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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 427, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe the prevalence and lifetime criteria profiles of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and the transitions from alcohol use to disorder in Chifeng, China. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews were conducted using Composite International Diagnostic Interview-3.0 (CIDI-3.0) among 4528 respondents in Chifeng. RESULTS: The weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-5 AUD were 3.03 and 1.05%, respectively. Mild lifetime AUD was the most prevalent severity level (69.53%). The two most common criteria were "failure to quit/cutdown" and "drinking more or for longer than intended." Lifetime prevalence was 65.59% for alcohol use, and 22.97% for regular drinking. Male and domestic violence were risk factors for the transition from alcohol use to regular drinking or AUD and from regular drinking to AUD. Younger age was risk factor for the transition to AUD from alcohol use or regular drinking. Poverty (OR = 2.49) was risk factor for the transition from alcohol use to regular drinking. The earlier drinkers were more likely to develop to regular drinking (OR = 2.11). CONCLUSION: AUD prevalence in Chifeng was not as high as that in Western countries. The study revealed that multiple risk factors might contribute to the transition across different stages of alcohol use. Further research should explore the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Alcoolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
3.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(9): 882-885, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a globally significant crisis with a rapid spread worldwide, high rates of illness and mortality, a high degree of uncertainty, and a disruption of daily life across the sociodemographic spectrum. The clinically relevant psychological consequences of this catastrophe will be long-lasting and far-reaching. There is an emerging body of empirical literature related to the mental health aspects of this pandemic and this body will likely expand exponentially. The COVID-19 pandemic is an example of a historic catastrophe from which we can learn much and from which the field will need to archive, interpret, and synthesize a multitude of clinical and research observations. METHODS: In this commentary, we discuss situations and contexts in which a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may or may not apply within the context of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) criteria. RESULTS: Our consensus is that a COVID-related event cannot be considered traumatic unless key aspects of DSM-5's PTSD Criterion A have been established for a specific type of COVID-19 event (e.g., acute, life-threatening, and catastrophic). CONCLUSION: The application of a more liberal interpretation of Criterion A will dilute the PTSD diagnosis, increase heterogeneity, confound case-control research, and create an overall sample pool with varying degrees of risk and vulnerability factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
4.
Nervenarzt ; 92(9): 857-867, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342676

RESUMO

The research domain criteria (RDoC) initiative of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) was presented 12 years ago. The RDoC provides a matrix for the systematic, dimensional and domain-based study of mental disorders that is not based on established disease entities as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) or the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). The primary aim of RDoC is to understand the nature of mental health and illness in terms of different extents of dysfunction in psychological/biological systems with interconnected diagnoses. This selective review article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of RDoC-based studies that have contributed to a better conceptual organization of mental disorders. Numerous promising and methodologically sophisticated studies on RDoC were identified. The number of scientific studies increased over time, indicating that dimensional research is increasingly being pursued in psychiatry. In summary, the RDoC initiative has a considerable potential to more precisely define the complexity of pathomechanisms underlying mental disorders; however, major challenges (e.g. small and heterogeneous study samples, unclear biomarker definitions and lack of replication studies) remain to be overcome in the future. Furthermore, it is plausible that a diagnostic system of the future will integrate categorical and dimensional approaches to arrive at a stratification that can underpin a precision medical approach in psychiatry.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.) , Estados Unidos
5.
J Sex Med ; 18(9): 1555-1570, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder, which consists of a combination of vaginismus and dyspareunia, is considered a new diagnosis in the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Although the etiology of this diagnosis is not well known, a history of abuse has been suggested to be a primary factor in the emergence of this disorder. AIM: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the association of abuse history with vaginismus and dyspareunia diagnosis. METHODS: Related keywords were used to search articles in PubMed, PsycArticles, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Turkish scientific information database (TRDizin). All articles published in English and Turkish until August 2020 were systematically reviewed. A total of 14 case-control studies, including 1428 participants, were included in the final analysis. The fixed-effects model was used to pool odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the studies. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the I2 statistic. OUTCOMES: Case-control studies that reported vaginismus or dyspareunia outcomes in individuals with or without a history of abuse. RESULTS: A significant relationship was found between a history of sexual (1.55 OR; 95% CI, 1.14-2.10; 12 studies) and emotional abuse (1.89 OR; 95% CI, 1.24-2.88; 3 studies) and the diagnosis of vaginismus. A significant relationship was found between sexual abuse and dyspareunia (1.53 OR; 95% CI, 1.03-2.27; 6 studies). No statistically significant relationship was observed between physical abuse, vaginismus, and dyspareunia. No significant difference was found between sexual or physical abuse in terms of assessment methods for the diagnosis of vaginismus and dyspareunia. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis points out that in the assessment of vaginismus patients, the risk of sexual and emotional abuse and in the assessment for dyspareunia patients, the risk of sexual abuse should be questioned and addressed in its treatment. STRENGHT AND LIMITATIONS: The strength of the current meta-analysis is the inclusion of all forms of abuse, and studies published in Turkish and English with a broad and reproducible search strategy. The limitations of this meta-analysis are the exclusion of sources and design other than journal articles and case-control studies, including studies both childhood and adult abuse, which in some studies were not differentiated, having potential language and recall bias. CONCLUSION: The study analysis suggests an association of vaginismus with sexual and emotional abuse and dyspareunia with sexual abuse. However, both disorders showed no association with physical abuse. S. Tetik, ÖY. Alkar, Vaginismus, Dyspareunia, and Abuse History: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Sex Med 2021;18:1555-1570.


