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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 756: 144002, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277012

RESUMO

Sustainable fishing practices must ensure human wellbeing by safeguarding the integrity of marine life-supporting systems. Unfortunately, a significant challenge to fisheries management is that sustainable fishing levels can decline, often synergistically, by co-occurring with climate-driven environmental stressors. Within one of the most impacted marine areas in the world, and encompassing a number of highly targeted commercial species, the small pelagic fish community of the western Mediterranean Sea has recently shown signs of collapse. In this study, we identify a worrying coincidence where fishing hotspots for the commercially valuable European sardine Sardina pilchardus and anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus occur in marine areas mostly affected by climate change. To identify these areas, we overlayed detailed, spatially explicit measurements of fishing pressure with the finest-scale maps of cumulative climate change impacts onto these species. According to our results, doubly impacted marine areas largely occur in the north-western Mediterranean Sea, with climate and fisheries mostly affecting European sardine. Reducing local stressors (i.e., fishing pressure) in highly impacted areas may contribute to maintain these communities within a "safe operating space" (SOS), where they remain resilient to climate change. Accordingly, the redistribution and/or reduction of fishing intensity may alleviate pressure in those areas already affected by climate change. Sustainable fishing strategies may benefit, therefore, from the SOS concept and the spatial assessments provided in this study.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pesqueiros , Animais , Mudança Climática , Peixes , Humanos , Mar Mediterrâneo , Alimentos Marinhos
2.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128226, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297182

RESUMO

This study assesses for the first time the levels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in sea turtles coming from Tyrrhenian Sea. The concentrations measured in liver of the 24 specimens analysed were 6.90 vs 5.65 pg g-1 wet weight (ww) for PCDD/Fs and 10.95 vs 0.79 ng g-1 ww for DL-PCBs in Caretta caretta and Chelonia mydas, respectively. The DL-PCB levels resulted very higher in Caretta caretta than Chelonia mydas probably due to the different eating habits between the two species investigated. Furthermore, the highest levels of DL-PCBs were determined in livers of the adult Caretta caretta turtles of male sex. Positive correlations were found out between PCB-81 and the body mass (BM) of turtles (r2 = 0.6561; p = 0.001) and between PCB-81 and the curved carapace length (CCL) (r2 = 0.6250; p = 0.006) suggesting that the body burden of contaminants is related to the body size. The mean TEQ values, as a matter of risk assessment for turtles, were 3.64 vs 1.62 pg TEQ g-1 ww for PCDD/Fs and 8.72 vs 2.16 pg TEQ g-1 ww for DL-PCBs in Caretta caretta and Chelonia mydas, respectively. The results reported in this study increase the data available about the consequences of the Mediterranean Sea contamination by organochlorine pollutants and highlight an evident PCDD/F and PCB bioaccumulation in sea turtle tissues that threatens the survival of these marine organisms.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Tartarugas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Dibenzofuranos , Masculino , Mar Mediterrâneo , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 1): 142542, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035983

RESUMO

Marine biotoxins are naturally existing chemicals produced by toxic algae and can accumulate in marine biota. When consumed with seafood, these phycotoxins can cause human intoxication with symptoms varying from barely-noticed illness to death depending on the type of toxin and its concentration. Recently, the occurrence of marine biotoxins has been given special attention in the Mediterranean as it increased in frequency and severity due to anthropogenic pressures and climate change. Up to our knowledge, no previous study reported the presence of lipophilic toxins (LTs) and cyclic imines (CIs) in marine biota in Lebanon. Hence, this study reports LTs and CIs in marine organisms: one gastropod (Phorcus turbinatus), two bivalves (Spondylus spinosus and Patella rustica complex) and one fish species (Siganus rivulatus), collected from various Lebanese coastal areas. The results show values below the limit of detection (LOD) for okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and 2, pectenotoxin-1 and 2, yessotoxins, azaspiracids and saxitoxins. The spiny oyster (S. spinosus) showed the highest levels of domoic acid (DA; 3.88 mg kg-1), gymnodimine (GYM-B) and spirolide (SPX) (102.9 and 15.07 µg kg-1, respectively) in congruence with the occurrence of high abundance of Pseudo-nitzchia spp., Gymnodinium spp., and Alexandrium spp. DA levels were below the European Union (EU) regulatory limit, but higher than the Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (0.9 µg g-1) for neurotoxicity in humans and lower than the Acute Reference Dose (30 µg kg-1 bw) both set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA, 2009). Based on these findings, it is unlikely that a health risk exists due to the exposure to these toxins through seafood consumption in Lebanon. Despite this fact, the chronic toxicity of DA, GYMs and SPXs remains unclear and the effect of the repetitive consumption of contaminated seafood needs to be more investigated.


