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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 467-474, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488774

RESUMO

Music is a very important factor in everyday life, involving mood, emotions and memories. The effect of music on the brain is very debated. Certainly, music activates a complex network of neurones in auditory areas, mesolimbic areas, cerebellum and multisensory areas. In particular, music exerts its effects on the brain of patients with epilepsy, having a dichotomous influence: it can either be seizure-promoting in musicogenic epilepsy or antiepileptic. Several studies have shown that seizure-prone neural networks may be stimulated by certain periodicities while other frequencies may prevent seizure activity. There are a lot of data in the literature about the so-called "Mozart effect" (Rauscher et al. 1993). In previous studies we observed that in institutionalized subjects with severe/profound intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy, a systematic music listening protocol reduced the frequency of seizures in about 50% of the cases. In this study we are conducting a survey on the observation of what happens to the brain of patients suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy through electroencephalographic investigations, brain MRI and behavioural analysis before and after six months of listening to Mozart music (Sonata K.448). The first step is to present the data of the first patient under investigation.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia/reabilitação , Musicoterapia , Música/psicologia , Convulsões/prevenção & controle , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Acústica , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/complicações , Humanos , Convulsões/complicações
2.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 99(35): 2773-2776, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550801

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the brain activities of exercise addiction (EA) group people with the task-functional magnetic resonance image (task-fMRI). Methods: A total of 29 exercise addicts (addiction group, average age 46±4 years) and 26 non-exercise addicts (control group, average age 46±6 years) matched by sex, age, average education level and sports dependence degree were selected by using exercise addiction index (EAI) through questionnaires to members of Jiangsu Local Fitness and Long-distance Running Association between January 2018 and June 2018. The participants were scanned with fMRI while watching sports pictures or non-sports pictures. The brain responses of the two groups under two stimulation tasks were analyzed and compared. Results: Compared with the control group, while watching sports pictures, the right fusiform gyrus (MNI:x=30, y=-87, z=0), left posterior central gyrus (MNI:x=-51, y=-21, z=54), left medial superior frontal gyrus (MNI:x=-9, y=54, z=30), and right middle occipital gyrus (MNI:x=42, y=-72, z=36) were significantly inhibited in the addiction group (t-test, all P<0.05). When watching non-sports pictures, the addictive group showed the left superior frontal gyrus (MNI:x=-12, y=54, z=30), left middle frontal gyrus (MNI:x=-30, y=18, z=45), right inferior frontal gyrus (MNI:x=42, y=33, z=-12), right occipital gyrus (MNI:x=42, y=-72, z=36), and they were more significantly inhibited than the control group (t-test, all P<0.05). Conclusion: Compared to the control group, the EA group shows significant brain inhibition with visual stimulation, particularly with non-sports pictures.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Exercício , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Lobo Frontal , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lobo Temporal
3.
5.
Neuron ; 103(4): 563-581, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437453

RESUMO

Spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) is a leading cellular model for behavioral learning and memory with rich computational properties. However, the relationship between the millisecond-precision spike timing required for STDP and the much slower timescales of behavioral learning is not well understood. Neuromodulation offers an attractive mechanism to connect these different timescales, and there is now strong experimental evidence that STDP is under neuromodulatory control by acetylcholine, monoamines, and other signaling molecules. Here, we review neuromodulation of STDP, the underlying mechanisms, functional implications, and possible involvement in brain disorders.


Assuntos
Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurotransmissores/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Astrócitos/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Encefalopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/fisiologia , Receptores de Neurotransmissores/fisiologia , Reforço (Psicologia) , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3096, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363096

RESUMO

Natural communication often occurs in dialogue, differentially engaging auditory and sensorimotor brain regions during listening and speaking. However, previous attempts to decode speech directly from the human brain typically consider listening or speaking tasks in isolation. Here, human participants listened to questions and responded aloud with answers while we used high-density electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings to detect when they heard or said an utterance and to then decode the utterance's identity. Because certain answers were only plausible responses to certain questions, we could dynamically update the prior probabilities of each answer using the decoded question likelihoods as context. We decode produced and perceived utterances with accuracy rates as high as 61% and 76%, respectively (chance is 7% and 20%). Contextual integration of decoded question likelihoods significantly improves answer decoding. These results demonstrate real-time decoding of speech in an interactive, conversational setting, which has important implications for patients who are unable to communicate.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Eletrocorticografia/instrumentação , Eletrocorticografia/métodos , Eletrodos Implantados , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Top Magn Reson Imaging ; 28(4): 197-204, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385899

