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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12313-12321, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618030

RESUMO

Soybean provides essential protein and amino acids for humans and animals, while sulfur-containing amino acids (SAA), including methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys), are very limited. In this study, we constructed a high-density bin-map with 3420 bin markers using 676 857 SNPs of a recombinant-inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Kefeng no. 1 and Nannong 1138-2. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was performed for Cys, Met, SAA, and the protein content using this high-density bin-map. Twenty-five QTLs linked to these four traits were identified, and four genomic regions located on chromosomes (Chr) 07, 08, 15, and 20 were overlapped by multiple QTLs. Among them, bin 115-124 located on Chr 15 was associated with all four traits and was a novel locus with a high LOD value. These findings will provide a basis for nutritional quality improvement using marker-assisted selection breeding and clarify the genetic mechanisms of SAA and protein in soybean.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Proteínas de Soja/genética , Soja/genética , Enxofre/análise , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Soja/química
2.
Yi Chuan ; 41(10): 928-938, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624055

RESUMO

The goat genome is the research basis for the protection and utilization of goat resources, which is important for breeding and improving goat breeds. At present, with the continuous improvement of goat reference genome, various important research progress in goat origin, evolution and adaptability has been achieved. In this review, we summarize the research progress in the goat genome in detail, encompassing goat genome structure, genome map (genetic, physical and comparative maps), goat high throughput sequencing and SNP chip development. We aim to provide a theoretical foundation for the development of goat genome selection.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genoma , Cabras/genética , Animais , Cruzamento
3.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 159(1): 39-47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593951

RESUMO

Greenhouse gas emissions are known to influence the planet's temperature, mainly due to human activities. To allow hypothesis testing, as well as to seek viable alternatives for mitigation, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggested 3 main scenarios for changes projected for the year 2100. In this paper, we subjected Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 (tambaqui) individuals in a microcosm to IPCC scenarios B1 (mild), A1B (intermediate), and A2 (extreme) to test possible impacts on their genome. We found chromosome heterochromatinization in specimens exposed to the A2 scenario, where terminal blocks and interstitial bands were detected on several chromosome pairs. The behavior of Rex1 and Rex3 sequences differed between the test scenarios. Hybridization of Rex1 resulted in diffuse signals which showed a gradual increase in the tested scenarios. For Rex3, an increase was observed in the A2 scenario with blocks on several chromosomes, some of which coincided with heterochromatin. Heterochromatinization is an epigenetic process, which may have occurred as a mechanism for regulating Rex3 activity. The signal pattern of Rex6 did not change, suggesting that other mechanisms are acting to regulate its activity.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/genética , Mudança Climática , Gases de Efeito Estufa/efeitos adversos , Retroelementos/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cariótipo , Temperatura Ambiente
4.
Plant Dis ; 103(12): 3041-3049, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613193

RESUMO

Wheat leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) and stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) cause large production losses in many regions of the world. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust in a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between wheat cultivars SW 8588 and Thatcher. The population and parents were genotyped with the Wheat 55K SNP Array and SSR markers and phenotyped for leaf rust severity at Zhoukou in Henan Province and Baoding in Hebei Province. Stripe rust responses were also evaluated at Chengdu in Sichuan Province, and at Baoding. Seven and six QTL were detected for resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust, respectively. Four QTL on chromosomes 1BL, 2AS, 5AL, and 7BL conferred resistance to both rusts. The QTL on 1BL and 2AS were identified as Lr46/Yr29 and Lr37/Yr17, respectively. QLr.hebau-2DS from Thatcher, identified as Lr22b that was previously thought to be ineffective in China, contributed a large effect for leaf rust resistance. QLr.hebau-5AL/QYr.hebau-5AL, QLr.hebau-3BL, QLr.hebau-6DS, QYr.hebau-4BS, and QYr.hebau-6DS are likely to be new QTL, but require further validation. Kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) markers for QLr.hebau-2DS and QLr.hebau-5AL/QYr.hebau-5AL were successfully developed and validated in a diverse wheat panel from Sichuan Province, indicating their usefulness under different genetic backgrounds. These QTL and their closely linked SNP and SSR markers will be useful for fine mapping, candidate gene discovery, and marker-assisted selection in breeding for durable resistance to both leaf and stripe rusts.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Resistência à Doença , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , China , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Triticum/microbiologia
5.
Yi Chuan ; 41(9): 836-844, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549682

