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1.
Mar Environ Res ; 163: 105230, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419580

RESUMO

Climate change is a global threat for marine ecosystems, their biodiversity and consequently ecosystem services. In the marine realm, marine protected areas (MPAs) were designated to counteract regional pressures, but they might be ineffective to protect vulnerable species and habitats, if their distribution is affected by global climate change. We used six Species Distribution Models (GLM, MARS, FDA, RF, GBM, MAXENT) to project changes in the distribution of eight benthic indicator and key species under climate change in the North Sea MPAs for 2050 and 2099. The projected distribution area of most species will be stable or even increase within the MPAs between 2001 and 2050. Thereafter, the distribution area decreased, especially within MPAs in the central North Sea by 2099, and some key species even disappeared from the MPAs. Consequently, the monitoring and protection of benthic species might not be possible within static MPA borders under climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Mar do Norte
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 141900, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916484

RESUMO

We compared long-term (1977 to 2014) trends in concentrations of PFAS in eggs of the marine sentinel species, the Northern gannet (Morus bassanus), from the Irish Sea (Ailsa Craig) and the North Sea (Bass Rock). Concentrations of eight perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and three perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) were determined and we report the first dataset on PFAS in UK seabirds before and after the PFOS ban. There were no significant differences in ∑PFAS or ∑PFSAs between both colonies. The ∑PFSAs dominated the PFAS profile (>80%); PFOS accounted for the majority of the PFSAs (98-99%). In contrast, ∑PFCAs concentrations were slightly but significantly higher in eggs from Ailsa Craig than in those from Bass Rock. The most abundant PFCAs were perfluorotridecanoate (PFTriDA) and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA) which, together with PFOA, comprised around 90% of the ∑PFCAs. The ∑PFSAs and ∑PFCAs had very different temporal trends. ∑PFSAs concentrations in eggs from both colonies increased significantly in the earlier part of the study but later declined significantly, demonstrating the effectiveness of the phasing out of PFOS production in the 2000s. In contrast, ∑PFCAs concentrations in eggs were constant and low in the 1970s and 1980s, suggesting minimal environmental contamination, but residues subsequently increased significantly in both colonies until the end of the study. This increase appeared driven by rises in long chain compounds, namely the odd chain numbered PFTriDA and PFUnA. PFOA, had a very different temporal trend from the other dominant acids, with an earlier rise in concentrations followed by a decline in the last 15 years in Ailsa Craig; later temporal trends in Bass Rock eggs were unclear. Although eggs from both colonies contained relatively low concentrations of PFAS, the majority had PFOS residues that exceeded a suggested Predicted No Effect Concentration and ~ 10% of the eggs exceeded a suggested Lowest-Observable-Adverse-Effect.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Morus , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Animais , Aves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Mar do Norte , Reino Unido
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 758: 144157, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333300

RESUMO

The increasing number of chemicals detected in the marine environment underlines the need for appropriate prioritization strategies prior to further testing and potential inclusion into monitoring programs. Here, a prioritization strategy is proposed for chemicals detected in the North Sea over the last decade, through the development of a Concern Index (CI) using exposure and toxicity data obtained from peer-review publications and the ToxCast database, respectively. A total of 158 chemicals were ranked and the most sensitive tested assay endpoints were identified. Additionally, similar analysis was performed for the classes of chemicals and Biological Process Targets (BPTs). By first ranking chemicals currently acknowledged for their high toxicity to the aquatic environment, i.e. naphthalene, salicylic acid and simazine, the obtained results not only reinforce the risk posed by these but also promote a confident extrapolation from mammalian in vitro toxicity data to fish. Furthermore, genes targeted by the most sensitive assays, related to basic cell maintenance processes and immune defense, are highly evolutionarily conserved across species. The identification of these assays further reinforces the importance of a shift from traditional toxicity endpoints to lower levels of biological organization, allowing the detection of adverse effects at lower concentrations.


Assuntos
Bioensaio , Fenômenos Biológicos , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Mar do Norte
4.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111762, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341727

