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1.
J Environ Manage ; 253: 109749, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671325

RESUMO

A poorly known form of marine litter known as Abandoned, Lost or otherwise Discarded Fishing (ALDFG) derives from fishing activities using FADs (Fish Aggregating Devices). In the Mediterranean Sea, this activity is widespread in southern Italy, Tunisia, Malta and Majorca (Spain). The way of constructing FADs, from a functional point of view, is very similar throughout the Mediterranean and consists mainly of the use of different materials for the floats and for the cables and blocks for anchoring. Every year, for at least 30 years, about 60,000 FADs have been placed at sea and in most cases are not recovered. In this study, through analysis of the scientific and grey literature, a historical reconstruction of the use of FADs in the Mediterranean Sea was made, including their spatial distribution, the number of objects and the materials used to build the devices. It has been estimated that approximately 1.6 million FADs were abandoned in the Mediterranean Sea between 1961 and 2017. The largest fishing areas are off Malta (34,465 km2) and Tunisia (23,033 km2). The greatest numbers of abandoned plastic sheets (452,742) and concrete blocks (905,483) were estimated to be around Tunisia, while the greatest amount, in terms of length, of polyethylene cable (399,423 km) was estimated to be around Sicily. About 30% of FADs used all over the world are used in the Mediterranean and are only of the anchored type (corresponding to about 90% of those anchored used worldwide). The legislation on the use of Mediterranean FADs is still poor and does not address environmental issues. An analysis of the possible environmental impacts of the FAD litter was made. Overall, reducing the number of FADs and introducing new types of FADs equipped with specific technological systems appear to be the most suitable strategies to mitigate the impact of FADs on the environment and resources, as well as measures and incentives to involve fishermen in their better management.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos , Animais , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plásticos , Sicília , Espanha , Tunísia
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 14, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811395

RESUMO

The potential influence of short-period (May-June 2012) dredging activities (for the installation of a submarine gas pipeline) on physical properties of the marine environment of two shallow-water sites in the Aliveri and Varnavas areas of South Euboean Gulf (Greece) has been evaluated. During the dredging operation in Varnavas, the induced dredge plume traveled up to ~ 750 m from the shoreline, featured by light attenuation coefficient (cp) maxima of 4.01-4.61 m-1 and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations up to 6.01 mg L-1. After dredging the previous parameters reduced to the ambient seawater condition, ~ 0.45 m-1 and < 2.8 mg L-1 on average, respectively. Likewise in Aliveri, the dredging-associated sediment plume drifted offshore up to ~ 400 m from the shoreline, characterized by cp maxima of 2.11-4.86 m-1 and SPM concentrations up to 13.07 mg L-1. After the completion of the excavation and trenching activities, the cp and SPM values were restored to the pre-disturbance condition, ~ 0.6 m-1 and < 2.2 mg L-1 on average, respectively. The migration of the dredge plume in both dredging sites was accomplished through the formation of intermediate and benthic nepheloid layers, whose development and evolution were governed by seawater stratification and flow regime. The dredging-derived SPM levels appeared to increase within a distance of no more than 300 m from the shoreline (near-field zone). Based on data from the literature, this SPM enhancement together with the deposition of a post-dredging residual mud veneer in the near-field zone could deteriorate local marine biota, but in a reversible way.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Material Particulado/análise , Água do Mar/química , Grécia , Mar Mediterrâneo , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás/normas , Navios , Tempo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133773, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756832

RESUMO

Phytoplankton is the main indicator group for eutrophication in coastal ecosystems, however its high dispersal potential does not enable the assessment of localized effects of coastal nutrient enrichment. Benthic diatoms are sessile microalgae associated with sandy substrates and have the potential to reflect more localized pollution impacts. Although benthic diatoms are widely used bioindicators in freshwater systems, they have rarely been used for assessing the eutrophication status of oligotrophic environments such as the eastern Mediterranean Sea. In the present study, we assess the efficiency of benthic diatoms as bioindicators of nutrient enrichment in oligotrophic coastal systems, by investigating the effect of different physicochemical conditions and nutrient concentrations on the assemblage composition, diversity and individual species populations. To do this, we sampled along a eutrophication gradient formed by anthropogenic nutrient inputs from a metropolitan area. The main driver of assemblage composition, diversity and biomass of diatoms was nitrogen concentration and its temporal and spatial changes. Nitrogen loadings were positively correlated with increased biomass of Cocconeis spp. and negatively correlated with Mastogloia spp. Our findings suggest that in coastal ecosystems of oligotrophic marine ecoregions, benthic diatom assemblage structure and specific taxonomic groups can be reliable predictors of coastal eutrophication offering higher spatial resolution compared to phytoplankton.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Biomassa , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Água Doce , Mar Mediterrâneo , Microalgas , Fitoplâncton , Rios
4.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113107, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671310