RESUMO

Functional MRI is a reliable, noninvasive technique which allows spatial mapping of the various functions like sensorimotor, language and vision in the brain. This is of immense help to the neurosurgeon in presurgical planning and intraoperative navigation in order to identify and preserve eloquent areas of the brain and minimize post-surgical neurological deficits. Using this technique in children pose unique challenges. This article discusses some of these challenges and how they can be overcome in successful application of this technique in pediatric patients.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/cirurgia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pediatria/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos
8.
Top Magn Reson Imaging ; 28(4): 189-196, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385898

RESUMO

Functional MRI (fMRI) is currently used for pre-surgical planning, but is often limited to information on the motor and language systems. Resting state fMRI can provide more information on multiple other networks to the neurosurgeon and neuroradiologist; however, currently, these networks are not well known among clinicians. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an introduction to these networks for the clinician and to discuss how they could be used in the future for precise and individualized surgical planning. We provide a short introduction to resting state fMRI and discuss multiple currently accepted resting state networks with a review of the literature. We review the characteristics and function of multiple somatosensory, association, and other networks. We discuss the concept of critical nodes in the brain and how the neurosurgeon can use this information to individually customize patient care. Although further research is necessary, future application of pre-surgical planning will require consideration of networks other than just motor and language in order to minimize post-surgical morbidity and customize patient care.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Humanos , Linguagem , Atividade Motora , Descanso/fisiologia
9.
Top Magn Reson Imaging ; 28(4): 205-212, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385900

RESUMO

Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging is gaining traction in the clinical realm as a measure for quantifying changes in regional blood flow in response to external stimuli. Through the evoked signal changes that are a consequence of hemoglobin's intrinsic paramagnetic properties, this technique allows for the statistical mapping of brain regions associated with a given task, which has broad applications in preneurosurgical planning for tumor resection. From an acquisition perspective, collection of BOLD data most commonly requires the use of echo planar imaging readout schemes. These sequences are currently widely available on most clinical scanners and at various field strengths. However, while the BOLD acquisition protocol is relatively straightforward, additional hardware and rigorous image processing are needed to correlate the time-dependent signal changes associated with a specific and well defined task. This manuscript will provide the necessary information to detail the physiologic underpinning of acquiring BOLD sensitized images and the important technical aspects of processing the data for use in a surgical environment.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Imagem Ecoplanar/métodos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Oxigênio/sangue , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos
10.
Top Magn Reson Imaging ; 28(4): 213-224, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385901

RESUMO

Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the presurgical assessment of eloquent cortex is increasingly relied upon by surgeons, neurologists, and radiologists. The utility of fMRI stems from the lack of correlation between topographic anatomy and functional anatomy. fMRI can noninvasively reveal the functional anatomy of a given individual thereby allowing the surgeon to choose the most appropriate surgical trajectory, attain the most complete resection, and offer the best chance of preserving function. This dissociation between function and topography is even more critical to understand when disease distorts normal anatomic relations and when chronic evolution of pathology leads to reorganization of cortical function as can be seen with seizures or slow growing tumors. fMRI can demonstrate the functional anatomy of language, motor, vision, and memory systems. Accurate interpretation not only requires knowledge of the expected patterns of activations in the regions of interest but also demands an understanding of the many adjacent "bystander" activations that represent participatory neural activity but not the eloquent region in question. In addition, fMRI interpretation requires an understanding of the limitations of this technique when expected activity is either missing or seemingly displaced in location.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/cirurgia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Encefalopatias/cirurgia , Humanos , Linguagem , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos
11.
Top Magn Reson Imaging ; 28(4): 225-233, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385902

