matter of prime concern to overcome musculoskeletal disorders such as hand-arm vibration syndrome. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the influence of handle shapes in reducing the transmission of hand-arm vibration. METHODS: Seven different handles were designed and fabricated using 3D printing technology at the SSN College of Engineering, with consideration for the anatomical shape of the hand. The frequency-weighted Root Mean Square (RMS) values of the vibration levels transmitted were recorded at the wrist of twelve subjects, unaffected by musculoskeletal disorders. Subjective ratings of vibration and comfort perception were measured using the Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion. RESULTS: The total vibration value (ahv) of each of the six novel prototype handles (B-G) was compared to that of the reference handle denoted handle-A. The vibration reductions for handles B to G respectively were 0.542 m/s2 (14.59%), 0.481 m/s2 (12.95%), 0.351 m/s2 (9.45%), 0.270 m/s2 (7.27%), 0.407 m/s2 (10.96%) and 0.192 m/s2 (5.17%). CONCLUSIONS: A significant level of vibration reduction was achieved by the prototype handles. Qualitative feedback from the study subjects suggests that they were not aware of the levels of vibration being transmitted to the hand with each handle.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento/normas , Síndrome da Vibração do Segmento Mão-Braço/complicações , Manobra Psicológica , Dor/classificação , Adulto , Síndrome da Vibração do Segmento Mão-Braço/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Dor/psicologia
9.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4282-4289, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152676

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify the influence of different catching practices during manual upright handling on broiler welfare and behavior. Catching was examined in a total of 4,595 Cobb broilers with average live weight of 3.2 kg and 42 days old. Six catching practices were evaluated: shed curtain position, loading time, catching method, catching team, height of the crates from the floor, and placement of the bird in the crate. Behavioral welfare indicators were defined as follows: 1) broiler agitation in the catcher's hands, measured when the birds flapped their wings, kicked, or wriggled in the hands; 2) broiler striking the crate entrance as it was being placed in the crate, measured when the birds get the head, wings, or legs, hit at the crate entrance; and 3) broiler agitation in the crate, measured when birds flapped the wings or jumped inside the crate for 3 s or more after placement in the crate. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the chance of occurrence of each behavioral welfare indicator due to the handling factors. All catching practices evaluated in the present study influenced the birds' welfare and behavior. Thus, some procedures during broiler catching potentially improved their behavior, making them less prone to accidents, and consequently improved their welfare. The catching process should be performed with the curtains in the closed position, carrying one broiler per catcher in an upright position while containing its wings, carefully placing the birds inside the crates, and with the crates being positioned at a height of at least 21 cm from the ground. Additionally, it was concluded that more attention should be given to the broiler catchers, since the position of the curtain, loading time, and position of the crate during handling can influence the work done by them, affecting the welfare and behavior of both humans and birds.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Galinhas/fisiologia , Manobra Psicológica , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Transportes
10.
J Avian Med Surg ; 33(1): 38-45, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124610

RESUMO

Avian patients are presented commonly to veterinarians for preventive and disease-induced care. Physical examinations commonly are used to assess the overall patient, but this requires manual restraint, which often leads to increased stress and subsequent deleterious effects. To develop a noninvasive evaluation of the stress response in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), we evaluated the behavior of 26 juvenile cockatiels during their normal daily routine and after an acute stressful event (manual restraint and physical examination). Nonstressed behavior budgets were established by performing quantitative ethograms using 10-minute focal animal sampling methods with point samples recorded every 5 seconds. The ethograms then were repeated after a >10-minute restraint period for physical examination and venipuncture. Plasma corticosterone levels at baseline (<3 minutes) and after stress (>10 minutes) were compared to accompanying behaviors. Plasma corticosterone levels significantly increased after restraint. Overall, reactionary behaviors and inactivity increased, while locomotion, feeding, interaction with the environment, and displays of aggression decreased in the stressed birds. Maintenance behaviors were not significantly different before and after restraint, but the subjective character changed, with stressed birds displaying an increase in behaviors that were short in duration with minimal decrease in vigilance. Our results will be helpful to develop a method of quantifying stress in companion avian patients by using behavioral indicators. However, further study into specific behaviors of significance is needed.