RESUMO

Ingestion of microplastics (MPs) has been documented in several marine organisms, but their occurrence in deep-sea species remains almost unknown. In this study, MPs were investigated in two economically and ecologically key crustaceans of the Mediterranean Sea, the Norwegian lobster Nephrops norvegicus and the shrimp Aristeus antennatus. Both the species were collected from 14 sites around Sardinia Island, at depths comprised between 270 and 660 m. A total of 89 and 63 stomachs were analysed for N. norvegicus and A. antennatus respectively, and more than 2000 MPs-like particles were extracted and sorted for identification and characterization by µFT-IR. In N. norvegicus, 83% of the specimens contained MPs, with an average abundance of 5.5 ±â€¯0.8 MPs individual-1, while A. antennatus showed a lower frequency of ingestion (67%) and a lower mean number of MPs (1.66 ±â€¯0.1 MPs individual-1). Composition and size of particles differed significantly between the two species. The non-selective feeding strategy of N. norvegicus could explain the 3-5 folds higher numbers of MPs in its stomach, which were mostly composed of films and fragments derived by polyethylene and polypropylene single-use plastic items. Contrarily, most MPs in the stomachs of A. antennatus were polyester filaments. The MPs abundance observed in N. norvegicus is among the highest detected in Mediterranean species considering both fish and invertebrates species, and provides novel insights on MPs bioavailability in deep-sea habitats. The overall results suggest that both N. norvegicus and A. antennatus, easily available in common fishery markets, could be valuable bioindicators and flagship species for plastic contamination in the deep-sea.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Nephropidae/química , Penaeidae/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ecossistema , Pesqueiros , Peixes , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Noruega , Polietileno/análise , Polipropilenos/análise , Estômago/química
5.
Zootaxa ; 4688(3): zootaxa.4688.3.7, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719441

RESUMO

Here we describe two new species of deep-sea sponges collected during the exploration of Cold-Water Coral (CWC) banks discovered in the Nora and Coda Cavallo canyons (north-eastern and south coast of Sardinia respectively). Poecillastra tavianii n. sp. differs from the other congeneric species mainly for the dicho- and mesodichotriaenes, never observed in the genus, and the abundance and variety of spirasters. Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) quadridentata n. sp. is characterized by the presence of two types of chelae. In particular, the unguiferate chelae (round shaft and four teeth at both extremities) represent a peculiar character of the species. Our contribution increases the number of sponge fauna associated to the best known Central Mediterranean CWC habitats to 98 improving the still scant knowledge on the biodiversity of the Mediterranean CWC habitats.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Poríferos , Animais , Ecossistema , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo
6.
Zootaxa ; 4585(3): zootaxa.4585.3.6, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716158

RESUMO

This paper provides a current overview of the diversity of the marine water mite family Pontarachnidae of the Mediterranean Sea. The checklist includes ten species from two genera, i.e. Litarachna Walter, 1925 and Pontarachna Philippi, 1840. Two species i.e., Litarachna muratsezgini sp. nov. and Pontarachna turcica sp. nov. from the Gulf of Antalya (Levantine Sea, Turkey), are described as new for science. Moreover, the key for the identification of Mediterranean Pontarachnidae species and a brief discussion on the current gaps and future prospects of our knowledge of this important but neglected component of the marine meiofauna are given.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Ácaros , Animais , Mar Mediterrâneo , Turquia , Água
7.
Zootaxa ; 4613(1): zootaxa.4613.1.4, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716426

