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1.
Yi Chuan ; 41(9): 836-844, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549682

RESUMO

Wheat is one of the main food crops and widely grown in the world. It feeds more than 35% of the world's population. Obtaining high-quality genome sequences of wheat is important for its basic and breeding researches. However, the large and complex genome of wheat once led to its genome sequencing as an "impossible task". Recently, with the development of high-throughput sequencing and assembly technology, many wheat genome sequences have been released, and their sequencing and assembly quality is being improved continuously. In the last two years, five wheat reference genomes with different ploidy levels have been published, including two diploid ancestors Triticum urartu (AA) and Aegilops tauschii (DD), wild and cultivated tetraploid wheat T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (BBAA) and hexaploid wheat T. aestivum (BBAADD). Among them, the sequencing and analysis of the T. urartu genome, a donor of polyploid wheat A subgenome, was led by the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this review, we summarize the research progress on structure and evolution analyses of the T. urartu genome to provide some valuable information for promoting the basic and applied researches of wheat.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Triticum/genética , Aegilops/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Poliploidia , Triticum/classificação
2.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 42, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Columnaris disease (CD) is an emerging problem for the rainbow trout aquaculture industry in the US. The objectives of this study were to: (1) identify common genomic regions that explain a large proportion of the additive genetic variance for resistance to CD in two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations; and (2) estimate the gains in prediction accuracy when genomic information is used to evaluate the genetic potential of survival to columnaris infection in each population. METHODS: Two aquaculture populations were investigated: the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA) odd-year line and the Troutlodge, Inc., May odd-year (TLUM) nucleus breeding population. Fish that survived to 21 days post-immersion challenge were recorded as resistant. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes were available for 1185 and 1137 fish from NCCCWA and TLUM, respectively. SNP effects and variances were estimated using the weighted single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) for genome-wide association. Genomic regions that explained more than 1% of the additive genetic variance were considered to be associated with resistance to CD. Predictive ability was calculated in a fivefold cross-validation scheme and using a linear regression method. RESULTS: Validation on adjusted phenotypes provided a prediction accuracy close to zero, due to the binary nature of the trait. Using breeding values computed from the complete data as benchmark improved prediction accuracy of genomic models by about 40% compared to the pedigree-based BLUP. Fourteen windows located on six chromosomes were associated with resistance to CD in the NCCCWA population, of which two windows on chromosome Omy 17 jointly explained more than 10% of the additive genetic variance. Twenty-six windows located on 13 chromosomes were associated with resistance to CD in the TLUM population. Only four associated genomic regions overlapped with quantitative trait loci (QTL) between both populations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that genome-wide selection for resistance to CD in rainbow trout has greater potential than selection for a few target genomic regions that were found to be associated to resistance to CD due to the polygenic architecture of this trait, and because the QTL associated with resistance to CD are not sufficiently informative for selection decisions across populations.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/veterinária , Flavobacterium , Oncorhynchus mykiss/genética , Animais , Resistência à Doença/genética , Feminino , Pesqueiros , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/genética , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Seleção Genética
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 369, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cucumis melo is a suitable study material for investigation of fruit ripening owing to its climacteric nature. Long non-coding RNAs have been linked to many important biological processes, such as fruit ripening, flowering time regulation, and abiotic stress responses in plants. However, knowledge of the regulatory roles of lncRNAs underlying the ripening process in C. melo are largely unknown. In this study the complete transcriptome of Cucumis melo L. cv. Hetao fruit at four developmental stages was sequenced and analyzed. The potential role of lncRNAs was predicted based on the function of differentially expressed target genes and correlated genes. RESULTS: In total, 3857 lncRNAs were assembled and annotated, of which 1601 were differentially expressed between developmental stages. The target genes of these lncRNAs and the regulatory relationship (cis- or trans-acting) were predicted. The target genes were enriched with GO terms for biological process, such as response to auxin stimulus and hormone biosynthetic process. Enriched KEGG pathways included plant hormone signal transduction and carotenoid biosynthesis. Co-expression network construction showed that LNC_002345 and LNC_000154, which were highly expressed, might co-regulate with mutiple genes associated with auxin signal transduction and acted in the same pathways. We identified lncRNAs (LNC_000987, LNC_000693, LNC_001323, LNC_003610, LNC_001263 and LNC_003380) that were correlated with fruit ripening and the climacteric, and may participate in the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and metabolism and the ABA signaling pathway. A number of crucial transcription factors, such as ERFs, WRKY70, NAC56, and NAC72, may also play important roles in the regulation of fruit ripening in C. melo. CONCLUSIONS: Our results predict the regulatory functions of the lncRNAs during melon fruit development and ripening, and 142 highly expressed lncRNAs (average FPKM > 100) were identified. These lncRNAs participate in the regulation of auxin signal transduction, ethylene, sucrose biosynthesis and metabolism, the ABA signaling pathway, and transcription factors, thus regulating fruit development and ripening.