Assuntos
Biota , Iminas , Animais , Humanos , Iminas/análise , Ácido Caínico/análogos & derivados , Líbano , Mar Mediterrâneo
4.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt B): 115746, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069040

RESUMO

ALDFGs (abandoned, lost or otherwise discharged fishing gears) represent a major pollutant in the world's oceans, including the Mediterranean Sea, but very little is known about their long-term fate in the underwater environment. Here we investigate the destiny of ALDFGs in a coralligenous benthic community by studying the biofouling growing on them at 30 m depth over a three-year period. Results indicate that ALDFGs are quickly covered by biofouling, reaching maximum values of cover in one year. At this depth, the biofouling community results highly influenced by light-dependent seasonal cycles and a general four-steps colonization scheme is tentatively depicted: i) biofouling community is initially dominated by fast-growing organisms, with algae and hydrozoans settling after two weeks; ii) small-sized carbonatic organisms (e.g. bryozoans) appear after two months; iii) the same organisms (including coralline algae) become abundant after five to eight months; iv) conspicuous carbonatic skeletons (serpulids, bivalves and bryozoans) occur after one year increasing in complexity in the following months. The biofouling settled on ALDFGs, as well as growth rates of large carbonatic species, could provide useful information to estimate the age of lost lines and nets in retrieved material and in situ photo footage complementing the overview of the fishing impact in this specific environment. Finally, no signs of nylon degradation are reported, suggesting that the prevailing physical conditions and the biofouling cover extent could alter microplastics release from nylon ALDFGs.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plásticos
5.
J Environ Radioact ; 226: 106368, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077303

RESUMO

Radon mass balances in lakes can be used to trace transport processes along the sediment-water interface, such as groundwater discharge or pore water exchange. Understanding these transport processes is important, as they can affect the lake water budget, or biogeochemical cycles in lakes due to nutrient inputs. We present here a seasonal 222Rn mass balance of Lake Burullus (Northern Egypt), the second largest lake of Egypt. The Lake receives 222Rn from drainage water and the decay of 226Ra, and loses 222Rn via decay of 222Rn, atmospheric evasion and water discharge into the Mediterranean Sea. However, the mass balance reveals a significant surplus of 222Rn, which cannot be explained by the previously mentioned processes. The 222Rn surplus is especially high during the dry season, and might be explained by groundwater discharge and pore water exchange which transports 222Rn into the lake. Higher 222Rn fluxes into the lake during dry season might be explained by higher bioirrigation rates due to warmer temperatures, or higher groundwater discharge rates due to a higher hydraulic head on land caused by excessive irrigation in adjacent fields. Groundwater discharge and pore water exchange should be investigated in further detail in order to understand if they have effects on water budgets and biogeochemical cycles of Lake Burullus.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio/análise , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise , Egito , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea , Lagos/química , Mar Mediterrâneo , Estações do Ano , Água
6.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 115835, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099201