RESUMO

Offshore wind power generation requires large areas of sea to accommodate its activities, with increasing claims for exclusive access. As a result, pressure is placed on other established maritime uses, such as commercial fisheries. The latter sector has often been taking a back seat in the thrust to move energy production offshore, thus leading to disagreements and conflicts among the different stakeholder groups. In recognition of the latter, there has been a growing international interest in exploring the combination of multiple maritime activities in the same area (multi-use; MU), including the re-instatement of fishing activities within, or in close proximity to, offshore wind farms (OWFs). We summarise local stakeholder perspectives from two sub-national case studies (East coast of Scotland and Germany's North Sea EEZ) to scope the feasibility of combining multiple uses of the sea, such as offshore wind farms and commercial fisheries. We combined a desk-based review with 15 semi-structured qualitative interviews with key knowledge holders from both industries, regulators, and academia to aggregate key results. Drivers, barriers and resulting effects (positive and negative) for potential multi-use of fisheries and OWFs are listed and ranked (57 factors in total). Factors are of economic, social, policy, legal, and technical nature. To date, in both case study areas, the offshore wind industry has shown little interest in multi-use solutions, unless clear added value is demonstrated and no risks to their operations are involved. In contrast, the commercial fishing sector is proactive towards multi-use projects and acts as a driving force for MU developments. We provide a range of management recommendations, based on stakeholder input, to support progress towards robust decision making in relation to multi-use solutions, including required policy and regulatory framework improvements, good practice guidance, empirical studies, capacity building of stakeholders and improvements of the consultation process. Our findings represent a comprehensive depiction of the current state and key stakeholder aspirations for multi-use solutions combining fisheries and OWFs. We believe that the pathways towards robust decision making in relation to multi-use solutions suggested here are transferable to other international locations.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Pesqueiros , Alemanha , Mar do Norte , Escócia
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 111905, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360729

RESUMO

This preliminary study investigated the potential correlations between trace elements (mercury, zinc, cadmium, copper, selenium, lead, nickel, chromium, lithium and vanadium) concentrations, measured in red blood cells, and oxidative stress biomarkers (total thiols, total glutathione, total and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases, triglycerides, malondialdehyde) assessed in the respective serum, in males and females P. vitulina, sampled in the Wadden Sea in spring and autumn 2015. Only concentrations of total mercury and zinc showed significant differences by sex, and only lipid peroxidation was different by season. Moreover, significant positive and negative correlations were observed between biomarkers (triglycerides, thiols, malondialdehyde, glutathione) and trace element concentrations (copper, lead, mercury, nickel, zinc). These findings suggest that the studied biomarkers could be useful for the assessment of oxidative stress in harbour seals exposed to trace elements, but further research with larger sample sizes is needed to better understand their specific associations.


Assuntos
Phoca , Selênio , Oligoelementos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Masculino , Mar do Norte , Estresse Oxidativo , Oligoelementos/análise
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 764: 142842, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342563

RESUMO

The study of ecological niche segregation in sympatric species is essential to understand ecosystem functioning and its response to potential changes. In the North Sea, sympatric grey and harbour seals may present competition for food resources sustained by intense fishing activities and recent increase of seal populations. In order to coexist and reduce inter-specific competition, sympatric species must segregate at least one aspect of their ecological niches: temporal, spatial or resource segregation. We aim to study the foraging resources and foraging distributions of grey seals and harbour seals and the potential competition between these species in the North Sea. Therefore, we analysed stable isotopic composition of C, N and S (δ13C, δ15N and δ34S values), and the concentrations of Hg and Se in blood of harbour and grey seals from the North Sea. Blood samples were collected on 45 grey seals and 37 harbour seals sampled along German and Scottish coasts. Stable isotope ratios were performed with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer coupled to an N-C-S elemental analyser for automated analyses. Total mercury concentrations (T-Hg) were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and Se concentrations by ICP-MS. The multi-tracer approach shown spatial and resource partitioning within grey and harbour seal living along German and Scottish coasts. Data indicate 1) the offshore foraging distribution of grey seals as reflected by the lower δ15N values and T-Hg concentrations and higher Se concentrations and 2) the inshore foraging distribution of harbour seals because of higher δ15N values and T-Hg concentrations and lower Se concentrations. The SIAR mixing model revealed 3) a more selective diet of grey seals compared to harbour seals and 4) the importance of sandeels in grey seal diet reflected by their high δ34S values. Lastly, diet ellipse overlaps between grey seals and harbour seals sampled along the German coasts suggested 5) a potential sharing of food resources, possibly due to the increase number of grey seals number in this area during the foraging season - all year except breeding and moulting periods. The multi-tracer approach of this study provides a more robust discrimination among diet resources and spatial foraging distributions of grey seals and harbour seals in the North Sea.