Assuntos
Dispareunia , Vaginismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Dispareunia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 413, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a relatively common disease worldwide with a point prevalence of around 5/1000 in the population. The aim of this present work was to assess the demographic, clinical, familial, and environmental factors associated with schizophrenia in Mali. METHODS: This was a prospective descriptive study on a series of 164 patients aged at least 12 years who came for a follow-up consultation at the psychiatry department of the University Hospital Center (CHU) Point G in Mali between February 2019 and January 2020 for schizophrenia spectrum disorder as defined by DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: Our results revealed that the male sex was predominant (80.5%). The 25-34 age group was more represented with 44.5%. The place of birth for the majority of our patients was the urban area (52.4%), which also represented the place of the first year of life for the majority of our patients (56.1%). We noted that the unemployed and single people accounted for 56.1 and 61% respectively. More than half of our patients 58.5% reported having reached secondary school level. With the exception of education level, there was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of demographic parameters. Familial schizophrenia cases accounted for 51.7% versus 49.3% for non-familial cases. The different clinical forms were represented by the paranoid form, followed by the undifferentiated form, and the hebephrenic form with respectively 34, 28 and 17.1%. We noted that almost half (48.8%) of patients were born during the cold season. Cannabis use history was not observed in 68.7% of the patients. The proportions of patients with an out-of-school father or an out-of-school mother were 51.2 and 64.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The onset of schizophrenia in the Malian population has been associated with socio-demographic, clinical, genetic and environmental characteristics.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Escolaridade , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
7.
J Sex Med ; 18(9): 1592-1606, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of paraphilic disorder is a complicated clinical judgment based on the integration of information from multiple dimensions to arrive at a categorical (present/absent) conclusion. The recent update of the guidelines for paraphilic disorders in ICD-11 presents an opportunity to investigate how mental health professionals use the diagnostic guidelines to arrive at a diagnosis which thereby can optimize the guidelines for clinical use. AIM: This study examined clinicians' ability to use the ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines for paraphilic disorders which contain multiple dimensions that must be simultaneously assessed to arrive at a diagnosis. METHODS: The study investigated the ability of 1,263 international clinicians to identify the dimensions of paraphilic disorder in the context of written case vignettes that varied on a single dimension only. OUTCOMES: Participants provided diagnoses for the case vignettes along with dimensional ratings of the degree of presence of five dimensions of paraphilic disorder (arousal, consent, action, distress, and risk). RESULTS: Across a series of analyses, clinicians demonstrated a clear ability to recognize and appropriately integrate the dimensions of paraphilic disorders; however, there was some evidence that clinicians may over-diagnose non-pathological cases. CLINICAL TRANSLATION: Clinicians would likely benefit from targeted training on the ICD-11 definition of paraphilic disorder and should be cautious of over-diagnosing. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: This study represents a large international sample of health professionals and is the first to examine clinicians' ability to apply the ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines for paraphilic disorders. Important limitations include not generalizing to all clinicians and acknowledging that results may be different in direct clinical interactions vs written case vignettes. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that clinicians appear capable of interpreting and implementing the diagnostic guidelines for paraphilic disorders in ICD-11. Keeley JW, Briken P, Evans SC, et al. Can Clinicians Use Dimensional Information to Make a Categorical Diagnosis of Paraphilic Disorders? An ICD-11 Field Study. J Sex Med 2021;18:1592-1606.