RESUMO

Three species in the gastropod genus Calliostoma are confirmed as living in Deep-Water Coral (DWC) habitats in the NE Atlantic Ocean: Calliostoma bullatum (Philippi, 1844), C. maurolici (Seguenza, 1876) and C. leptophyma Dautzenberg Fischer, 1896. Up to now, C. bullatum was only known as fossil from Early to Mid-Pleistocene outcrops in DWC-related habitats in southern Italy; our study confirmed its living presence in DWC off Mauritania. A discussion is provided on the distribution of DWC-related calliostomatids in the NE Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea from the Pleistocene to the present.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Gastrópodes , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Ecossistema , Itália , Mauritânia , Mar Mediterrâneo , Caramujos , Água
8.
Eur J Protistol ; 71: 125636, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585232

RESUMO

The parasitic dinoflagellate Syltodinium listii was investigated from the open waters of the English Channel, southern North Sea and the NW Mediterranean Sea. Syltodinium listii has been unreported since its original description in the North Sea. Cells of S. listii were able to infect copepod eggs of different species, and even nauplii, and after each infection formed up to 32 cells embedded in a mucous envelope. Infection of the same host by more than one dinoflagellate was frequent; although overall, the progeny were reduced in number. Molecular phylogeny based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene revealed that S. listii clusters with a group of environmental sequences from the cold North Atlantic region as a sister group of Gymnodinium aureolum. The large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) gene sequences of S. listii from the English Channel and cf. Gyrodinium undulans from the Mediterranean Sea were identical. Thus, we propose Syltodinium undulans comb. nov. for Gyrodinium undulans. The first internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and complete SSU rRNA gene sequences of Dissodinium pseudolunula are provided. The parasitic species of Chytriodinium, Dissodinium and Syltodinium cluster together within the family Chytriodiniaceae, including the free-living species Gymnodinium aureolum, G. corollarium and G. plasticum.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/classificação , Filogenia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Dinoflagelados/genética , Mar Mediterrâneo , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 14-22, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590770

RESUMO

The anthropogenic alteration of the nitrogen cycle results in the modification of the whole food web. And yet, the impact caused on nitrogen dynamics in marine systems is still very uncertain. We propose a workflow to evaluate changes to coastal nitrification by modelling nitrite dynamics, the intermediary compound. Nitrite concentrations were estimated with a simple steady state nitrification model, which was calibrated in 9 NW Mediterranean coastal sites with different anthropogenic pressures, located within 250 km. The results obtained indicate that nitrite peaks are observed in winter and explained by nitrification response to temperature, but these dynamics are altered in impacted coastal waters. We found the second step of nitrification to be more sensitive to temperature, which entails a significant impact of climate change on the decoupling of the two steps of nitrification. The results could be extrapolated to numerous coastal regions of the Mediterranean Sea with similar characteristics.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/química , Água do Mar/química , Mar Mediterrâneo , Nitrificação , Nitritos/química , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 47-55, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590812

RESUMO

This study aims to reveal microplastic pollution. It is the first to be conducted in the South Aegean Region and one of the limited numbers of such studies in Turkey. To this aim, in September 2018 microplastic particles (MP's) pollution was evaluated on the sandy beaches along the coastline of the Datça Peninsula (Southern Aegean coast of Turkey) located at the intersection of the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas. MP's were analyzed using standard operating procedure along with some experimental techniques. Prior to the identification process, microplastics ranging from 1 to 5 mm were exposed to an experimental pre-treatment and efficient polymer scanning. The results showed that fragments (72%) were the dominant category from all the beaches exposed to dominant winds and surface currents and that MP contamination in the Datça Peninsula was higher than that reported in the literature from similar locations around the world (1154.4 ±â€¯700.3 particles kg-1 dw). More specifically the highest contamination was found in Aktur Beach (2073.3 ±â€¯648.6 particles kg-1 dw) which could be considered as a hotspot for the whole region in terms of MP pollution. As a result of the study, as sampling stations are remote from major cities and industrial zones, maritime activities increase during summer season and tar has been observed on particles during analyses, it can be asserted that the pollution may be caused by marine resources.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Praias , Mar Mediterrâneo , Tamanho da Partícula , Plásticos/química , Estações do Ano , Turquia , Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Vento
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 656-672, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590835