Assuntos
Caniformia , Phoca , Focas Verdadeiras , Animais , Ecossistema , Mar do Norte , Simpatria
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(12): 756, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180197

RESUMO

The shape of the length frequency distribution (LFD) is an important input for stock assessments and one of the most important features in studies of fish population dynamics, providing estimates of growth parameters. In practice, oversampling may occur when sampling commercially important species. At times of more and more limited resources, the length sample size can be optimized at some stages of national or regional sampling programmes, without reducing the quality of stock assessments. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate a general distribution-free methodological approach for an optimization of sample size developed as an alternative to both analytical and bootstrap approaches. A novel framework to identify the reduced but still informative sample and to quantify the (dis) similarity between reduced and original samples is proposed. The identification procedure is based on the concept of reference subsample, which represents a theoretical minimal representative subsample that despite smaller sample size still preserves a reasonably precise LFD for certain species. The difference between the original sample and the reference subsample called admissible dissimilarity value (ADV) serves as the upper threshold and can be used to quantify the reliability of derived subsamples. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to validate the approach under various LFD shapes. We illustrate in case studies how ADV can support to evaluate adequate sampling effort. The case studies focus on length samples from the German commercial vessels fishing for North Sea cod (Gadus morhua).


Assuntos
Gadus morhua , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mar do Norte , Dinâmica Populacional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111660, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181937

RESUMO

The article presents the results from a research project investigating acoustic climate changes in the Gdansk Deep based on data extending from 1902 to 2019. This part of the southern Gotland Basin, is rarely discussed in the scientific literature. The speed of sound in the seawater is a function of temperature, salinity, and depth. In such shallow sea as Baltic Sea, the impact of depth is not substantial. The other two factors shape the hydroacoustic conditions. In the upper layer of seawater, the dominating factor is heat exchange at the water-atmosphere interface. The observed climate warming is reflected in the water temperature rise, which results in an increased speed of sound in the upper water layer. After years of sporadic salty inflows from the North Sea, the frequency of the phenomenon has increased since 2014. As a result, the salinity at the bottom exceeds values typical for that area.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Água do Mar , Países Bálticos , Mar do Norte , Oceanos e Mares , Som
9.
Mar Environ Res ; 162: 105157, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080559

RESUMO

The increasing development of offshore wind farms (OWFs) worldwide leads to possible conflicts with the ecological requirements of top predators that largely depend on offshore areas. Seabird species exhibit different behavioural reactions to OWFs, ranging from avoidance resulting in habitat loss, to attraction causing an increased risk of colliding with the turbines. We investigated how OWFs affected the densities and distributions of guillemots and kittiwakes breeding in the southern North Sea and if the effects varied among seasons using a 'before-after control impact' (BACI) analysis approach based on a large-scale and long-term dataset covering 14 years before and 3 years after the construction of OWFs. Guillemot relative density in the OWF decreased by 63% in spring, and by 44% in the breeding season. Kittiwake relative density in the OWF decreased by 45% in the breeding season, and not significantly by 10% in spring. We furthermore estimated the response radii to the OWF for both species and seasons, finding that guillemots showed a response radius of ~9 km in spring and kittiwakes a radius of ~20 km in the breeding season. The results underline the value of large-scale and long-term assessments considering seasonal variation throughout the yearly cycle. The here provided information on the seasonally different reactions of seabirds to OWFs adds substantially to our current knowledge and provides the necessary basis for reliable estimations of OWF effects on guillemots and kittiwakes. Such evaluations are urgently needed for future planning and management recommendations to decision-makers.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Animais , Cruzamento , Mar do Norte , Estações do Ano
10.
Mar Environ Res ; 162: 105097, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992222

RESUMO

The sea bottom of the Skagerrak Strait (North Sea) contains munitions loaded with chemical warfare agents (CWA), mostly stored in shipwrecks scuttled intentionally after the end of the World War II. The munition shells inside the wrecks are in different states of deterioration and corrosion and their environmental risk potential is unknown. The Atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa), a sediment-dwelling chordate, was used as a model organism to study the potential impact of dumped CWA on the local ecosystem by using biochemical biomarkers. The hagfish were collected in 2017 and 2018 at three sampling sites: in the immediate vicinity of a wreck with CWA in the Skagerrak, a few kilometres from the wreck, and a reference site 21 km from the wreck, considered to be free of CWA. Significant differences were observed between the wreck site and the reference sites in the activities of glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase, while the activity levels of catalase and acetylcholinesterase were identical at all sites. The recorded differences demonstrated negative biological effects in the hagfish sampled close to the dumped chemical munitions. Due to the limited knowledge of hagfish biology and of the extent of CWA contamination in Skagerrak, the results presented here warrant more research to further elucidate the potential environmental risks of the scuttled wrecks. The usefulness of the species as a bioindicator organism is further discussed.