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtornos Parafílicos , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
8.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1652021 06 24.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346632

RESUMO

The prospect of 'disease' in psychiatry has been debated for centuries. In the 21st century, this discussion often focusses on the usefulness of DSM classifications, the diagnostic manual of psychiatry. This criticism on the DSM is exemplary for our struggle to understand, classify and treat psychiatric problems. However, we tend to forget that the DSM system has provided a wealth of knowledge and structure to psychiatric care and science. Moreover, there is no elaborated alternative and an abolishment of the DSM will lead to confusion and polarisation. We should not throw the baby out with the bathwater. In this perspective, we argue how we can build on decades of experience with the DSM and how historical weighting and accurate use of the DSM can offer fertile grounds for refinement and precision of diagnostics in psychiatry.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Confusão , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Psicoterapia
9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 392, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment guidelines for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are based on a relatively small number of randomized controlled trials and do not consider patient-centered perceptions of treatment helpfulness. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of patient-reported treatment helpfulness for DSM-5 GAD and its two main treatment pathways: encounter-level treatment helpfulness and persistence in help-seeking after prior unhelpful treatment. METHODS: Data came from community epidemiologic surveys in 23 countries in the WHO World Mental Health surveys. DSM-5 GAD was assessed with the fully structured WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0. Respondents with a history of GAD were asked whether they ever received treatment and, if so, whether they ever considered this treatment helpful. Number of professionals seen before obtaining helpful treatment was also assessed. Parallel survival models estimated probability and predictors of a given treatment being perceived as helpful and of persisting in help-seeking after prior unhelpful treatment. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rate of GAD was 4.5%, with lower prevalence in low/middle-income countries (2.8%) than high-income countries (5.3%); 34.6% of respondents with lifetime GAD reported ever obtaining treatment for their GAD, with lower proportions in low/middle-income countries (19.2%) than high-income countries (38.4%); 3) 70% of those who received treatment perceived the treatment to be helpful, with prevalence comparable in low/middle-income countries and high-income countries. Survival analysis suggested that virtually all patients would have obtained helpful treatment if they had persisted in help-seeking with up to 10 professionals. However, we estimated that only 29.7% of patients would have persisted that long. Obtaining helpful treatment at the person-level was associated with treatment type, comorbid panic/agoraphobia, and childhood adversities, but most of these predictors were important because they predicted persistence rather than encounter-level treatment helpfulness. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of individuals with GAD do not receive treatment. Most of those who receive treatment regard it as helpful, but receiving helpful treatment typically requires persistence in help-seeking. Future research should focus on ensuring that helpfulness is included as part of the evaluation. Clinicians need to emphasize the importance of persistence to patients beginning treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Comorbidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 64: 102743, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400109