RESUMO

Clinical use of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a relatively new phenomenon, with only about 3 decades of collective experience. Nevertheless, task-based BOLD fMRI has been widely accepted for presurgical planning, over traditional methods, which are invasive and at times perilous. Many studies have demonstrated the ability of BOLD fMRI to make substantial clinical impact with respect to surgical planning and preoperative risk assessment, especially to localize the eloquent motor and visual areas. Reproducibility and repeatability of language fMRI are important in the assessment of its clinical usefulness. There are national efforts currently underway to standardize language fMRI. The American Society of Functional Neuroradiology (ASFNR) has recently provided guidelines on fMRI paradigm algorithms for presurgical language assessment for language lateralization and localization. In this review article, we provide a comprehensive overview of current standards of language fMRI mapping and its reproducibility.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Linguagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Algoritmos , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/cirurgia , Encefalopatias/sangue , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Encefalopatias/cirurgia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Humanos , Oxigênio/sangue , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
J Headache Pain ; 20(1): 77, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The migraine brain seems to undergo cyclic fluctuations of sensory processing. For instance, during the preictal phase, migraineurs experience symptoms and signs of altered pain perception as well as other well-known premonitory CNS-symptoms. In the present study we measured EEG-activation to non-painful motor and sensorimotor tasks in the different phases of the migraine cycle by longitudinal measurements of beta event related desynchronization (beta-ERD). METHODS: We recorded electroencephalography (EEG) of 41 migraine patients and 31 healthy controls. Each subject underwent three EEG recordings on three different days with classification of each EEG recording according to the actual migraine phase. During each recording, subjects performed one motor and one sensorimotor task with the flexion-extension movement of the right wrist. RESULTS: Migraine patients had significantly increased beta-ERD and higher baseline beta power at the contralateral C3 electrode overlying the primary sensorimotor cortex in the preictal phase compared to the interictal phase. We found no significant differences in beta-ERD or baseline beta power between interictal migraineurs and controls. CONCLUSION: Increased preictal baseline beta activity may reflect a decrease in pre-activation in the sensorimotor cortex. Altered pre-activation may lead to changes in thresholds for inhibitory responses and increased beta-ERD response, possibly reflecting a generally increased preictal cortical responsivity in migraine. Cyclic fluctuations in the activity of second- and third-order afferent somatosensory neurons, and their associated cortical and/or thalamic interneurons, may accordingly also be a central part of the migraine pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia , Córtex Sensório-Motor/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Percepção da Dor
13.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(3): 298-308, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergence from sedation entails rapid increase in the levels of both awareness and wakefulness, the two axes of consciousness. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies of emergence from sedation often focus on the recovery period, with no description of the moment of emergence. We hypothesised that by focusing on the moment of emergence, novel insights, primarily about subcortical activity and increased wakefulness, will be gained. METHODS: We conducted a resting state fMRI analysis of 17 male subjects (20-40 yr old) gradually entering into and emerging from deep sedation (average computed propofol concentrations of 2.41 and 1.11 µg ml-1, respectively), using target-controlled infusion of propofol. RESULTS: Functional connectivity analysis revealed a robust spatiotemporal signature of return of consciousness, in which subcortical seeds showed transient positive correlations that rapidly turned negative shortly after emergence. Elements of this signature included four components of the ascending reticular activating system: the ventral tegmentum area, the locus coeruleus, median raphe, and the mammillary body. The involvement of the rostral dorsolateral pontine tegmentum, which is specifically impaired in comatose patients with pontine lesions, in emergence was previously unknown. CONCLUSIONS: Emergence from propofol sedation is characterised, and possibly driven, by a transient activation of brainstem loci. Some of these loci are known components of the ascending reticular activating system, whereas an additional locus was found that is also impaired in comatose patients.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Sedação Profunda/métodos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Propofol/farmacologia , Adulto , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Tronco Encefálico/efeitos dos fármacos , Tronco Encefálico/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Estado de Consciência/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 44(5): 417-428, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288587

RESUMO

The current study examines associations between neural activation to the receipt of monetary reward in a rewarding game task and bias toward immediate reward measured in a behavioral delay discounting task among early adolescents (N = 58, 12-14 years). As expected, heightened brain activation in reward-related regions were correlated with higher bias toward immediate reward. This suggests that bias toward immediate reward in delay discounting tasks may be linked to heightened activation to reward in reward processing regions. This interplay between neural reward processing and bias toward immediate reward might explain the sharp increases in bias toward immediate reward that occur in early adolescence.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Desvalorização pelo Atraso/fisiologia , Recompensa , Adolescente , Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
16.
Neuron ; 103(1): 21-38.e5, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147152