Assuntos
Cacatuas/fisiologia , Manobra Psicológica , Restrição Física/veterinária , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico , Animais , Corticosterona/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Restrição Física/fisiologia , Restrição Física/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Gravação em Vídeo
11.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comparison of the effectiveness of local anaesthesia (LA) in piglet castration by procaine 2 % and lidocaine 5 % both through combined inguinal and scrotal application as well as by intratesticular application of lidocaine 1 %. The parameters used were serum cortisol and chromogranin A (CgA) concentrations as well as wound healing, body weight and animal losses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 2 substudies, a total of 232 male piglets aged 3-6 days were included. Substudy 1 (112 piglets): Group H: fixation of piglets as for an injection; group L5: inguinal and scrotal injection of lidocaine 5 %; group P2: inguinal and scrotal injection of procaine 2 %; group L1: intratesticular injection of lidocaine 1 %. In all the groups, blood samples were taken 45 minutes before and 30 minutes post-injection (p. i.). Substudy 2 (120 piglets): Group H: handling only as for an injection and castration; group K: handling as for an injection and castration without LA after 30 minutes. Groups L5, P2 and L1: management as in substudy 1 and castration after 30 minutes. Blood samples were taken 75 minutes before as well as 30, 60 and 240 minutes post-castration (p. c.). The evaluated parameters were serum cortisol and CgA concentrations, wound healing, body weight and piglet losses. RESULTS: Substudy 1: The elevation of the cortisol and CgA concentrations in group P2 p. i. were significantly higher than in the other groups. The mean total cortisol concentration of group P2 p. i. was significantly higher than those of the other groups. Substudy 2: At 30 minutes p. c., all the groups displayed a significant increase in the cortisol concentration compared to group H. In group P2, the highest total cortisol concentration was measured 60 minutes p. c. and the elevation of the cortisol level was significantly higher than in the other groups. In group L1, a significantly greater increase in the CgA level was observed at 60 minutes p. c. when compared to the other groups. Regarding wound healing, body weight and losses, there were no significant differences between the groups. CONCLUSION: The combined inguinal and scrotal injection of procaine 2 % induced a greater neuroendocrine stress response than the inguinal and scrotal injection of lidocaine 5 % and the intratesticular injection of lidocaine 1 %. LA using procaine 2 %, lidocaine 5 % or lidocaine 1 % did not completely eliminate pain during castration. Castration under LA with procaine 2 % induced a greater pain reaction than castration without LA. Both groups castrated with LA using lidocaine (L1, L5) tended to display lower pain responses after castration than group K. On the basis of the findings of this study, other local anaesthetics that have a stronger effect could be further investigated according to their pain-killing effects in an appropriate application route.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local/veterinária , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Cromogranina A/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Dor/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/etiologia , Anestesia Local/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Local/métodos , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Peso Corporal , Manobra Psicológica , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos , Orquiectomia/métodos , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Dor/etiologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária , Procaína/administração & dosagem , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/fisiopatologia , Perda de Peso , Cicatrização
12.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(1): 195-227, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686463

RESUMO

The design and management of proper handling systems for dairy cows begin with a cow handling management plan that considers the cow and the stock person's behavior. The safety of the cow and stock person is important to the plan and design decisions. Cow welfare can be addressed in a proper cow handling system design. Key components of a handling system are the skills of the stock person, the cow handling management plan, and the design of the handling facility. Good design enhances stockmanship ability and minimizes stress for cows and stock persons, lowering the risk of injury to both.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/instrumentação , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Manobra Psicológica
13.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 272: 1-8, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419229