Assuntos
Cucumis melo/genética , Frutas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/fisiologia , RNA de Plantas/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Climatério , Cucumis melo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Fenótipo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 336, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: APETALA2-like genes encode plant-specific transcription factors, some of which possess one microRNA172 (miR172) binding site. The miR172 and its target euAP2 genes are involved in the process of phase transformation and flower organ development in many plants. However, the roles of miR172 and its target AP2 genes remain largely unknown in Brassica napus (B. napus). RESULTS: In this study, 19 euAP2 and four miR172 genes were identified in the B. napus genome. A sequence analysis suggested that 17 euAP2 genes were targeted by Bna-miR172 in the 3' coding region. EuAP2s were classified into five major groups in B.napus. This classification was consistent with the exon-intron structure and motif organization. An analysis of the nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates revealed that the euAP2 genes had gone through purifying selection. Whole genome duplication (WGD) or segmental duplication events played a major role in the expansion of the euAP2 gene family. A cis-regulatory element (CRE) analysis suggested that the euAP2s were involved in the response to light, hormones, stress, and developmental processes including circadian control, endosperm and meristem expression. Expression analysis of the miR172-targeted euAP2s in nine different tissues showed diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns. Most euAP2 genes were highly expressed in the floral organs, suggesting their specific functions in flower development. BnaAP2-1, BnaAP2-5 and BnaTOE1-2 had higher expression levels in late-flowering material than early-flowering material based on RNA-seq and qRT-PCR, indicating that they may act as floral suppressors. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, analyses of the evolution, structure, tissue specificity and expression of the euAP2 genes were peformed in B.napus. Based on the RNA-seq and experimental data, euAP2 may be involved in flower development. Three euAP2 genes (BnaAP2-1, BnaAP2-5 and BnaTOE1-2) might be regarded as floral suppressors. The results of this study provide insights for further functional characterization of the miR172 /euAP2 module in B.napus.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Sequência Conservada/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 344, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the study, the trihelix family, also referred to as GT factors, is one of the transcription factor families. Trihelix genes play roles in the light response, seed maturation, leaf development, abiotic and biological stress and other biological activities. However, the trihelix family in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), an important usable medicinal crop, has not yet been thoroughly studied. The genome of tartary buckwheat has recently been reported and provides a theoretical basis for our research on the characteristics and expression of trihelix genes in tartary buckwheat based at the whole level. RESULTS: In the present study, a total of 31 FtTH genes were identified based on the buckwheat genome. They were named from FtTH1 to FtTH31 and grouped into 5 groups (GT-1, GT-2, SH4, GTγ and SIP1). FtTH genes are not evenly distributed on the chromosomes, and we found segmental duplication events of FtTH genes on tartary buckwheat chromosomes. According to the results of gene and motif composition, FtTH located in the same group contained analogous intron/exon organizations and motif organizations. qRT-PCR showed that FtTH family members have multiple expression patterns in stems, roots, leaves, fruits, and flowers and during fruit development. CONCLUSIONS: Through our study, we identified 31 FtTH genes in tartary buckwheat and synthetically further analyzed the evolution and expression pattern of FtTH proteins. The structure and motif organizations of most genes are conserved in each subfamily, suggesting that they may be functionally conserved. The FtTH characteristics of the gene expression patterns indicate functional diversity in the time and space in the tartary buckwheat life process. Based on the discussion and analysis of FtTH gene function, we screened some genes closely related to the growth and development of tartary buckwheat. This will help us to further study the function of FtTH genes through experimental exploration in tartary buckwheat growth and improve the fruit of tartary buckwheat.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Evolução Molecular , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Duplicação Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
Plant Dis ; 103(10): 2645-2651, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453747