RESUMO

Understanding brain-wide neuronal dynamics requires a detailed map of the underlying circuit architecture. We built an interactive cellular-resolution atlas of the zebrafish brain at 6 days post-fertilization (dpf) based on the reconstructions of over 2,000 individually GFP-labeled neurons. We clustered our dataset in "morphotypes," establishing a unique database of quantitatively described neuronal morphologies together with their spatial coordinates in vivo. Over 100 transgene expression patterns were imaged separately and co-registered with the single-neuron atlas. By annotating 72 non-overlapping brain regions, we generated from our dataset an inter-areal wiring diagram of the larval brain, which serves as ground truth for synapse-scale, electron microscopic reconstructions. Interrogating our atlas by "virtual tract tracing" has already revealed previously unknown wiring principles in the tectum and the cerebellum. In conclusion, we present here an evolving computational resource and visualization tool, which will be essential to map function to structure in a vertebrate brain. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Atlas como Assunto , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/citologia , Peixe-Zebra/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Mapeamento Encefálico , Cerebelo/anatomia & histologia , Conectoma , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/citologia , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Transgenes , Vias Visuais/anatomia & histologia
18.
Front Neurol Neurosci ; 44: 53-63, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220841

RESUMO

The kanji and kana (or kanji vs. kana) problem in the Japanese language denotes the dissociation between kanji (morphograms) and kana (phonograms) in reading/comprehension and writing. Since paragraphia of kana in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was first reported in 1893, kanji-kana dissociation has been the central topic in Japanese aphasiology. Recent advancements in lesion-to-symptom analyses and functional imaging studies have identified some areas whose damage causes dissociative disturbances of reading or writing between kanji and kana. That is, (1) angular alexia with agraphia causes kanji agraphia; alexia of kana with an angular gyrus lesion is the result of a damage to the middle occipital gyrus; (2) alexia with agraphia for kanji is caused by a posterior inferior temporal cortex (mid-fusiform/inferior temporal gyri; visual word form area) lesion, whereas pure agraphia for kanji is caused by a posterior middle temporal gyrus lesion; and (3) pure alexia, particularly for kanji, results from a mid-fusiform gyrus lesion (Brodmann's Area [BA] 37), whereas pure alexia for kana results from a posterior fusiform/inferior occipital gyri lesion (BA 18/19).


Assuntos
Agrafia/diagnóstico , Mapeamento Encefálico/história , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Agrafia/história , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dislexia/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Japão , Lobo Occipital/fisiopatologia , Leitura , Redação
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2620, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197165

RESUMO

Conventional drug screens and treatments often ignore the underlying complexity of brain network dysfunctions, resulting in suboptimal outcomes. Here we ask whether we can correct abnormal functional connectivity of the entire brain by identifying and combining multiple neuromodulators that perturb connectivity in complementary ways. Our approach avoids the combinatorial complexity of screening all drug combinations. We develop a high-speed platform capable of imaging more than 15000 neurons in 50ms to map the entire brain functional connectivity in large numbers of vertebrates under many conditions. Screening a panel of drugs in a zebrafish model of human Dravet syndrome, we show that even drugs with related mechanisms of action can modulate functional connectivity in significantly different ways. By clustering connectivity fingerprints, we algorithmically select small subsets of complementary drugs and rapidly identify combinations that are significantly more effective at correcting abnormal networks and reducing spontaneous seizures than monotherapies, while minimizing behavioral side effects. Even at low concentrations, our polytherapy performs superior to individual drugs even at highest tolerated concentrations.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Biológicos , Rede Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurotransmissores/farmacologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/patologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Neurotransmissores/uso terapêutico , Peixe-Zebra
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2637, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201332

RESUMO

The brain stores and recalls memories through a set of neurons, termed engram cells. However, it is unclear how these cells are organized to constitute a corresponding memory trace. We established a unique imaging system that combines Ca2+ imaging and engram identification to extract the characteristics of engram activity by visualizing and discriminating between engram and non-engram cells. Here, we show that engram cells detected in the hippocampus display higher repetitive activity than non-engram cells during novel context learning. The total activity pattern of the engram cells during learning is stable across post-learning memory processing. Within a single engram population, we detected several sub-ensembles composed of neurons collectively activated during learning. Some sub-ensembles preferentially reappear during post-learning sleep, and these replayed sub-ensembles are more likely to be reactivated during retrieval. These results indicate that sub-ensembles represent distinct pieces of information, which are then orchestrated to constitute an entire memory.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Hipocampo/citologia , Microscopia Intravital/métodos , Proteínas Luminescentes/química , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Modelos Animais , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Optogenética/métodos , Sono/fisiologia
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