RESUMO

Handling of avian study species is common in ecological research, yet few studies account for the impact of handling in nestlings where exposure to stress may result in negative lifetime fitness consequences. As a result, our understanding of stress reactivity in free-living avian young is limited. In this study we examined the cumulative impact of three levels of research-relevant handling (control, daily and every three days) on the development of the stress response, growth and condition of semi-precocial seabird chicks from near-hatching to near-fledging. By measuring corticosterone concentrations in plasma, we found that mottled petrel (Pterodroma inexpectata) chicks were capable of mounting a stress response comparable to adults from near-hatching. There were no differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations in initial samples (<4 min) between groups at six weeks of age, though by 12 weeks of age plasma corticosterone concentrations in initial samples collected from chicks handled daily were lower than chicks that were handled once every three days, and from control chicks. Corticosterone responses to handling were lower in chicks handled daily at six and 12 weeks of age when compared to other handling groups. Handling chicks daily or every three days had no negative effect on the growth or condition of chicks when compared to control chicks. These findings indicate that daily handling results in chicks became accustomed to handling, with no evidence that regular handling was detrimental to mottled petrel chicks. However, given the unique life-history characteristics of mottled petrels relative to closely related species, we caution that this finding may be species-specific, and wider testing is recommended.


Assuntos
Corticosterona/sangue , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Galinhas , Feminino , Manobra Psicológica
14.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209286, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557310

RESUMO

In nature, a multitude of both abiotic and biotic stressors influence organisms with regard to their overall fitness. Stress responses that finally impair normal biological functions may ultimately result in consequences for whole populations. This study focused on the metabolic response of the intertidal rock pool fish Gobius paganellus towards simulated predation risk. Individuals were exposed to a mixture of skin extracts from conspecifics and chemical alarm cues from a top predator, Octopus vulgaris. Oxygen consumption rates of single fish were measured to establish standard (SMR) and routine metabolic rates (RMR) of G. paganellus, and to address the direct response towards simulated predation risk, compared to handling and light stress. The SMR of G. paganellus (0.0301 ± 0.0081 mg O2 h-1 g-1 WW) was significantly lower than the RMR (0.0409 ± 0.0078 mg O2 h-1 g-1 WW). In contrast to increased respiration due to handling and light stress, the exposure to chemical predation cues induced a significant reduction in oxygen consumption rates (0.0297 ± 0.0077 mg O2 h-1 g-1 WW). This metabolic suppression was interpreted as a result of the stereotypic freezing behaviour as antipredator response of gobiid fish. Results underline the importance of biotic interactions in environmental stress assessments and predation as a biotic factor that will provide more realistic scenarios when addressing stress impacts in tidal rock pool organisms.


Assuntos
Peixes/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Reação de Congelamento Cataléptica/fisiologia , Manobra Psicológica , Modelos Animais , Octopodiformes , Percepção/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório , Pele/metabolismo
15.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2018: 5462563, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515198

RESUMO

This paper presents a novel constraint handling technique for optimum path generation of four-bar linkages using evolutionary algorithms (EAs). Usually, the design problem is assigned to minimize the error between desired and obtained coupler curves with penalty constraints. It is found that the currently used constraint handling technique is rather inefficient. In this work, we propose a new technique, termed a path repairing technique, to deal with the constraints for both input crank rotation and Grashof criterion. Three traditional path generation test problems are used to test the proposed technique. Metaheuristic algorithms, namely, artificial bee colony optimization (ABC), adaptive differential evolution with optional external archive (JADE), population-based incremental learning (PBIL), teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO), real-code ant colony optimization (ACOR), a grey wolf optimizer (GWO), and a sine cosine algorithm (SCA), are applied for finding the optimum solutions. The results show that new technique is a superior constraint handling technique while TLBO is the best method for synthesizing four-bar linkages.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Evolução Biológica , Manobra Psicológica , Aprendizagem , Aprendizado de Máquina , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Ensino
16.
Psicol. rev ; 27(2): 263-285, dez. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-998679