RESUMO

Chinese wheat landrace Dahongtou was resistant to 35 of 38 tested Chinese isolates of Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici at the seedling stage. Genetic analysis of the F2 populations and their derived F2:3 families of crosses of Dahongtou with the susceptible varieties Mingxian 169 and Huixianhong indicated that the resistance of Dahongtou to B. graminis f. sp. tritici isolate E09 was conferred by a single recessive gene, tentatively designated as pmDHT. The gene was mapped to chromosome arm 7BL and flanked by markers Xwmc526/XBE443877 and Xgwm611/Xwmc511 at genetic distances of 0.8 and 0.3 cM, respectively. The chromosomal position of pmDHT was similar to the multi-allelic Pm5 locus on 7BL. Allelism tests with crosses of Dahongtou with Fuzhuang 30 (Pm5e) and Xiaobaidong (mlxbd) indicated that pmDHT was allelic to both Pm5e and mlxbd. However, pmDHT showed a different pattern of resistance to the 38 B. graminis f. sp. tritici isolates compared with wheat lines with Pm5a, Pm5b, Pm5e, mlxbd, and PmHYM and also differed from PmSGA. Thus, pmDHT was identified most likely as a new allele or at least a closely linked gene of the Pm5 locus. This gene can be transferred into susceptible wheat cultivars/lines and pyramided with other resistance genes through marker-assisted selection to improve powdery mildew resistance.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Resistência à Doença , Genes de Plantas , Triticum , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10380-10391, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464444