RESUMO

Little is known about the epidemiology of schizophrenia in the agricultural regions of China. This study examined the 1-month and lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia and their association with socio-demographic factors in Hebei province which is an important agricultural region of China. A multi-stage, stratified, cluster random sampling method was adopted. The diagnosis of schizophrenia was ascertained with the validated Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Patient Edition (SCID-I/P/C). Altogether, 23,675 subjects were screened, of whom, 20,884 were included for analyses. The weighted 1-month and lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia were 0.5 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.4-0.5 %] and 0.6 % (95 %CI: 0.5-0.7 %), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analyses found that unmarried marital status [P < 0.001, Odd Ratio(OR)=2.670, 95 %CI:1.767-4.036], lower education level (primary school or below: P = 0.042, OR=2.447, 95 % CI: 1.034-5.933; secondary school: P = 0.002, OR = 4.261, 95 % CI:1.692-10.730), unemployment (P = 0.006, OR=1.870, 95 % CI:1.198-2.920), lower income (P < 0.001, OR=4.017, 95 % CI:2.207-7.310) and family history of psychiatric disorders (P < 0.001, OR=16.278, 95 % CI:10.435-25.393) were independently associated with a higher risk of schizophrenia, while age above 60 years (P = 0.004, OR=0.440, 95 % CI:0.253-0.765) was associated with a lower risk of schizophrenia. The prevalence of schizophrenia appeared to be lower in Hebei province compared to other regions of China or other countries. Socioeconomic factors should be further examined to inform the public health surveillance and policies relevant to schizophrenia in the agricultural regions of China.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , China/epidemiologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 117, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DSM-5 provided a dimensional model of personality disorders which may be more clinically informative for the assessment and management of prisoners than a categorical one, as diagnoses of personality disorders alone cannot explain the type of violence. The role of DSM-5 personality facets is however understudied in child molesters, and no study compared these clinical features between individuals who have committed sex crime against children and those who have committed other types of crime. The present study compared DSM-5 personality trait facets between prisoners who had committed sex crime against children, prisoners who had committed property crime (i.e., robbery, fraud) and those who had committed crime against the person (i.e., homicide, assault or violence not implying a sexual element). A further aim was to explore which facets were associated with sex crime against children as compared with the other types of crime, controlling for socio-demographics (age, gender), psychiatric comorbidity (presence of any psychiatric diagnoses) and general psychopathy traits. METHODS: One hundred sixty-seven prisoners participated (91 had committed sex crime against children, 25 property crime, and 51 committed a crime against the person) and completed the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. RESULTS: Prisoners who had committed sex crime against children reported higher Restricted Affectivity traits than those who had committed property crime and crime against the person and higher Irresponsibility traits than those who had committed property crime. The results of a multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that on the one hand being a man, having a higher age, and the presence of a psychiatric comorbidity were more likely to be related to sex crime than property crime, on the other hand higher Irresponsibility personality traits, being a man, and the presence of a psychiatric comorbidity were more likely to be related to sex crime against children than crime against the person. CONCLUSIONS: The Irresponsibility facet might be specific to child molesters and can differentiate this group from offenders who have committed other crime types. This facet might be considered a key target of a tailored assessment and treatment planning during clinical practice with child molesters.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Delitos Sexuais , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Criança , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Homicídio , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade
12.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 63(6): 455-461, 2021.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conversion and dissociation in their relationship have made a lot of pendulum movements over time between moving together and away from each other. In the run-up to the introduction of DSM-5, it was argued that conversion should be classified as a dissociative disorder, but this didn't happen. AIM: In this article, the clinical scientific evidence is examined for the relationship between conversion and dissociation. We provide an overview of the recent clinical studies that examine both syndromes together. We also investigate the main overlapping predisposing characteristics and psychopathological explanatory models of both syndromes. METHOD: Literature review in PubMed and PsycArticles. RESULTS: Our findings confirm that there is a large comorbidity between conversive and dissociative symptoms in clinical reality. Both syndromes have a high prevalence of reported trauma and emotion dysregulation. However, evidence for present biomarkers is still llimited. The underlying explanation models are applicable for both conversion and dissociation. CONCLUSION: We want to draw attention to the plea to bring conversion disorders back together with dissociative disorders. Moreover, the possible presence of trauma, the influential role of psychosocial stressors, the present psychiatric co-morbidity and the style of emotion regulation seem to justify the approach to conversion problems from a biopsychosocial perspective rather than from a purely biomedical perspective.


Assuntos
Transtorno Conversivo , Transtornos Dissociativos , Comorbidade , Transtorno Conversivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Conversivo/epidemiologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Dissociativos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Dissociativos/epidemiologia , Emoções , Humanos
13.
J Psychiatr Res ; 141: 267-275, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265564

RESUMO

Our aim was to scrutinize multimorbidity in a community sample of youths (Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort) in form of co-occurrences of DSM-IV disorder symptom domains, elucidating if and when specific symptom domain interrelations emerge as mental disorder severity levels increase. We estimated four multimorbidity networks based on four severity cut-offs ('at least symptomatic', 'at least subthreshold', 'at least threshold', and 'impaired') and compared them pairwise on two measures: global network strength and network structure. We further computed community clusters for each network to detect symptom domain interrelations. Pairwise comparisons of the multimorbidity networks based on data from 9410 probands showed significant differences in global strength of the networks with the two highest severity cut-offs ('impaired' and 'at least threshold') with the at least symptomatic networks (p < .05). The networks with the three highest severity cut-offs ('impaired', 'at least threshold', and 'at least subthreshold') differed significantly (p < .001) from the at least symptomatic network regarding global network structure but did not significantly differ from each other (p > .05). We identified four common clusters in the impaired, at least threshold, and at least subthreshold networks consisting of i) domains associated with behavioral disorders; ii) domains associated with anxiety disorders (agoraphobia, social anxiety and specific phobia); iii) domains associated with anxiety/mood/eating and; iv) domains associated with mood/eating disorders. We found that major mental disorder symptom domain interrelations become consistent from a subthreshold level onwards. Findings suggest that specific multimorbidity patterns emerge as psychopathology severity levels increase.