RESUMO

O presente artigo procura compreender a função da mentira contada em análise, bem como refletir sobre o manejo transferencial solicitado por tal tipo de relato, à luz da teoria psicanalítica freudiana. Com esses objetivos, efetuou-se um estudo sobre as realidades psíquica e material, a fantasia e a mentira, a fim de poder analisar a incidência do referido relato na clínica psicanalítica e como escutá-lo, desvinculando-o de um viés moralista e atrelado ao desejo. Pretende-se com este artigo esclarecer que, para a clínica, o aspecto da função do mentir que importa é sua forma e não seu conteúdo, além de propor um espaço benevolente para escutar, a partir da livre associação, o discurso mentiroso dos pacientes. Essas reflexões podem contribuir de forma significativa para o aprimoramento do fazer do analista na clínica psicanalítica.


This article intends to understand the role of a lie told in psychoanalysis, as well as reflect on the transferencial management requested by such type of report, in light of the Freudian psychoanalytical theory. With these objectives, a study was conducted about the psychic and material realities, the fantasy and the lie, so as to analyze the incidence of the referred report in the psychoanalytical practice and how to study it, detaching it from a bias that is moralist and connected to desire. This article intends to clarify that, for the practice, the aspect of the lie that matters is its form and not its content, as well as proposing a benevolent place to listen, from free association, to the untruthful discourse of the patients. These reflections can contribute in a significant manner to the improvement of the analyst's work in psychoanalytic practice.


El presente artículo trata de comprender la función de la mentira contada en análisis, bien como reflexionar sobre el manejo transferencial solicitado por tal tipo de relato, a la luz de la teoría psicoanalítica freudiana. Con esos objetivos, se efectuó un estudio sobre las realidades psíquica y material, la fantasía y la mentira, a fin de poder analizar la incidencia del referido relato en la clínica psicoanalítica y como escucharlo, desvinculándolo de un enfoque moralista y entrelazado con el deseo. Se pretende con este artículo esclarecer que, para la clínica, el aspecto de la función de mentir que importa es su forma y no su contenido, además de proponer un espacio benevolente para escuchar, a partir de la asociación libre, el discurso mentiroso de los pacientes. Estas reflexiones pueden contribuir de manera significativa para la mejora del hacer del analista en la clínica psicoanalítica.


Assuntos
Humanos , Terapia da Realidade , Fantasia , Manobra Psicológica , Decepção
17.
J. psicanal ; 51(95): 193-210, jul.-dez. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-984674

RESUMO

Escrito na forma de diálogo com um jovem colega, o artigo tem como ponto de partida material clínico ligado a núcleos neuróticos e não neuróticos em uma mesma paciente. O objetivo é discutir como se constituem esses núcleos, como se dá sua repetição na transferência e como trabalhar com eles na situação analítica.


Written in the form of a dialogue with a young colleague, the article has as its starting point clinical material related to neurotic and non-neurotic nuclei in the same patient. My purpose is to discuss how do these nuclei originate, how their repetition occurs in transference and how to work with them in the analytic situation.


Escrito en forma de diálogo con un joven colega, el artículo tiene como punto de partida material clínico ligado a núcleos neuróticos y no neuróticos en una misma paciente. El objetivo es discutir cómo se constituyen esos núcleos, como se da su repetición en la transferencia y cómo trabajar con ellos en la situación analítica.


Rédigé sous la forme d'un dialogue avec une jeune collègue, l'article a pour point de départ d matériel clinique lié aux noyaux névrotiques et non névrotiques chez une même patiente. L'objectif est de discuter la façon dont se constituent ces noyaux, comment leur répétition apparaît dans le transfert et la manière de travailler avec eux dans la situation analytique.