RESUMO

The timing of spring bud flush (TBF) is of economic importance for tea plant (Camellia sinensis) breeding. We employed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify favorable single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allelic variations as well as candidate genes that control TBF of C. sinensis using specific-locus-amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) in a diversity panel comprising 151 tea plant germplasm resources. GWAS analysis revealed 26 SNPs associated with TBF in three years, and we eventually identified a final significant SNP for TBF. To identify candidate genes possibly related to TBF, we screened seven candidate genes within 100 kb regions surrounding the trait-related SNP loci. Furthermore, the favorable allelic variation, the "TT" genotype in the SNP loci, was discovered, and a derived cleaved amplified polymorphism (dCAPS) marker was designed that cosegregated with TBF, which could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding in C. sinensis. The results obtained from this study can provide a theoretical and applied basis for the MAS of early breeding in tea plants in the future.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Cruzamento , Camellia sinensis/classificação , Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas
8.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 37, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at identifying genomic regions that underlie genetic variation of worm egg count, as an indicator trait for parasite resistance in a large population of Australian sheep, which was genotyped with the high-density 600 K Ovine single nucleotide polymorphism array. This study included 7539 sheep from different locations across Australia that underwent a field challenge with mixed gastrointestinal parasite species. Faecal samples were collected and worm egg counts for three strongyle species, i.e. Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis were determined. Data were analysed using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and regional heritability mapping (RHM). RESULTS: Both RHM and GWAS detected a region on Ovis aries (OAR) chromosome 2 that was highly significantly associated with parasite resistance at a genome-wise false discovery rate of 5%. RHM revealed additional significant regions on OAR6, 18, and 24. Pathway analysis revealed 13 genes within these significant regions (SH3RF1, HERC2, MAP3K, CYFIP1, PTPN1, BIN1, HERC3, HERC5, HERC6, IBSP, SPP1, ISG20, and DET1), which have various roles in innate and acquired immune response mechanisms, as well as cytokine signalling. Other genes involved in haemostasis regulation and mucosal defence were also detected, which are important for protection of sheep against invading parasites. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified significant genomic regions on OAR2, 6, 18, and 24 that are associated with parasite resistance in sheep. RHM was more powerful in detecting regions that affect parasite resistance than GWAS. Our results support the hypothesis that parasite resistance is a complex trait and is determined by a large number of genes with small effects, rather than by a few major genes with large effects.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Austrália , Mapeamento Cromossômico/veterinária , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Hereditariedade , Enteropatias Parasitárias/genética , Ovinos/genética
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 305, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Verticillium wilt caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae race 1 is among the top disease concerns for lettuce in the Salinas and Pajaro Valleys of coastal central California. Resistance of lettuce against V. dahliae race 1 was previously mapped to the single dominant Verticillium resistance 1 (Vr1) locus. Lines of tomato resistant to race 1 are known to contain the closely linked Ve1 and Ve2 genes that encode receptor-like proteins with extracellular leucine-rich repeats; the Ve1 and Ve2 proteins act antagonistically to provide resistance against V. dahliae race 1. The Vr1 locus in lettuce contains a cluster of several genes with sequence similarity to the tomato Ve genes. We used genome sequencing and/or PCR screening along with pathogenicity assays of 152 accessions of lettuce to investigate allelic diversity and its relationship to race 1 resistance in lettuce. RESULTS: This approach identified a total of four Ve genes: LsVe1, LsVe2, LsVe3, and LsVe4. The majority of accessions, however, contained a combination of only three of these LsVe genes clustered on chromosomal linkage group 9 (within ~ 25 kb in the resistant cultivar La Brillante and within ~ 127 kb in the susceptible cultivar Salinas). CONCLUSIONS: A single allele, LsVe1L, was present in all resistant accessions and absent in all susceptible accessions. This allele can be used as a molecular marker for V. dahliae race 1 resistance in lettuce. A PCR assay for rapid detection of race 1 resistance in lettuce was designed based on nucleotide polymorphisms. Application of this assay allows identification of resistant genotypes in early stages of plant development or at seed-level without time- and labor-intensive testing in the field.