RESUMO

Wheat is one of the main food crops and widely grown in the world. It feeds more than 35% of the world's population. Obtaining high-quality genome sequences of wheat is important for its basic and breeding researches. However, the large and complex genome of wheat once led to its genome sequencing as an "impossible task". Recently, with the development of high-throughput sequencing and assembly technology, many wheat genome sequences have been released, and their sequencing and assembly quality is being improved continuously. In the last two years, five wheat reference genomes with different ploidy levels have been published, including two diploid ancestors Triticum urartu (AA) and Aegilops tauschii (DD), wild and cultivated tetraploid wheat T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (BBAA) and hexaploid wheat T. aestivum (BBAADD). Among them, the sequencing and analysis of the T. urartu genome, a donor of polyploid wheat A subgenome, was led by the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this review, we summarize the research progress on structure and evolution analyses of the T. urartu genome to provide some valuable information for promoting the basic and applied researches of wheat.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Triticum/genética , Aegilops/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Poliploidia , Triticum/classificação
6.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 454, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As genome sequencing projects grow rapidly, the diversity of organisms with recently assembled genome sequences peaks at an unprecedented scale, thereby highlighting the need to make gene functional annotations fast and efficient. However, the (high) quality of such annotations must be guaranteed, as this is the first indicator of the genomic potential of every organism. Automatic procedures help accelerating the annotation process, though decreasing the confidence and reliability of the outcomes. Manually curating a genome-wide annotation of genes, enzymes and transporter proteins function is a highly time-consuming, tedious and impractical task, even for the most proficient curator. Hence, a semi-automated procedure, which balances the two approaches, will increase the reliability of the annotation, while speeding up the process. In fact, a prior analysis of the annotation algorithm may leverage its performance, by manipulating its parameters, hastening the downstream processing and the manual curation of assigning functions to genes encoding proteins. RESULTS: Here SamPler, a novel strategy to select parameters for gene functional annotation routines is presented. This semi-automated method is based on the manual curation of a randomly selected set of genes/proteins. Then, in a multi-dimensional array, this sample is used to assess the automatic annotations for all possible combinations of the algorithm's parameters. These assessments allow creating an array of confusion matrices, for which several metrics are calculated (accuracy, precision and negative predictive value) and used to reach optimal values for the parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The potential of this methodology is demonstrated with four genome functional annotations performed in merlin, an in-house user-friendly computational framework for genome-scale metabolic annotation and model reconstruction. For that, SamPler was implemented as a new plugin for the merlin tool.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Bactérias/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 42, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Columnaris disease (CD) is an emerging problem for the rainbow trout aquaculture industry in the US. The objectives of this study were to: (1) identify common genomic regions that explain a large proportion of the additive genetic variance for resistance to CD in two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations; and (2) estimate the gains in prediction accuracy when genomic information is used to evaluate the genetic potential of survival to columnaris infection in each population. METHODS: Two aquaculture populations were investigated: the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA) odd-year line and the Troutlodge, Inc., May odd-year (TLUM) nucleus breeding population. Fish that survived to 21 days post-immersion challenge were recorded as resistant. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes were available for 1185 and 1137 fish from NCCCWA and TLUM, respectively. SNP effects and variances were estimated using the weighted single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) for genome-wide association. Genomic regions that explained more than 1% of the additive genetic variance were considered to be associated with resistance to CD. Predictive ability was calculated in a fivefold cross-validation scheme and using a linear regression method. RESULTS: Validation on adjusted phenotypes provided a prediction accuracy close to zero, due to the binary nature of the trait. Using breeding values computed from the complete data as benchmark improved prediction accuracy of genomic models by about 40% compared to the pedigree-based BLUP. Fourteen windows located on six chromosomes were associated with resistance to CD in the NCCCWA population, of which two windows on chromosome Omy 17 jointly explained more than 10% of the additive genetic variance. Twenty-six windows located on 13 chromosomes were associated with resistance to CD in the TLUM population. Only four associated genomic regions overlapped with quantitative trait loci (QTL) between both populations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that genome-wide selection for resistance to CD in rainbow trout has greater potential than selection for a few target genomic regions that were found to be associated to resistance to CD due to the polygenic architecture of this trait, and because the QTL associated with resistance to CD are not sufficiently informative for selection decisions across populations.