Assuntos
Multimorbidade , Transtornos Fóbicos , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Psicopatologia
14.
Compr Psychiatry ; 109: 152264, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depressed suicide attempters are, according to some earlier studies, treated more often with antipsychotics than depressive non-suicide attempters. Cluster B personality disorders, especially borderline personality disorder, are associated with a high suicide risk, and antipsychotics are commonly used for the reduction of symptoms. However, no previous study has taken comorbid personality disorders into account when assessing the use of antipsychotics in patients with unipolar depression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinical selection of pharmacotherapy in unipolar depression with and without a previous suicide attempt, taking into account potential confounders such as cluster B personality disorders. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 247 patients with unipolar depression. The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board in Lund, Sweden. Study participants were recruited from 4 different secondary psychiatric care clinics in Sweden and were diagnosed according to the DSM-IV-TR with the MINI and SCID II. Previous and ongoing psychiatric treatments were investigated in detail and medical records were assessed. RESULTS: Thirty percent of the patients had made previous suicide attempts. Depressed suicide attempters underwent both lifetime treatment with antipsychotics and an ongoing antipsychotic treatment significantly more often than non-attempters. Significances remained after a regression analysis, adjusting for cluster B personality disorders, symptom severity, age at the onset of depression, and lifetime psychotic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to consider the effect of comorbidity with cluster B personality disorders when comparing treatment of depressive suicide and non-suicide attempters. Our findings suggest that suicide attempters are more frequently treated with antipsychotics compared to non-suicide attempters, regardless of cluster B personality disorder comorbidity. These findings are important for clinicians to consider and would also be relevant to future studies evaluating reduction of suicide risk with antipsychotics in patients with psychiatric comorbidity and a history of attempted suicide.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Tentativa de Suicídio , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Correct Health Care ; 27(1): 36-39, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232759

RESUMO

Although a number of depression screening instruments exist for use primarily in community mental health and medical settings, few have been validated on correctional populations. This study sought to examine the clinical utility of six different 2-item pairs in identifying risk for DSM-5 major depressive episode among a sample of county jail inmates. Data for the current report were derived from routine clinical assessments of 283 inmates recently admitted to a county jail. All inmates were administered the depression screening items as part of a structured diagnostic assessment interview to identify mental health needs. Results revealed that the best performing 2-item screen involved the combination of "difficulty concentrating" and "lack of energy," which represented the best balance of sensitivity (85.5%) and specificity (76.6%). Screening for major depression using as few as two items can be a valid and efficient strategy in identifying risk for major depressive episode among jail inmates.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Prisioneiros , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Saúde Mental
16.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(5): 497-502, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292181

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to review the recent literature on contemporary psychological perspectives of personality disorders, including novel psychotherapeutic interventions aimed at these vulnerable individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: Among the various psychological theories and models of personality disorders, still the most popular and researched are psychodynamic, cognitive and interpersonal perspectives. More specifically, object relations theory, cognitive schema conceptualization and interpersonal circumplex model have produced the most empirical investigations of personality disorders in recent years. Latest work has suggested that all three perspectives have contributed to and are compatible with the dimensional personality disorders framework in DSM-5-AMPD and ICD-11 (including level of personality functioning and personality traits). These models have yielded specific psychological treatments of personality disorders; although most psychotherapies have been constructed for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), there is an increasing number of treatment modalities aimed at individuals with other forms of personality disorder, such as those with narcissistic or antisocial traits/disorders. More research into their effectiveness and long-term benefits is necessary. SUMMARY: Novel research keeps updating our knowledge on the cause, manifestations and psychological treatments of personality disorders, particularly from psychodynamic, cognitive and interpersonal perspectives.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Narcisismo , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
17.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 866, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262129