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Alface/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Verticillium/fisiologia , Alelos , California , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genótipo , Alface/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 324, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leaf shape development research is important because leaf shapes such as moderate curling can help to improve light energy utilization efficiency. Leaf growth and development includes initiation of the leaf primordia and polar differentiation of the proximal-distal, adaxial-abaxial, and centrolateral axes. Changes in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity formation, auxin synthesis and signaling pathways, and development of sclerenchyma and cuticle can cause abnormal leaf shapes such as up-curling leaf. Although many genes related to leaf shape development have been reported, the detailed mechanism of leaf development is still unclear. Here, we report an up-curling leaf mutant plant from our Brassica napus germplasm. We studied its inheritance, mapped the up-curling leaf locus BnUC1, built near-isogenic lines for the Bnuc1 mutant, and evaluated the effect of the dominant leaf curl locus on leaf photosynthetic efficiency and agronomic traits. RESULTS: The up-curling trait was controlled by one dominant locus in a progeny population derived from NJAU5734 and Zhongshuang 11 (ZS11). This BnUC1 locus was mapped in an interval of 2732.549 kb on the A05 chromosome of B. napus using Illumina Brassica 60 K Bead Chip Array. To fine map BnUC1, we designed 201 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers covering the mapping interval. Among them, 16 polymorphic primers that narrowed the mapping interval to 54.8 kb were detected using a BC6F2 family population with 654 individuals. We found six annotated genes in the mapping interval using the B. napus reference genome, including BnaA05g18250D and BnaA05g18290D, which bioinformatics and gene expression analyses predicted may be responsible for leaf up-curling. The up-curling leaf trait had negative effects on the agronomic traits of 30 randomly selected individuals from the BC6F2 population. The near-isogenic line of the up-curling leaf (ZS11-UC1) was constructed to evaluate the effect of BnUC1 on photosynthetic efficiency. The results indicated that the up-curling leaf trait locus was beneficial to improve the photosynthetic efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: An up-curling leaf mutant Bnuc1 was controlled by one dominant locus BnUC1. This locus had positive effects on photosynthetic efficiency, negative effects on some agronomic traits, and may help to increase planting density in B. napus.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Brassica napus/anatomia & histologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Loci Gênicos , Mutação , Fotossíntese , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 329, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) containing only a single zinc finger domain play important roles in the regulation of plant growth and development, as well as in biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date, the evolutionary history and functions of the ZFP gene family have not been identified in cotton. RESULTS: In this paper, we identified 29 ZFP genes in Gossypium hirsutum. This gene family was divided into seven subfamilies, 22 of which were distributed over 17 chromosomes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that 20 GhZFP genes originated from whole genome duplications and two originated from dispersed duplication events, indicating that whole genome duplication is the main force in the expansion of the GhZFP gene family. Most GhZFP8 subfamily genes, except for GhZFP8-3, were highly expressed during fiber cell growth, and were induced by brassinosteroids in vitro. Furthermore, we found that a large number of GhZFP genes contained gibberellic acid responsive elements, auxin responsive elements, and E-box elements in their promoter regions. Exogenous application of these hormones significantly stimulated the expression of these genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that GhZFP8 genes are involved in cotton fiber development and widely induced by auxin, gibberellin and BR, which provides a foundation for the identification of more downstream genes with potential roles in phytohormone stimuli, and a basis for breeding better cotton varieties in the future.