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/veterinária , Flavobacterium , Oncorhynchus mykiss/genética , Animais , Resistência à Doença/genética , Feminino , Pesqueiros , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/genética , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Seleção Genética
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 344, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the study, the trihelix family, also referred to as GT factors, is one of the transcription factor families. Trihelix genes play roles in the light response, seed maturation, leaf development, abiotic and biological stress and other biological activities. However, the trihelix family in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), an important usable medicinal crop, has not yet been thoroughly studied. The genome of tartary buckwheat has recently been reported and provides a theoretical basis for our research on the characteristics and expression of trihelix genes in tartary buckwheat based at the whole level. RESULTS: In the present study, a total of 31 FtTH genes were identified based on the buckwheat genome. They were named from FtTH1 to FtTH31 and grouped into 5 groups (GT-1, GT-2, SH4, GTγ and SIP1). FtTH genes are not evenly distributed on the chromosomes, and we found segmental duplication events of FtTH genes on tartary buckwheat chromosomes. According to the results of gene and motif composition, FtTH located in the same group contained analogous intron/exon organizations and motif organizations. qRT-PCR showed that FtTH family members have multiple expression patterns in stems, roots, leaves, fruits, and flowers and during fruit development. CONCLUSIONS: Through our study, we identified 31 FtTH genes in tartary buckwheat and synthetically further analyzed the evolution and expression pattern of FtTH proteins. The structure and motif organizations of most genes are conserved in each subfamily, suggesting that they may be functionally conserved. The FtTH characteristics of the gene expression patterns indicate functional diversity in the time and space in the tartary buckwheat life process. Based on the discussion and analysis of FtTH gene function, we screened some genes closely related to the growth and development of tartary buckwheat. This will help us to further study the function of FtTH genes through experimental exploration in tartary buckwheat growth and improve the fruit of tartary buckwheat.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Evolução Molecular , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Duplicação Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 336, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: APETALA2-like genes encode plant-specific transcription factors, some of which possess one microRNA172 (miR172) binding site. The miR172 and its target euAP2 genes are involved in the process of phase transformation and flower organ development in many plants. However, the roles of miR172 and its target AP2 genes remain largely unknown in Brassica napus (B. napus). RESULTS: In this study, 19 euAP2 and four miR172 genes were identified in the B. napus genome. A sequence analysis suggested that 17 euAP2 genes were targeted by Bna-miR172 in the 3' coding region. EuAP2s were classified into five major groups in B.napus. This classification was consistent with the exon-intron structure and motif organization. An analysis of the nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates revealed that the euAP2 genes had gone through purifying selection. Whole genome duplication (WGD) or segmental duplication events played a major role in the expansion of the euAP2 gene family. A cis-regulatory element (CRE) analysis suggested that the euAP2s were involved in the response to light, hormones, stress, and developmental processes including circadian control, endosperm and meristem expression. Expression analysis of the miR172-targeted euAP2s in nine different tissues showed diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns. Most euAP2 genes were highly expressed in the floral organs, suggesting their specific functions in flower development. BnaAP2-1, BnaAP2-5 and BnaTOE1-2 had higher expression levels in late-flowering material than early-flowering material based on RNA-seq and qRT-PCR, indicating that they may act as floral suppressors. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, analyses of the evolution, structure, tissue specificity and expression of the euAP2 genes were peformed in B.napus. Based on the RNA-seq and experimental data, euAP2 may be involved in flower development. Three euAP2 genes (BnaAP2-1, BnaAP2-5 and BnaTOE1-2) might be regarded as floral suppressors. The results of this study provide insights for further functional characterization of the miR172 /euAP2 module in B.napus.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Sequência Conservada/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10380-10391, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464444