RESUMO

Animal models suggest transitions from non-addictive to addictive behavioral engagement are associated with ventral-to-dorsal striatal shifts. However, few studies have examined such features in humans, especially in internet gaming disorder (IGD), a proposed behavioral addiction. We recruited 418 subjects (174 with IGD; 244 with recreational game use (RGU)). Resting-state fMRI data were collected and functional connectivity analyses were performed based on ventral and dorsal striatal seeds. Correlations and follow-up spectrum dynamic causal model (spDCM) analyses were performed to examine relationships between the ventral/dorsal striatum and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Longitudinal data were also analysed to investigate changes over time. IGD relative to RGU subjects showed lower ventral-striatum-to-MFG (mostly involving supplementary motor area (SMA)) and higher dorsal-striatum-to-MFG functional connectivity. spDCM revealed that left dorsal-striatum-to-MFG connectivity was correlated with IGD severity. Longitudinal data within IGD and RGU groups found greater dorsal striatal connectivity with the MFG in IGD versus RGU subjects. These findings suggest similar ventral-to-dorsal striatal shifts may operate in IGD and traditional addictions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Estriado/fisiopatologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Jogos Recreativos/psicologia , Humanos , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/psicologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Estriado Ventral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estriado Ventral/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 23(9): 60, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279729

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Childhood trauma is an important risk factor for the development of personality disorders (PDs), yet most research has been devoted to categorical models of personality pathology. Considering the introduction of a dimensional PD model with ICD-11, we review current findings related to various forms of childhood trauma, and PDs, operationalized in the form of personality functioning and maladaptive traits. We focus on the magnitude of associations and examine specific relationships between emotional and physical trauma with areas of personality functioning and single traits. RECENT FINDINGS: Two studies showed a strong association between childhood trauma and personality dysfunction. Seven studies, including clinical and forensic samples, demonstrated heterogeneous associations between various forms of childhood trauma and maladaptive traits. Overall, four studies indicated a slightly stronger association between personality dysfunction, maladaptive trait expression, and higher levels of emotional trauma than for physical or sexual trauma. Regarding specific trait domains and childhood trauma, most studies yielded the strongest associations for either psychoticism or detachment. Research on childhood trauma and dimensional PD models (i.e., personality functioning and traits) has the potential to contribute to a better understanding of their complex relationship. However, high intercorrelations among different types of childhood trauma, areas of personality functioning, and trait domains increase the difficulty of disentangling single effects. More research is needed including clinical and non-Western samples, especially considering the upcoming ICD-11 classification.


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtornos da Personalidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208658

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Emotional dysfunction is considered a key component in personality disorders; however, only few studies have examined the relationship between the two. In this study, emotional dysfunction was operationalized through the Affect Integration Inventory, and the aim was to examine the relationships between the level of affect integration and the levels of symptom distress, interpersonal problems, and personality functioning in patients diagnosed with personality disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. Materials and Methods: Within a hospital-based psychiatric outpatient setting, 87 patients with personality disorder referred for treatment were identified for assessment with the Affect Integration Inventory and other measures (e.g., the Symptom Checklist-90, Revised, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems 64 circumplex version, and the Severity Indices of Personality Problems). Results: The analyses revealed that problems with affect integration were strongly and statistically significantly correlated with high levels of symptom distress, interpersonal problems, and maladaptive personality functioning. Additionally, low scores on the Affect Integration Inventory regarding discrete affects were associated with distinct and differentiated patterns of interpersonal problems. Conclusion: Taken together, emotional dysfunction, as measured by the Affect Integration Inventory, appeared to be a central component of the pathological self-organization associated with personality disorder. These findings have several implications for the understanding and psychotherapeutic treatment of personality pathology. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of considering the integration of discrete affects and their specific contributions in the conceptualization and treatment of emotional dysfunction in patients with personality disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Estudos Transversais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Inventário de Personalidade
20.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203957

RESUMO

Feeding and Eating Disorders (FED) are mostly described in infants and adolescents but are less well-known in children. Information on the prevalence of FED in the general pediatric population is still limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and the care pathway of FED in a population aged 0-18 years old, using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 classification. Two physicians interviewed 401 families using a questionnaire including demographics, BMI, dietary behavior data, and age-appropriate screening tools. Qualitative and quantitative variables were compared using the Chi2 test and Student's t-test, respectively. After a headcount adjustment based on the French population by age group, the estimated prevalence rate was 3% [95%CI (1.7-5.1)] for Avoidant and Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID), and 9.7% [95%CI (7.2-13.0)] for Unspecified FED (UFED), which included other restrictive and compulsive FED. The median age for ARFID was 4.8 years (0.8-9 years), and 7.5 years (0.6-17 years) for UFED. The interviews did not identify cases of anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder, other specified FED, pica or rumination. Only 15.2% of children with an FED were receiving medical care. The development of validated pediatric screening tools, as well as the training of health professionals in children FED is necessary.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Transtorno da Evitação ou Restrição da Ingestão de Alimentos , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
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