Assuntos
Gossypium/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Dedos de Zinco/genética , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Sequência Conservada/genética , Giberelinas/fisiologia , Gossypium/fisiologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Alinhamento de Sequência , Transcriptoma , Dedos de Zinco/fisiologia
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8766-8772, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313921

RESUMO

In decades of hybrid rice breeding, the combining ability has been successfully used to evaluate excellent parental lines and predict heterosis. However, previous studies for the combining ability mainly focused on cultivated rice and rarely involved wild rice. In this study, for the first time, we identified 20 new quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the combining ability in wild rice using a North Carolina II mating design. Among them, qGCA1, one of the major QTLs that can significantly improve the general combining ability of the plant height, spikelet number, and yield per plant, was delimited to an interval of about 72 kb on chromosome 1. qSCA8, another major QTL, which can significantly improve the specific combining ability of the seed-setting rate and yield per plant, was located in an interval of about 90 kb on chromosome 8. These QTLs discovered from wild rice will provide new ideas to explain the genetic mechanism of the combining ability and establish the basis for breeding of high-combining-ability rice.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 332, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Good establishment is important for rapid leaf area development in wheat crops. Poor establishment results in fewer, later-emerging plants, reduced leaf area and tiller number. In addition, poorly established crops suffer from increased soil moisture loss through evaporation and greater competition from weeds while fewer spikes are produced which can reduce grain yield. By protecting the emerging first leaf, the coleoptile is critical for achieving good establishment, and its length and interaction with soil physical properties determine the ability of a cultivar to emerge from depth. RESULTS: Here we characterise a locus on chromosome 1AS, that increases coleoptile length in wheat, which we designate as Lcol-A1. We identified Lcol-A1 by bulked-segregant analysis and used a Halberd-derived population to fine map the gene to a 2 cM region, equivalent to 7 Mb on the IWGSC genome reference sequence of Chinese Spring (RefSeqv1.0). By sowing recently released cultivars and near-isogenic lines in the field at both conventional and deep sowing depths, we confirmed that Locl-A1 was associated with increased emergence from depth in the presence and absence of conventional dwarfing genes. Flanking markers IWB58229 and IWA710 were developed to assist breeders to select for long coleoptile wheats. CONCLUSIONS: Increased coleoptile length is sought in many global wheat production areas to improve crop emergence. The identification of the gene Lcol-A1, together with tools to allow wheat breeders to track the gene, will enable improvements to be made for this important trait.