RESUMO

Microorganisms able to form biofilms in marine ecosystems are selected depending on immersed surfaces and environmental conditions. Cell attachment directly on toxic surfaces like antifouling coatings suggests a selection of tolerant (or resistant) organisms with characteristics conferring adaptive advantages. We investigated if environment would drive metal resistance gene abundance in biofilms on artificial surfaces. Biofilms were sampled from three surfaces (a PVC reference and two antifouling coatings) deployed in three coastal waters with dissimilar characteristics: The Mediterranean Sea (Toulon) and Atlantic (Lorient) and Indian (Reunion) Oceans. The two coatings differed in metals composition, either Cu thiocyanate and Zn pyrithione (A3) or Cu2O (Hy). Metal resistance genes (MRG) specific to copper (cusA, copA, cueO) or other metals (czcA and pbrT) were monitored with qPCR in parallel to the microbial community using 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding. A lower α-diversity on A3 or Hy than on PVC was observed independent on the site. Weighted Unifrac suggested segregation of communities primarily by surface, with lower site effect. Metacoder log2 fold change ratio and LeFSe discrimination suggested Marinobacter to be specific of Hy and Altererythrobacter, Erythrobacter and Sphingorhabdus of A3. Likewise, the relative abundance of MRG (MRG/bacterial 16S rRNA) varied between surfaces and sites. A3 presented the greatest relative abundances for cusA, cueO and czcA. The latter could only be amplified from A3 communities, except at Toulon. Hy surface presented the highest relative abundance for copA, specifically at Lorient. These relative abundances were correlated with LeFSe discriminant taxa. Dasania correlated positively with all MRG except cueO. Marinobacter found in greater abundance in Hy biofilm communities correlated with the highest abundances of copA and Roseovarius with czcA. These results prove the selection of specific communities with abilities to tolerate metallic biocides forming biofilms over antifouling surfaces, and the secondary but significant influence of local environmental factors.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Biofilmes , Mar Mediterrâneo , Metais , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
7.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 115886, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120350

RESUMO

The main objective of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was to achieve a Good Environmental Status (GES) in European waters by 2020, according to 11 descriptors. Descriptor 10 is related to marine litter and envisages that the properties and quantities of marine litter are at a level that does not cause harm to the coastal and marine environment. Even if GES was not achieved by 2020, the first MSFD implementation cycle filled many gaps in knowledge. Here we present the first data (2015-2018) on beach litter densities along Italian coasts and discuss lessons learnt and future perspectives. The beach litter median density was 477 items/100 m (interquartile range: 261-934 items/100 m), but subregional differences emerged both in terms of litter quantities and composition. The Adriatic Sea was the most polluted subregion (590 items/100 m), followed by the Western Mediterranean Sea (491 items/100 m) and the Ionian Sea and Central Mediterranean Sea subregion (274 items/100 m). A high presence of aquaculture-related litter (mainly mussel nets) characterised beaches in the Adriatic Sea. At the same time, the numbers of cotton bud sticks were extremely high in some beaches of the Western Mediterranean Sea. General litter (items discarded or left by the public on the coast or inland and carried by winds and rivers or objects originating from tourism and recreation at land or sea, poor waste management practices, etc.) was the most common litter typology (38.8%). The results of this study represent the first baseline to compare achievement towards GES in the next years and the efficacy of the program of measures which entered into force in 2016, concerning beach litter densities and composition. They also highlight the necessity of a joint effort for deploying harmonised marine litter monitoring methodologies across the European Member States to obtain comparable results.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Resíduos , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Resíduos/análise
8.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 115724, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183868

RESUMO

Microplastic abundances have been studied intensively in the last years in marine and freshwater environments worldwide. Though several articles have been published about the Mediterranean Sea, only few studies about the Black Sea exist. The Black Sea drains into the Mediterranean Sea and may therefore significantly contribute to the Mediterranean marine pollution. So far, only very few articles have been published about micro-, meso- and macroplastic abundances in the Western Black Sea. In order to fill this knowledge gap and to decipher the number of plastics on the water surface, 12 samples were collected from surface waters with a neustonic net (mesh size 200 µm) in the Black Sea close to the Danube Delta and the Romanian shore. Organic matter was digested and plastic particles were isolated by density separation. The results of visual inspection, pyrolysis GC-MS (for microplastics) and ATR-FTIR (for mesoplastics >5 mm) revealed an average concentration of 7 plastic particles/m³, dominated by fibers (∼76%), followed by foils (∼13%) and fragments (∼11%). Only very few spherules were detected. The polymers polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) dominated which is in line with other studies analyzing surface waters from rivers in Western Europe as well as in China. Statistical analyses show that the plastic concentration close to the mouth of the Danube River was significantly higher than at four nearshore regions along the Romanian and Bulgarian coastline. This could be explained by plastic inputs from the Danube River into the western part of the Black Sea.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Mar Negro , Bulgária , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Mar Mediterrâneo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115499, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254632