RESUMO

The timing of spring bud flush (TBF) is of economic importance for tea plant (Camellia sinensis) breeding. We employed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify favorable single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allelic variations as well as candidate genes that control TBF of C. sinensis using specific-locus-amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) in a diversity panel comprising 151 tea plant germplasm resources. GWAS analysis revealed 26 SNPs associated with TBF in three years, and we eventually identified a final significant SNP for TBF. To identify candidate genes possibly related to TBF, we screened seven candidate genes within 100 kb regions surrounding the trait-related SNP loci. Furthermore, the favorable allelic variation, the "TT" genotype in the SNP loci, was discovered, and a derived cleaved amplified polymorphism (dCAPS) marker was designed that cosegregated with TBF, which could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding in C. sinensis. The results obtained from this study can provide a theoretical and applied basis for the MAS of early breeding in tea plants in the future.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Cruzamento , Camellia sinensis/classificação , Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas
11.
Plant Dis ; 103(10): 2645-2651, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453747

RESUMO

Chinese wheat landrace Dahongtou was resistant to 35 of 38 tested Chinese isolates of Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici at the seedling stage. Genetic analysis of the F2 populations and their derived F2:3 families of crosses of Dahongtou with the susceptible varieties Mingxian 169 and Huixianhong indicated that the resistance of Dahongtou to B. graminis f. sp. tritici isolate E09 was conferred by a single recessive gene, tentatively designated as pmDHT. The gene was mapped to chromosome arm 7BL and flanked by markers Xwmc526/XBE443877 and Xgwm611/Xwmc511 at genetic distances of 0.8 and 0.3 cM, respectively. The chromosomal position of pmDHT was similar to the multi-allelic Pm5 locus on 7BL. Allelism tests with crosses of Dahongtou with Fuzhuang 30 (Pm5e) and Xiaobaidong (mlxbd) indicated that pmDHT was allelic to both Pm5e and mlxbd. However, pmDHT showed a different pattern of resistance to the 38 B. graminis f. sp. tritici isolates compared with wheat lines with Pm5a, Pm5b, Pm5e, mlxbd, and PmHYM and also differed from PmSGA. Thus, pmDHT was identified most likely as a new allele or at least a closely linked gene of the Pm5 locus. This gene can be transferred into susceptible wheat cultivars/lines and pyramided with other resistance genes through marker-assisted selection to improve powdery mildew resistance.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Resistência à Doença , Genes de Plantas , Triticum , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
12.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(10): 1100-1111, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418589

RESUMO

Members of the Sox gene family play crucial roles during reproduction and development, but their genome-wide identification has not yet been performed in large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea. In this study, a total of 26 members of the Sox gene family were identified from the genome of large yellow croaker and classified into seven subgroups based on the conserved HMG-box domain they contain. Among the identified Sox gene family members, eight belonged to the SoxB subgroup (five in B1 and three in B2), four belonged to the SoxC subgroup, four belonged to the SoxD subgroup, six belonged to the SoxE subgroup, three belonged to the SoxF subgroup, and one belonged to the SoxK subgroup. During evolution, members of the SoxE subgroup (Sox8, Sox9, Sox10), Sox1, Sox4, Sox6, and Sox11 evolved into two copies, which may be a result of teleost-specific whole-genome duplication. Sox genes were distributed unevenly across 15 chromosomes. The number of introns in large yellow croaker Sox genes varied from 0 to 14. Results of the expression profile during embryogenesis revealed that most of the members of the Sox gene family had lower expression, except several Sox genes, and expression patterns also differed among each Sox gene group and duplicated gene. This study systematically characterized and analyzed the Sox gene family in large yellow croaker and provided new insights into its function during embryogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genoma , Perciformes/genética , Filogenia , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional , Embrião não Mamífero , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Éxons , Proteínas de Peixes/classificação , Duplicação Gênica , Íntrons , Família Multigênica , Perciformes/classificação , Isoformas de Proteínas/classificação , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/classificação , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
13.
Microbiol Res ; 228: 126306, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422233