Assuntos
Cotilédone/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Triticum/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 158(3): 152-159, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272100

RESUMO

Among birds, species with the ZZ/ZW sex determination system generally show significant differences in morphology and size between the Z and W chromosomes (with the W usually being smaller than the Z). In the present study, we report for the first time the karyotype of the spot-flanked gallinule (Gallinula melanops) by means of classical and molecular cytogenetics. The spot-flanked gallinule has 2n = 80 (11 pairs of macrochromosomes and 29 pairs of microchromosomes) with an unusual W chromosome that is larger than the Z. Besides being totally heterochromatic, it has a secondary constriction in its long arm corresponding to the nucleolar organizer region, as confirmed by both silver staining and mapping of 18S rDNA probes. This is an unprecedented fact among birds. Additionally, 18S rDNA sites were also observed in 6 microchromosomes, while 5S rDNA was found in just 1 microchromosomal pair. Seven out of the 11 used microsatellite sequences were found to be accumulated in microchromosomes, and 6 microsatellite sequences were found in the W chromosome. In addition to the involvement of heterochromatin and repetitive DNAs in the differentiation of the large W chromosome, the results also show an alternative scenario that highlights the plasticity that shapes the evolutionary history of bird sex chromosomes.


Assuntos
Aves/genética , Evolução Molecular , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Animais , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Cariótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Região Organizadora do Nucléolo/genética
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 312, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The WOX (WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX) gene family encodes a class of transcription factors that are unique to green plants, where they are involved in regulating the development of plant tissues and organs by determining cell fate. Although the importance of the WOX gene is well known, there are few studies describing their functions in cotton. RESULTS: In this study, 32 WOX genes were found in Gossypium hirsutum. Phylogenetic analysis showed that WOX proteins of cotton can be divided into three clades: the ancient, intermediate, and WUS clades. The number of WOX proteins in the WUS clade was greater than the sum of the proteins in the other two clades. Our analysis revealed that 20 GhWOX genes are distributed on 16 cotton chromosomes and that duplication events are likely to have contributed to the expansion of the GhWOX family. All GhWOX genes have introns, and each GhWOX protein contains multiple motifs. RNA-seq data and real-time PCR showed that GhWOX13 gene subfamily is specifically expressed at a high level in cotton fibers. We also identified putative GA, NAA, and BR response elements in the promoter regions of the GhWOX13 genes and GhWOX13 transcripts were significantly induced by GA, NAA, and BR. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provides a useful resource for future studies on the functional roles of cotton WOX genes and shows that the GhWOX13 genes may influence cotton fiber development. Our results also provide an approach for identifying and characterizing WOX protein genes in other species.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão , Genes de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 310, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hypersensitive defense response (HR) in plants is a fast, localized necrotic response around the point of pathogen ingress. HR is usually triggered by a pathogen recognition event mediated by a nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein. The autoactive maize NLR gene Rp1-D21 confers a spontaneous HR response in the absence of pathogen recognition. Previous work identified a set of loci associated with variation in the strength of Rp1-D21-induced HR. A polygalacturonase gene homolog, here termed ZmPGH1, was identified as a possible causal gene at one of these loci on chromosome 7. RESULTS: Expression of ZmPGH1 inhibited the HR-inducing activity of both Rp1-D21 and that of another autoactive NLR, RPM1(D505V), in a Nicotiana benthamiana transient expression assay system. Overexpression of ZmPGH1 in a transposon insertion line of maize was associated with suppression of chemically-induced programmed cell death and with suppression of HR induced by Rp1-D21 in maize plants grown in the field. CONCLUSIONS: ZmPGH1 functions as a suppressor of programmed cell death induced by at least two autoactive NLR proteins and by two chemical inducers. These findings deepen our understanding of the control of the HR in plants.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Poligalacturonase/fisiologia , Zea mays/fisiologia , Apoptose/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Leucina , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Poligalacturonase/química , Poligalacturonase/genética , Recombinação Genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Aminoácidos , Tabaco/genética , Zea mays/enzimologia , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/imunologia
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 319, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-host resistance (NHR) presents a compelling long-term plant protection strategy for global food security, yet the genetic basis of NHR remains poorly understood. For many diseases, including stem rust of wheat [causal organism Puccinia graminis (Pg)], NHR is largely unexplored due to the inherent challenge of developing a genetically tractable system within which the resistance segregates. The present study turns to the pathogen's alternate host, barberry (Berberis spp.), to overcome this challenge. RESULTS: In this study, an interspecific mapping population derived from a cross between Pg-resistant Berberis thunbergii (Bt) and Pg-susceptible B. vulgaris was developed to investigate the Pg-NHR exhibited by Bt. To facilitate QTL analysis and subsequent trait dissection, the first genetic linkage maps for the two parental species were constructed and a chromosome-scale reference genome for Bt was assembled (PacBio + Hi-C). QTL analysis resulted in the identification of a single 13 cM region (~ 5.1 Mbp spanning 13 physical contigs) on the short arm of Bt chromosome 3. Differential gene expression analysis, combined with sequence variation analysis between the two parental species, led to the prioritization of several candidate genes within the QTL region, some of which belong to gene families previously implicated in disease resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Foundational genetic and genomic resources developed for Berberis spp. enabled the identification and annotation of a QTL associated with Pg-NHR. Although subsequent validation and fine mapping studies are needed, this study demonstrates the feasibility of and lays the groundwork for dissecting Pg-NHR in the alternate host of one of agriculture's most devastating pathogens.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Berberis/genética , Berberis/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Resistência à Doença/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Hibridização Genética , Padrões de Herança , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas
18.
Phytopathology ; 109(9): 1594-1604, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287366

RESUMO

The soilborne oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi-which causes root rot, trunk cankers, and stem lesions on an estimated 5,000 plant species worldwide-is a lethal pathogen of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) as well as many other woody plant species. P. cinnamomi is particularly damaging to chestnut and chinquapin trees (Castanea spp.) in the southern portion of its native range in the United States due to relatively mild climatic conditions that are conductive to disease development. Introduction of resistant genotypes is the most practical solution for disease management in forests because treatment with fungicides and eradication of the pathogen are neither practical nor economically feasible in natural ecosystems. Using backcross families derived from crosses of American chestnuts with two resistant Chinese chestnut cultivars Mahogany and Nanking, we constructed linkage maps and identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to P. cinnamomi that had been introgressed from these Chinese chestnut cultivars. In total, 957 plants representing five cohorts of three hybrid crosses were genotyped by sequencing and phenotyped by standardized inoculation and visual examination over a 6-year period from 2011 to 2016. Eight parental linkage maps comprising 7,715 markers were constructed, and 17 QTLs were identified on four linkage groups (LGs): LG_A, LG_C, LG_E, and LG_K. The most consistent QTLs were detected on LG_E in seedlings from crosses with both 'Mahogany' and 'Nanking' and LG_K in seedlings from 'Mahogany' crosses. Two consistent large and medium effect QTLs located ∼10 cM apart were present in the middle and at the lower end of LG_E; other QTLs were considered to have small effects. These results imply that the genetic architecture of resistance to P. cinnamomi in Chinese chestnut × American chestnut hybrid progeny may resemble the P. sojae-soybean pathosystem, with a few dominant QTLs along with quantitatively inherited partial resistance conferred by multiple small-effect QTLs.