RESUMO

Despite the ubiquitous and persistent presence of microplastic (MP) in marine ecosystems, knowledge of its potential harmful ecological effects is low. In this work, we assessed the risk of floating MP (1 µm-5 mm) to marine ecosystems by comparing ambient concentrations in the global ocean with available ecotoxicity data. The integration of twenty-three species-specific effect threshold concentration data in a species sensitivity distribution yielded a median unacceptable level of 1.21 ∗ 105 MP m-³ (95% CI: 7.99 ∗ 103-1.49 ∗ 106 MP m-³). We found that in 2010 for 0.17% of the surface layer (0-5 m) of the global ocean a threatening risk would occur. By 2050 and 2100, this fraction increases to 0.52% and 1.62%, respectively, according to the worst-case predicted future plastic discharge into the ocean. Our results reveal a spatial and multidecadal variability of MP-related risk at the global ocean surface. For example, we have identified the Mediterranean Sea and the Yellow Sea as hotspots of marine microplastic risks already now and even more pronounced in future decades.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mar Mediterrâneo , Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
10.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 142: 239-253, 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331291

RESUMO

The causes of cetacean stranding and death along the Catalan coast between 2012 and 2019 were systematically investigated. Necropsies and detailed pathological investigations were performed on 89 well-preserved stranded cetaceans, including 72 striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba, 9 Risso's dolphins Grampus griseus, 5 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus, 1 common dolphin Delphinus delphis, 1 Cuvier's beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris and 1 fin whale Balaenoptera physalus. The cause of death was determined for 89.9% of the stranded cetaceans. Fisheries interaction was the most frequent cause of death in striped dolphins (27.8%) and bottlenose dolphins (60%). Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) was detected on the Catalan coast from 2016 to 2017, causing systemic disease and death in 8 of the 72 (11.1%) striped dolphins. Chronic CeMV infection of the central nervous system was observed from 2018-2019 in a further 5 striped dolphins. Thus, acute and chronic CeMV disease caused mortality in 18% of striped dolphins and 14.6% of all 89 cetaceans. Brucella ceti was isolated in 6 striped dolphins and 1 bottlenose dolphin with typical brucellosis lesions and in 1 striped dolphin with systemic CeMV. Sinusitis due to severe infestation by the nematode parasite Crassicauda grampicola caused the death of 4 out of 6 adult Risso's dolphins. Maternal separation, in some cases complicated with septicemia, was a frequent cause of death in 13 of 14 calves. Other less common causes of death were encephalomalacia of unknown origin, septicemia, peritonitis due to gastric perforation by parasites and hepatitis caused by Sarcocystis spp.


Assuntos
Privação Materna , Infecções por Morbillivirus , Animais , Brucella , Mar Mediterrâneo , Infecções por Morbillivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
Zootaxa ; 4877(1): zootaxa.4877.1.3, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311326

RESUMO

A checklist of 73 gobiid species (Teleostei: Gobiidae) recorded to date from the Mediterranean Sea is established following the evidence approach for checklists. The Mediterranean gobiofauna currently has 62 known native species and 11 alien species. An identification key to gobiid species known from the area is provided. The principles of character selection for the key are discussed.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Animais , Peixes , Espécies Introduzidas , Mar Mediterrâneo
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt A): 111793, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166852