RESUMO

The mariner transposon family of Himar1 has been widely used for the random mutagenesis of bacteria to generate single insertions into the chromosome. Here, a versatile toolbox of mariner transposon derivatives was generated and applied to the functional genomics investigation of fish pathogen Edwardsiella piscicida. In this study, we combined the merits of the random mutagenesis of mariner transposon and common efficient reporter marker genes or regulatory elements, mCherry, gfp, luxAB, lacZ, sacBR, and PBAD and antibiotic resistance cassettes to construct a series of derivative transposon vectors, pMmch, pMKGR, pMCGR, pMXKGR, pMLKGR, pMSGR, and pMPR, based on the initial transposon pMar2xT7. The function and effectiveness of the modified transposons were verified by introducing them into E. piscicida EIB202. Based on the toolbox, a transposon insertion mutant library containing approximately 3.0 × 105 distinct mutants was constructed to explore the upstream regulators of esrB, the master regulator of the type III and type VI secretion systems (T3/T6SS) in E. piscicida. Following analysis by Con-ARTIST, ETAE_3474, annotated as fabR and involved in fatty acid metabolism, was screened out and identified as a novel regulator mediating T3SS and T6SS expression. In addition, the fabR mutants displayed critical virulence attenuation in turbot. Due to the broad-range host compatibility of mariner transposons, the newly built transposon toolbox can be applied for functional genomics studies in various bacteria.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Edwardsiella/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Biblioteca Gênica , Genes Reporter/genética , Genômica/métodos , Mutagênese Insercional/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI/genética , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/genética
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 369, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cucumis melo is a suitable study material for investigation of fruit ripening owing to its climacteric nature. Long non-coding RNAs have been linked to many important biological processes, such as fruit ripening, flowering time regulation, and abiotic stress responses in plants. However, knowledge of the regulatory roles of lncRNAs underlying the ripening process in C. melo are largely unknown. In this study the complete transcriptome of Cucumis melo L. cv. Hetao fruit at four developmental stages was sequenced and analyzed. The potential role of lncRNAs was predicted based on the function of differentially expressed target genes and correlated genes. RESULTS: In total, 3857 lncRNAs were assembled and annotated, of which 1601 were differentially expressed between developmental stages. The target genes of these lncRNAs and the regulatory relationship (cis- or trans-acting) were predicted. The target genes were enriched with GO terms for biological process, such as response to auxin stimulus and hormone biosynthetic process. Enriched KEGG pathways included plant hormone signal transduction and carotenoid biosynthesis. Co-expression network construction showed that LNC_002345 and LNC_000154, which were highly expressed, might co-regulate with mutiple genes associated with auxin signal transduction and acted in the same pathways. We identified lncRNAs (LNC_000987, LNC_000693, LNC_001323, LNC_003610, LNC_001263 and LNC_003380) that were correlated with fruit ripening and the climacteric, and may participate in the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and metabolism and the ABA signaling pathway. A number of crucial transcription factors, such as ERFs, WRKY70, NAC56, and NAC72, may also play important roles in the regulation of fruit ripening in C. melo. CONCLUSIONS: Our results predict the regulatory functions of the lncRNAs during melon fruit development and ripening, and 142 highly expressed lncRNAs (average FPKM > 100) were identified. These lncRNAs participate in the regulation of auxin signal transduction, ethylene, sucrose biosynthesis and metabolism, the ABA signaling pathway, and transcription factors, thus regulating fruit development and ripening.


Assuntos
Cucumis melo/genética , Frutas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/fisiologia , RNA de Plantas/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Climatério , Cucumis melo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Fenótipo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma
15.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 294(6): 1535-1546, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346719