RESUMO

The Adriatic Sea is considered as a hotspot of marine biodiversity but, due to intense human activities (e.g. maritime transport, mariculture), it is also a recipient area of non-indigenous species (NIS). This study analyzed the scientific literature on non-indigenous macrophytes (NIM) recorded in ports, marinas and transitional waters (TWs) of the Adriatic Sea, in the period 1987-2018. The results show that 51 out of 118 Mediterranean NIM are found in Adriatic ports and TWs. The Venice Lagoon is the main Adriatic recipient area of NIM. Mariculture is the main vector of introduction, whereas the principal pathways of NIM dispersal are shipping and shellfish transfer. The largest group of NIM is of temperate northern Pacific origin. This study corroborated the fact that ports and TWs act as dispersal hubs and invasion hotspots. The importance of early detection of NIM at such sites should be considered in any environmental management strategy.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Plantas , Navios , Animais , Crustáceos , Mar Mediterrâneo , Oceano Pacífico , Instalações de Transporte
12.
Syst Parasitol ; 96(8): 681-694, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576478

RESUMO

Allogastrocotyle bivaginalis Nasir & Fuentes Zambrano, 1983, the sole species of Allogastrocotyle Nasir & Fuentes Zambrano, 1983, was described from Trachurus lathami Nichols off Venezuela and never recorded since. We found monogeneans on Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich) (Carangidae) off the Algerian coast, Mediterranean Sea, which had the characteristics of the genus, including, especially, paired vaginae. We compared them to the single available specimen of A. bivaginalis, the holotype. Unfortunately, this holotype does not show clamp structure and soft internal anatomy. Our specimens were similar to A. bivaginalis in most characteristics such as body shape, vaginal openings, and number of testes, clamps and hooks in genital atrium. We detected minor differences in clamp structure but could not ascertain if these were the result of incomplete observations in the original description of real morphological differences. The host fish of our specimens were barcoded (cox1) confirming their specific identity. A phylogenetic analysis of cox1 sequences showed that our sequences of A. bivaginalis were distinct from those of Pseudaxine trachuri Parona & Perugia, 1889 (distance > 15%) and of several other gastrocotylids. Finally, we could not distinguish our Mediterranean specimens from A. bivaginalis, neither on the base of morphology (because the original description is incomplete) nor on molecules (because molecular information is lacking on A. bivaginalis from Venezuela) and ascribe them to A. bivaginalis. However, hosts are different, and localities are widely separated, so it is likely that future study will show that the species from the Mediterranean is a distinct, new, species.


Assuntos
Perciformes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética , Argélia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Mar Mediterrâneo , Especificidade da Espécie , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540379

RESUMO

Transitional water ecosystems are targeted by the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD, CE 2000/60) monitoring programs in coastal zones. Concerning sediments, activities performed for the WFD focus on a few variables concerning the biochemical composition of organic matter. Our research reports the effects of oxygen availability on the biochemical composition of organic matter in sediments to highlight levels of targeted variables in time and, according to the depth of sediment layer, both under oxygenated and anoxic conditions in a mesocosm study on sediment cores. Results provide evidence that tested factors of interest (i.e., disturbance type, oxygenic versus anoxic conditions; persistence time of disturbance, 0-14 days; penetration through sedimentary layers, 0-10 cm depth) are able to significantly affect the biochemical composition of organic matter in sediments. Large part of the variables considered in this study (total organic carbon (TOC), total phosphorous (TP), total sulphur (TS), Fe, carbohydrates (CHO), total proteins (PRT), biopolymeric carbon (BPC), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) are significantly affected and correlated to the oxygenation levels and could be good early indicators of important changes of environmental conditions. Monitoring activities performed under WFD guidelines and management strategies of Mediterranean coastal lagoon ecosystems shall include the biochemical composition of organic matter in sediment to provide an exhaustive picture of such dynamic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Oxigênio/análise , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo
14.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 112975, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541831