RESUMO

In this study, surface sediment samples from the North Cyprus East coast of the Mediterranean Sea were collected to determine the concentrations of three main natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, and 40K) using a high-resolution HPGe gamma-spectroscopy system. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in the selected sediment samples ranged from 11.5 to 31.6, 11.8 to 24.9, and 391.7 to 1014 Bq kg-1 dw (dry weight), respectively. The concentration distribution analysis showed that the kurtosis statistics parameter was negative, and the concentration distribution was less peaked than the normal curve. The mean activity concentrations of 40K (628.1 Bq kg-1) in the sediment samples was higher than the worldwide average (420 Bq kg-1) concentration. The radium equivalent activity, external hazard, internal hazard and gamma activity concentration indexes were calculated to assess the pollution and risk level of radionuclides. The radiological risk assessment indicated that observed values were below the threshold values.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Rádio (Elemento) , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Chipre , Poluição Ambiental , Mar Mediterrâneo , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Radioisótopos/análise , Rádio (Elemento)/análise , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Espectrometria gama , Tório/análise
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt B): 111744, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171412

RESUMO

We analyzed litter occurrence in 68 underwater video transects performed on the middle/outer continental shelf and submarine canyon off Cap de Creus (NW Mediterranean), an area recently declared Site of Community Importance (SCI). Low densities of urban litter were registered on the shelf (7.2 items ha-1), increasing in abundance towards the deepest part of the submarine canyon, with 188 items ha-1 below 1000 m depth. We hypothesize that the strong bottom currents that recurrently affect this area efficiently move litter objects from the shelf towards the deep. Of all litter items, approximately 50% had a fishing-related origin, mostly longlines entangled on rocks in the canyon head and discarded trawl nets in deeper areas. Over 10% of cold-water colonies observed had longlines entangled, indicating the harmful effects of such practices over benthic habitats. These results should be considered when designing mitigation measures to reduce litter pollution in Cap de Creus SCI.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Ecossistema , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plásticos/análise , Navios , Resíduos/análise
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111647, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181929

RESUMO

Monitoring Floating Marine Macro Litter (FMML) is a global priority, stressed within international programs, and regulated for the European Seas by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Although some well-defined common protocols exist for the assessment of beach litter and ingested litter, methodologies for FMML monitoring still vary, leading to some inconsistent results and hampering the global assessment of this threat. Within the MEDSEALITTER project (2016-2019), field experiments were implemented to define optimal monitoring parameters for FMML visual monitoring at different spatial scales, by assessing the influence of platform speed, strip width, observers experience, weather conditions, and litter size on its detectability. Along with the results of these experiments, we present the FMML density ranges detected across the over 20,000 km surveyed, highlighting a decreasing gradient from river mouths to coastal areas and the open sea, and providing a valuable contribution to the assessment of FMML in the Mediterranean Sea.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Resíduos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mar Mediterrâneo , Valores de Referência , Resíduos/análise
15.
Int Marit Health ; 71(3): 184-190, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Work-related stress among seafarers is well known but a suspected excess of work-related stress due to the COVID-19 so far has not been published. The aim of the study was to evaluate the well- -being of the seafarers during the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic and their evaluation of the precautions taken by the shipping companies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two seafarers completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) with three extra questions on how the COVID-19 precautions were taken on board. RESULTS: The mean Likert score was 13.9 for the whole sample, corresponding to "no problems" while a subgroup of 40% had mean Likert sum scores of 16.1 (level 15-23) corresponding to "starting problems." In response to the extra items, 50% of the seafarers did not feel safe doing their job in relation to the epidemic and 60% did not think everything has been done to ensure their health at work in relation to the epidemic. Thirty per cent suffered of insomnia to the extent of becoming concerned and 26% had been unhappy and depressed during the latest tours of duty. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis that excess work-related stress has been put on the seafarers in this specific situation was confirmed and calls for prevention. A combination of person-focused and organisation-focused prevention approaches has been advocated as the most promising for alleviation of job stress in the workplaces at sea.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Medicina Naval , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Mar Mediterrâneo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Segurança , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Zootaxa ; 4790(2): zootaxa.4790.2.2, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055839

RESUMO

A new species of Chrysaora is described from five specimens collected off Turkey in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during December 2018. The species is characterised by its pale exumbrella, milky to creamy in colour, bearing faint and narrow markings, strap-like marginal tentacles, semi-rounded to tongue-shaped lappets, and a prominent dark spot on the exumbrella above each rhopalium. Analysis of the COI gene indicates that it may be most closely related to Chrysaora africana (Vanhöffen 1902), from which it is nevertheless 10.2 % different. It is unclear whether the species represents a previously undetected and endemic species from the Mediterranean, or whether source populations are located in the Red Sea and the northern Indian Ocean.