RESUMO

The spotted wing drosophila, D. suzukii, is a serious agricultural pest attacking a variety of soft fruits and vegetables. Although originating from East Asia it has recently invaded America and Europe raising major concern about its expansion potential and the consequent economic losses. Since cytogenetic information on the species is scarce, we report here the mitotic karyotype and detailed photographic maps of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of D. suzukii. The mitotic metaphase complement contains three pairs of autosomes, one of which is dot-like, and one pair of heteromorphic (XX/XY) sex chromosomes. The salivary gland polytene complement consists of five long polytene arms, representing the two metacentric autosomes and the acrocentric X chromosome, and one very short polytene element, which corresponds to the dot-like autosome. Banding pattern as well as the most characteristic features and prominent landmarks of each polytene chromosome arm are presented and discussed. Furthermore, twelve gene markers have been mapped on the polytene chromosomes of D. suzukii by in situ hybridization. Their distribution pattern was found quite similar to that of D. melanogaster revealing conservation of synteny although the relative position within each chromosome arm for most of the genes differed significantly between D. suzukii and D. melanogaster. The chromosome information presented here is suitable for comparative cytogenetic studies and phylogenetic exploration, while it could also facilitate the assembly of the genome sequence and support the development of genetic tools for species-specific and environment-friendly biological control applications such as the sterile insect technique.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Insetos , Drosophila/genética , Cromossomos Politênicos , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Marcadores Genéticos , Hibridização In Situ , Mitose/genética , Cromossomo X
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 329, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) containing only a single zinc finger domain play important roles in the regulation of plant growth and development, as well as in biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date, the evolutionary history and functions of the ZFP gene family have not been identified in cotton. RESULTS: In this paper, we identified 29 ZFP genes in Gossypium hirsutum. This gene family was divided into seven subfamilies, 22 of which were distributed over 17 chromosomes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that 20 GhZFP genes originated from whole genome duplications and two originated from dispersed duplication events, indicating that whole genome duplication is the main force in the expansion of the GhZFP gene family. Most GhZFP8 subfamily genes, except for GhZFP8-3, were highly expressed during fiber cell growth, and were induced by brassinosteroids in vitro. Furthermore, we found that a large number of GhZFP genes contained gibberellic acid responsive elements, auxin responsive elements, and E-box elements in their promoter regions. Exogenous application of these hormones significantly stimulated the expression of these genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that GhZFP8 genes are involved in cotton fiber development and widely induced by auxin, gibberellin and BR, which provides a foundation for the identification of more downstream genes with potential roles in phytohormone stimuli, and a basis for breeding better cotton varieties in the future.