RESUMO

We analysed the total mercury (Hg) accumulation in bodies and gut contents of 13 species of marine wild fish, 7 species of wild freshwater fish and 4 species of farmed fish. In addition, metal concentrations were recorded in water, sediment, fish prey and fodder materials, to track the dynamics of bio-accumulation. Cultured freshwater fish were collected at four Austrian farms and compared with samples obtained from markets. Wild marine fish were collected at Santa Croce bank, in Italy (Mediterranean Sea). Metal accumulation varied with sampling site, species, and age (or weight) of fish. Wild marine fish exhibited higher levels than wild freshwater fish, which in turn had higher Hg levels than cultured freshwater fish. Mercury increased according to trophic levels of consumers. Total Hg contents in muscle of cultured and wild freshwater fish sampled in 2006-2008 did not exceed legal nutritional limits. Similarly, in market samples of trout and carp collected in 2019, we found low or undetectable concentrations of total Hg in muscle tissue. In contrast, some marine fish (both market samples and some species from coastal waters) exceeded the legal limits. Environmental contamination, food webs and biological factors are the main causes of Hg accumulation in fish. Our results reflect the actual differences between specific European sites and should not be generalized. However, they support the generally increasing demand for monitoring mercury pollution in view of its impact on human health and its value as an indicator of ecosystem contamination.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes/metabolismo , Mercúrio/análise , Tanques/química , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Áustria , Bioacumulação , Ecossistema , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cadeia Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Humanos , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Músculos/química
15.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124475, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549636

RESUMO

Two commercial coating systems, each one consisting of both a primer and an antifouling ("System 1" based on Copper Oxide and "System 2" based on Zinc Oxide), have been analyzed in order to investigate their environmental impacts through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and laboratory tests. A cradle-to-grave analysis has been performed in order to quantify the environmental footprint of each coating solution and to define which element, material, or process mainly affect the environmental impact of such products. Moreover, it was performed a comparison between the different products to determine the most environmentally sustainable choice. In addition to LCA, several incubations of coated metal samples, by means of an innovative incubation system developed by the authors, have also been performed in marine water (Gulf of Naples, Mediterranean Sea, Italy), as critical environment favoring metal corrosion and biofouling generation. The life cycle analysis has showed that the production phase presents the highest environmental impact in almost all categories, mainly due to the use of chemical compounds. Moreover, after the laboratory tests, strong biotoxicity and contaminant diffusion, contributing to the marine toxicity potential, have been observed for both the commercial paints. As a final remark, there are straightforward indications of a strong need for anti-Microbial-Induced-Corrosion commercial coatings to substitute the toxic compounds with others in order to develop a greener solution.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Cobre , Ecossistema , Itália , Vida , Mar Mediterrâneo , Metais/análise , Pintura , Óxido de Zinco/análise
16.
Nature ; 574(7777): 233-236, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471591

RESUMO

Reconstructing the evolution of sea level during past warmer epochs such as the Pliocene provides insight into the response of sea level and ice sheets to prolonged warming1. Although estimates of the global mean sea level (GMSL) during this time do exist, they vary by several tens of metres2-4, hindering the assessment of past and future ice-sheet stability. Here we show that during the mid-Piacenzian Warm Period, which was on average two to three degrees Celsius warmer than the pre-industrial period5, the GMSL was about 16.2 metres higher than today owing to global ice-volume changes, and around 17.4 metres when thermal expansion of the oceans is included. During the even warmer Pliocene Climatic Optimum (about four degrees Celsius warmer than pre-industrial levels)6, our results show that the GMSL was 23.5 metres above the present level, with an additional 1.6 metres from thermal expansion. We provide six GMSL data points, ranging from 4.39 to 3.27 million years ago, that are based on phreatic overgrowths on speleothems from the western Mediterranean (Mallorca, Spain). This record is unique owing to its clear relationship to sea level, its reliable U-Pb ages and its long timespan, which allows us to quantify uncertainties on potential uplift. Our data indicate that ice sheets are very sensitive to warming and provide important calibration targets for future ice-sheet models7.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática/história , Água do Mar/análise , Calibragem , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Foraminíferos/química , História Antiga , Camada de Gelo/química , Ilhas , Mar Mediterrâneo , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Espanha , Incerteza
17.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(4): 521-527, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473774

RESUMO

We determinated Hg and Se concentrations in liver, kidney, brain, lung and muscle of five bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), four common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and four Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) stranded along the Murcia coast, Southeast Spain, in order to evaluate the risk of Hg toxicity. Hg concentrations showed similar concentrations to other individuals in the Mediterranean Sea with the same length in the same period. We observed a positive correlation of Hg and Se in liver (r = 0.948, p < 0.001) and kidney (r = 0.939; p = 0.001) and ratio the Se/Hg molar was higher than 1 in most cases. Our results suggest that the protective effects of Se against Hg toxicity occur in cetaceans. However, we detected levels of Hg described as responsible liver damage and neurotoxicological effects so other tools, as biochemical markers, should be included. Besides, more studies are needed to evaluate the risk of Hg exposure in dolphins from Murcia coastline.