Assuntos
Cifozoários , Animais , Mar Mediterrâneo
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt B): 111715, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022513

RESUMO

The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is the piece of legislation with which the EU aims to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) of its seas. This Directive requires Member States (MSs) to set up and implement Programmes of Measures (PoMs) to achieve this goal. This paper presents a catalogue as well as the analysis of the 535 measures proposed by the eight Mediterranean EU MSs to combat pollution and non-indigenous species and contribute to the GES of the Mediterranean Sea. The results reiterate the need for better coherence and coordination between MSs, also with non-EU countries in the preparation of the next iteration of PoMs. Only 5% of the measures applied have an effect beyond MSs´ marine waters jurisdiction, and a fifth of them lack linkages with any ecosystem component. The results point to gaps, while desired goals and recommendations will help policy makers to implement the and conceptualise measures.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Mar Mediterrâneo
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt B): 111748, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120033

RESUMO

It has been predicted that Grateloupia turuturu, native of the cold-temperate waters of Japan, is one of the most invasive marine species considered as a threat to global marine biodiversity. However, few studies have been carried out to assess the extent of its spread worldwide. Its seasonal dynamics in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto, a transitional water system in the Northern Ionian Sea, were observed for ten years. Systematic monthly observations were carried out from 2008 to 2018. The length of thalli and density were measured alongside the seawater temperature. Data were processed by means of non-parametric statistical analyses. No invasive behavior was detected for G. turuturu. It seems well established in the Mar Piccolo even though its population is limited to the station of first detection. However, due to its shown preference for plastic substrate, it could become a vector of another urgent threat, that is plastic pollution.


Assuntos
Rodófitas , Biodiversidade , Itália , Japão , Mar Mediterrâneo , Água do Mar
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt A): 111754, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126067

RESUMO

Calvo et al. (2020) criticize a new seagrass rehabilitation method proposed by Alagna et al. (2019) and inspired by the Posidonia oceanica spontaneous recovery observed at Capo Feto (Sicily), were recolonization was detected almost exclusively on rubbles deployed to fill a pipeline trench. Calvo et al. (2020) claim that natural recovery occurred consistently also on dead matte along the eastern side of the trench, weakening the assumption on which the method is based. Here we show that the P. oceanica patches reported by these authors as new establishments were already documented in 2003 (Vega Fernandez et al., 2005) and are attributable to the fragmentation of the pristine meadow caused by altered sedimentation rate after an extensive dredging operation. Moreover, we outline the area of applicability of the method tested in Alagna et al. (2019) and provide a point-by-point rebuttal to the complaints of imprecise and misleading contents of the paper.


Assuntos
Alismatales , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Mar Mediterrâneo , Sicília
20.
Mar Environ Res ; 161: 105056, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070931

RESUMO

Port areas have been considered bioinvasion hotspots due to the concentration of several invasion vectors. However, the actual distribution of non-indigenous species (NIS) in Mediterranean ports is still poorly understood. Here we conducted a literature review with the aim to provide a knowledge baseline about NIS distribution in Mediterranean ports. NIS distribution in Mediterranean ports showed a high degree of heterogeneity in terms of studies across the whole basin, with a limited knowledge on both specific taxa and geographical areas, as well as a generally low proportion of investigated ports. The low rate of specific studies designed to monitor these particular environments may represent the main source of knowledge gaps. Mediterranean ports host NIS from all regions of the world, playing a key role in marine bioglobalization. Our synthesis represents the first baseline addressing the presence of NIS in Mediterranean ports, which may be useful to define plans of NIS management and strategies focusing on a network of recognised focal hotspots.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Navios , Mar Mediterrâneo
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