Assuntos
Gossypium/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Dedos de Zinco/genética , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Sequência Conservada/genética , Giberelinas/fisiologia , Gossypium/fisiologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Alinhamento de Sequência , Transcriptoma , Dedos de Zinco/fisiologia
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 324, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leaf shape development research is important because leaf shapes such as moderate curling can help to improve light energy utilization efficiency. Leaf growth and development includes initiation of the leaf primordia and polar differentiation of the proximal-distal, adaxial-abaxial, and centrolateral axes. Changes in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity formation, auxin synthesis and signaling pathways, and development of sclerenchyma and cuticle can cause abnormal leaf shapes such as up-curling leaf. Although many genes related to leaf shape development have been reported, the detailed mechanism of leaf development is still unclear. Here, we report an up-curling leaf mutant plant from our Brassica napus germplasm. We studied its inheritance, mapped the up-curling leaf locus BnUC1, built near-isogenic lines for the Bnuc1 mutant, and evaluated the effect of the dominant leaf curl locus on leaf photosynthetic efficiency and agronomic traits. RESULTS: The up-curling trait was controlled by one dominant locus in a progeny population derived from NJAU5734 and Zhongshuang 11 (ZS11). This BnUC1 locus was mapped in an interval of 2732.549 kb on the A05 chromosome of B. napus using Illumina Brassica 60 K Bead Chip Array. To fine map BnUC1, we designed 201 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers covering the mapping interval. Among them, 16 polymorphic primers that narrowed the mapping interval to 54.8 kb were detected using a BC6F2 family population with 654 individuals. We found six annotated genes in the mapping interval using the B. napus reference genome, including BnaA05g18250D and BnaA05g18290D, which bioinformatics and gene expression analyses predicted may be responsible for leaf up-curling. The up-curling leaf trait had negative effects on the agronomic traits of 30 randomly selected individuals from the BC6F2 population. The near-isogenic line of the up-curling leaf (ZS11-UC1) was constructed to evaluate the effect of BnUC1 on photosynthetic efficiency. The results indicated that the up-curling leaf trait locus was beneficial to improve the photosynthetic efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: An up-curling leaf mutant Bnuc1 was controlled by one dominant locus BnUC1. This locus had positive effects on photosynthetic efficiency, negative effects on some agronomic traits, and may help to increase planting density in B. napus.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Brassica napus/anatomia & histologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Loci Gênicos , Mutação , Fotossíntese , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
18.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 37, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at identifying genomic regions that underlie genetic variation of worm egg count, as an indicator trait for parasite resistance in a large population of Australian sheep, which was genotyped with the high-density 600 K Ovine single nucleotide polymorphism array. This study included 7539 sheep from different locations across Australia that underwent a field challenge with mixed gastrointestinal parasite species. Faecal samples were collected and worm egg counts for three strongyle species, i.e. Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis were determined. Data were analysed using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and regional heritability mapping (RHM). RESULTS: Both RHM and GWAS detected a region on Ovis aries (OAR) chromosome 2 that was highly significantly associated with parasite resistance at a genome-wise false discovery rate of 5%. RHM revealed additional significant regions on OAR6, 18, and 24. Pathway analysis revealed 13 genes within these significant regions (SH3RF1, HERC2, MAP3K, CYFIP1, PTPN1, BIN1, HERC3, HERC5, HERC6, IBSP, SPP1, ISG20, and DET1), which have various roles in innate and acquired immune response mechanisms, as well as cytokine signalling. Other genes involved in haemostasis regulation and mucosal defence were also detected, which are important for protection of sheep against invading parasites. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified significant genomic regions on OAR2, 6, 18, and 24 that are associated with parasite resistance in sheep. RHM was more powerful in detecting regions that affect parasite resistance than GWAS. Our results support the hypothesis that parasite resistance is a complex trait and is determined by a large number of genes with small effects, rather than by a few major genes with large effects.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Austrália , Mapeamento Cromossômico/veterinária , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Hereditariedade , Enteropatias Parasitárias/genética , Ovinos/genética
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 305, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Verticillium wilt caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae race 1 is among the top disease concerns for lettuce in the Salinas and Pajaro Valleys of coastal central California. Resistance of lettuce against V. dahliae race 1 was previously mapped to the single dominant Verticillium resistance 1 (Vr1) locus. Lines of tomato resistant to race 1 are known to contain the closely linked Ve1 and Ve2 genes that encode receptor-like proteins with extracellular leucine-rich repeats; the Ve1 and Ve2 proteins act antagonistically to provide resistance against V. dahliae race 1. The Vr1 locus in lettuce contains a cluster of several genes with sequence similarity to the tomato Ve genes. We used genome sequencing and/or PCR screening along with pathogenicity assays of 152 accessions of lettuce to investigate allelic diversity and its relationship to race 1 resistance in lettuce. RESULTS: This approach identified a total of four Ve genes: LsVe1, LsVe2, LsVe3, and LsVe4. The majority of accessions, however, contained a combination of only three of these LsVe genes clustered on chromosomal linkage group 9 (within ~ 25 kb in the resistant cultivar La Brillante and within ~ 127 kb in the susceptible cultivar Salinas). CONCLUSIONS: A single allele, LsVe1L, was present in all resistant accessions and absent in all susceptible accessions. This allele can be used as a molecular marker for V. dahliae race 1 resistance in lettuce. A PCR assay for rapid detection of race 1 resistance in lettuce was designed based on nucleotide polymorphisms. Application of this assay allows identification of resistant genotypes in early stages of plant development or at seed-level without time- and labor-intensive testing in the field.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Alface/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Verticillium/fisiologia , Alelos , California , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genótipo , Alface/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2989, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278252

RESUMO

Multiple cotton genomes (diploid and tetraploid) have been assembled. However, genomic variations between cultivars of allotetraploid upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), the most widely planted cotton species in the world, remain unexplored. Here, we use single-molecule long read and Hi-C sequencing technologies to assemble genomes of the two upland cotton cultivars TM-1 and zhongmiansuo24 (ZM24). Comparisons among TM-1 and ZM24 assemblies and the genomes of the diploid ancestors reveal a large amount of genetic variations. Among them, the top three longest structural variations are located on chromosome A08 of the tetraploid upland cotton, which account for ~30% total length of this chromosome. Haplotype analyses of the mapping population derived from these two cultivars and the germplasm panel show suppressed recombination rates in this region. This study provides additional genomic resources for the community, and the identified genetic variations, especially the reduced meiotic recombination on chromosome A08, will help future breeding.


Assuntos
Ordem dos Genes/genética , Gossypium/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Poliploidia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
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