Assuntos
Golfinhos/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rim/química , Fígado/química , Mercúrio/análise , Selênio/análise , Animais , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/metabolismo , Golfinhos Comuns/metabolismo , Mar Mediterrâneo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Espanha
18.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124448, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398606

RESUMO

The Mediterranean Sea remains a complex system for mercury (Hg) cycling and accumulation in marine vertebrates. The extremely high levels these animals present demand for an urgent understanding of such processes and the development of new analytical techniques that go beyond the simple contamination monitoring. It was often proposed that prey selection or habitat use may affect Hg contamination in animals; however, it was never possible to measure which factor influences more rates and pathways of contamination. In this paper, we directly integrate toxicological information (Hg levels) and ecological tracers (stable isotopes of C, N and S) into a common data analysis framework (isotopic niches), with the aim of quantifying the influence of species' trophic behaviour on Hg contamination. The analysis was conducted on skin biopsies of fin whales Balaenoptera physalus, long-finned pilot whales Globicephala melas and sperm whales Physeter microcephalus. Their different trophic modes and residency in the area make them model species for the analysis of Hg accumulation along NWMS food webs. We measured Total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations through absorbance spectrometry with the DMA80 Milestone. Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur isotope compositions were measured via mass spectrometry in an IRMS coupled to an Elemental Analyser (EA) Isoprime. Comparison of ecological and contamination niches allowed to explain Hg accumulation in Mediterranean marine predators. Factors such as food web complexity, trophic position, hunting distribution or habitat use (e.g., foraging depth) did not influence Hg exposure. It is rather the selection of prey type, which determines the range of potential Hg sources and as a consequence the rates of accumulation in whales' tissues. A generalist piscivorous species such as the pilot whales will bioaccumulate more Hg than specialised sperm whales feeding mostly on cephalopods.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cadeia Alimentar , Isótopos/análise , Baleias/metabolismo , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Baleia Comum/metabolismo , Mar Mediterrâneo , Isótopos de Mercúrio/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Cachalote/metabolismo , Isótopos de Enxofre/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Baleias Piloto/metabolismo
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(17): 10177-10187, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411031

RESUMO

Studies detailing the environmental impact of sunscreen products on coastal ecosystems are considered a high priority. In the present study, we have determined the release rate of dissolved trace metals (Al, Cd, Cu, Co, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Ti) and inorganic nutrients (SiO2, P-PO43-, and N-NO3-) from a commercial sunscreen in seawater, and the role of UV radiation in the mobilization of these compounds. Our results indicate that release rates are higher under UV light conditions for all compounds and trace metals except Pb. We have developed a kinetic model to establish the release pattern and the contribution to marine coastal waters of dissolved trace metals and inorganic nutrients from sunscreen products. We conservatively estimate that sunscreen from bathers is responsible for an increase of dissolved metals and nutrients ranging from 7.54 × 10-4 % for Ni up to 19.8% for Ti. Our results demonstrate that sunscreen products are a significant source of metals and inorganic nutrients to coastal waters. The normally low environmental concentrations of some elements (e.g., P) and the toxicity of others (e.g., Pb) could be having a serious adverse effect on marine ecology in the Mediterranean Sea. This risk must not be ignored.


Assuntos
Protetores Solares , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mar Mediterrâneo , Metais , Nutrientes , Água do Mar , Dióxido de Silício
20.
Syst Parasitol ; 96(7): 603-616, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372880

RESUMO

Lepeophtheirus lichiae Barnard, 1948 (Copepoda: Caligidae), a very rare and poorly known sea louse, is redescribed based on a single newly collected female. The specimen was collected from the dorsal body surface of the leerfish, Lichia amia (Linnaeus) caught in north-eastern Mediterranean waters off the Turkish coast. The original and only available description of L. lichiae was incomplete and with only three illustrations: the dorsal view of the female habitus, the sternal furca, and the postantennal process. Here, we present a full re-description of female of L. lichiae and report it from the Mediterranean Sea for the first time.


Assuntos
Copépodes/classificação , Copépodes/fisiologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Copépodes/citologia , Feminino , Mar Mediterrâneo , Especificidade da Espécie
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