Assuntos
Phytophthora , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Ecossistema , Genótipo , Phytophthora/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 241, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major challenge in modern medicine and animal husbandry is the issue of antimicrobial resistance. One approach to solving this potential medical hazard is the selection of farm animals with less susceptibility to infectious diseases. Recent advances in functional genome analysis and quantitative genetics have opened the horizon to apply genetic marker information for efficiently identifying animals with preferential predisposition regarding health traits. The current study characterizes functional traits with a focus on udder health in dairy heifers. The animals were selected for having inherited alternative paternal haplotypes for a genomic region on Bos taurus chromosome (BTA) 18 genetically associated with divergent susceptibility to longevity and animal health, particularly mastitis. RESULTS: In the first weeks of lactation, the q heifers which had inherited the unfavorable (q) paternal haplotype displayed a significantly higher number of udder quarters with very low somatic cell count (< 10,000 cells / ml) compared to their paternal half-sib sisters with the favorable (Q) paternal haplotype. This might result in impaired mammary gland sentinel function towards invading pathogens. Furthermore, across the course of the first lactation, there was indication that q half-sib heifers showed higher somatic cell counts, a surrogate trait for udder health, in whole milkings compared to their paternal half-sib sisters with the favorable (Q) paternal haplotype. Moreover, heifers with the haplotype Q had a higher feed intake and higher milk yield compared to those with the q haplotype. Results of this study indicate that differences in milk production and calculated energy balance per se are not the main drivers of the genetically determined differences between the BTA18 Q and q groups of heifers. CONCLUSIONS: The paternally inherited haplotype from a targeted BTA18 genomic region affect somatic cell count in udder quarters during the early postpartum period and might also contribute to further aspects of animal's health and performance traits due to indirect effects on feed intake and metabolism.


Assuntos
Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Herança Paterna , Animais , Bovinos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Feminino , Haplótipos/genética , Lactação/genética , Masculino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/genética , Período Pós-Parto
20.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 158(4): 213-224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352441

RESUMO

Stingless bees of the genus Melipona are subdivided into 4 subgenera called Eomelipona, Melikerria, Melipona sensu stricto, and Michmelia according to species morphology. Cytogenetically, the species of the genus Melipona show variation in the amount and distribution of heterochromatin along their chromosomes and can be separated into 2 groups: the first with low content of heterochromatin and the second with high content of heterochromatin. These heterochromatin patterns and the number of chromosomes are characteristics exclusive to Melipona karyotypes that distinguish them from the other genera of the Meliponini. To better understand the karyotype organization in Melipona and the relationship among the subgenera, we mapped repetitive sequences and analyzed previously reported cytogenetic data with the aim to identify cytogenetic markers to be used for investigating the phylogenetic relationships and chromosome evolution in the genus. In general, Melipona species have 2n = 18 chromosomes, and the species of each subgenus share the same characteristics in relation to heterochromatin regions, DAPI/CMA3 fluorophores, and the number and distribution of 18S rDNA sites. Microsatellites were observed only in euchromatin regions, whereas the (TTAGG)6 repeats were found at telomeric sites in both groups. Our data indicate that in addition to the chromosome number, the karyotypes in Melipona could be separated into 2 groups that are characterized by conserved cytogenetic features and patterns that generally are shared by species within each subgenus, which may reflect evolutionary constraints. Our results agree with the morphological separation of the Melipona into 4 subgenera, suggesting that they must be independent evolutionary lineages.


Assuntos
Abelhas/classificação , Abelhas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Análise Citogenética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Animais , Cromatina , Cromossomos de Insetos/genética , Diploide , Heterocromatina , Cariotipagem , Filogenia
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