Assuntos
Manobra Psicológica , Transtornos Neuróticos , Psicanálise
18.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206739, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383856

RESUMO

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is the most important insect pest for the cultivation of olives worldwide. Considerable research efforts have been invested in the past decades to develop eradication or suppression tactics for use within an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approach that includes a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. One of the major obstacles encountered in the development of SIT for olive fruit fly was the inferior quality of the mass-reared flies, expressed among others evident primarily by sterile males having a different timing of peak mating and a lower mating propensity in comparison with their wild counterparts. In this study we assessed the mating behaviour and mating compatibility of olive fruit flies originating from four countries of the Mediterranean region (Croatia, France, Italy, Spain) in walk-in field cages and post zygotic compatibility (expressed as % egg hatch) under laboratory conditions. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis whether a hybrid strain (Greece (domesticated)/Israel (wild)) adapted to laboratory rearing conditions showed any mating barriers with all the four "wild" populations. Finally, we examined the effect of colonization on the mating compatibility of the four newly established populations over three consecutive generations. The results showed no pre-zygotic (mating barriers) or post-zygotic isolations (measured by egg hatch%) among the olive fruit fly populations from the four countries tested. Also, there was no evidence of mating barriers between the hybrid strain and the wild populations of the Mediterranean region.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual Animal , Tephritidae , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Biodiversidade , Produção Agrícola , Manobra Psicológica , Abrigo para Animais , Infertilidade , Região do Mediterrâneo , Olea , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Reprodução , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Anim Health Res Rev ; 19(2): 142-154, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460889

RESUMO

The goal of this review is to present a concise and critical assessment of the literature related to physiologic responses in cattle that are subjected to transportation. Over two-thirds of US cattle are transported. Understanding trends in circulating physiologic parameters is an important part of mitigating the negative effects of transportation. For the producer, linking these effects after transportation to morbidity outcomes within the first 45 days on feed (i.e. especially development of bovine respiratory disease) is critical. Physiologic parameters in circulation are of primary importance and may have value for prediction of bovine respiratory disease on arrival and for the understanding of disease pathogenesis. The results of our literature survey indicated that post-transportation immune function, increased acute phase proteins, glucocorticoids, and inflammation are a pivotal starting point for understanding disease. These potential biomarkers may have utility in identifying disease for targeted therapeutics so that traditional protocols that rely heavily on metaphylaxis can be avoided. Additional research is needed to develop strategies for physiological marker identification, treatment methods, or predictive behaviors to prevent respiratory disease before and after transport. This review examines the significant deleterious effects of transportation handling and stress, and current immune system translation and non-antimicrobial mitigation strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Transportes , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Bovinos , Manobra Psicológica
20.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205565, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352070

RESUMO

Vertebrates respond to stressful stimuli with the secretion of glucocorticoid (GC) hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT), and measurements of these hormones in wild species can provide insight into physiological responses to environmental and human-induced stressors. California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) are a critically endangered and intensively managed avian species for which information on GC response to stress is lacking. Here we evaluated a commercially available I125 double antibody radioimmunoassay (RIA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for measurement of CORT and GC metabolites (GCM) in California condor plasma, urate, and feather samples. The precision and accuracy of the RIA assay outperformed the ELISA for CORT and GCM measurements, and CORT and GCM values were not comparable between the two assays for any sample type. RIA measurements of total CORT in condor plasma collected from 41 condors within 15 minutes of a handling stressor were highly variable (median = 70 ng/mL, range = 1-189 ng/mL) and significantly different between wild and captive condors (p = 0.02, two-tailed t-test, n = 10 wild and 11 captive). Urate GCM levels (median = 620 ng/g dry wt., range = 0.74-7200 ng/g dry wt., n = 216) significantly increased within 2 hr of the acute handling stressor (p = 0.032, n = 11 condors, one-tailed paired t-test), while feather section CORT concentrations (median = 18 pg/mm, range = 6.3-68 ng/g, n = 37) also varied widely within and between feathers. Comparison of multiple regression linear models shows condor age as a significant predictors of plasma CORT levels, while age, sex, and plasma CORT levels predicted GCM levels in urates collected within 30 min of the start of handling. Our findings highlight the need for validation when selecting an immunoassay for use with a new species, and suggest that non-invasively collected urates and feathers hold promise for assessing condor responses to acute or chronic environmental and human-induced stressors.


Assuntos
Aves/metabolismo , Plumas/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Manobra Psicológica , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
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