Assuntos
Substâncias para a Guerra Química , Feiticeiras (Peixe) , Animais , Biomarcadores , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/análise , Ecossistema , Mar do Norte , Espécies Sentinelas
11.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 141: 117-126, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969344

RESUMO

The brown shrimp Crangon crangon is a key component of the North Atlantic coastal food web and an important target species for the fishery economy. As the brown shrimp contains large amounts of protein and essential fatty acids, its consumption makes it a beneficial choice for humans. Commercially harvested crustaceans like C. crangon are frequently affected by bacterial shell disease, with necrotizing erosions and ulcerations of the cuticle. To determine whether shell disease influences the nutritional value of C. crangon, total protein and lipid contents, as well as fatty acid compositions of muscle tissue and hepatopancreas, together with the hepatosomatic index, were examined in healthy and affected individuals. The biochemical composition of the tissues did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Also, the hepatosomatic index, as an indicator of energy reserves in shrimps, was similar between healthy and affected animals. Our results indicate that the nutritional value of C. crangon is not affected by shell disease, as long as it remains superficial as in the present study.


Assuntos
Crangonidae , Penaeidae , Animais , Pesqueiros , Hepatopâncreas , Humanos , Mar do Norte
12.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 104989, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907727

RESUMO

Expansion of offshore wind energy is vital for the reduction of CO2 emissions. However, offshore wind farms may negatively impact the environment without proper planning. Here we assess the robustness of the conclusions of earlier studies that the strictly protected red-throated diver, Gavia stellata, is strongly displaced from wind farms in the German Bight (North Sea). We modelled the distribution of divers based on two independent data sets, digital aerial surveys and satellite telemetry, in relation to the dynamic offshore environment and anthropogenic pressures. Both data types found that divers were strongly displaced from wind farms in suitable habitat. The displacement effect gradually decreased with distance from the wind farms (being very strong up to 5 km away), but a significant effect could be detected up to 10-15 km away. The telemetry data further indicated that the displacement distance decreased with decreasing visibility. The displacement distance was also shorter during the day than during the night, potentially as a response to aviation and navigation lights of the wind farms. These findings should be taken into consideration in marine spatial planning to avoid cumulative impacts on red-throated diver populations.


Assuntos
Aves , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Telemetria , Vento , Animais , Mar do Norte , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 105037, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907738

RESUMO

Marine zooplankton are increasingly being affected by recent environmental changes, such as climate change, and respond with profound spatial relocations and shifts in phenology and physiology. In order to predict whether populations are able to persist or adapt to such new conditions, it is essential to understand the molecular basis of such adaptations, which ultimately get translated into these physiological responses. To explore variation in population gene expression across time and space, we investigated transcriptome-level profiles of the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis, that were collected at four different locations in the Belgian Part of the North Sea (BPNS) on three different time points (April, June, October) in 2018. RNA-seq analysis of field collected adults identified large seasonal differences in gene expression, mainly between spring-summer and autumn samples. The largest log-fold changes occurred in a set of genes encoding for ribosomal and myosin (heavy chain) transcripts. Enrichment analysis revealed a strong seasonal pattern in vitellogenin, cuticle and glycolytic gene expression as well. We also found a positive correlation between vitellogenin expression and densities of T. longicornis. No clear spatial variation in expression patterns was found in the BPNS. This study underlines the potential of field gene expression studies for biomonitoring purposes and the significance of considering seasonal variation in future studies.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Expressão Gênica , Animais , Bélgica , Copépodes/genética , Mar do Norte , Estações do Ano , Zooplâncton
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239436, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966332

RESUMO

An accurate description of trophic interactions is crucial to understand ecosystem functioning and sustainably manage marine ecosystems exploitation. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were coupled with stomach content analyses to investigate whiting (Merlangius merlangus, Linnaeus, 1758) feeding behavior in the Eastern English Channel and Southern North Sea. Whiting juveniles and adults were sampled in autumn and winter to investigate both ontogenetic and seasonal changes. In addition, queen scallops (Aequipecten opercularis) samples were collected along with fish to be used as isotopic benthic baseline. Results indicated an ontogenetic diet change from crustaceans to fish and cephalopods. In autumn, δ15N values generally increased with fish size while in winter, a decrease of δ15N values with fish size was observed, as a potential result of spatial variation in baseline δ15N values. In winter, a nutrient-poor period, an increase in feeding intensity was observed, especially on the copepod Temora longicornis. This study provides further insights into whiting trophic ecology in relation to ontogenetic and seasonal variations, and it confirms the importance of combining several trophic analysis methods to understand ecosystem functioning.


Assuntos
Dieta , Gadiformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Gadiformes/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Mar do Norte
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 140878, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721612

RESUMO

Molluscs defend themselves against predation and environmental stressors through the possession of mineralized shells. Mussels are widely used to predict the effects of abiotic factors such as salinity and pH on marine calcifiers in the context of changing ocean conditions. Shell matrix proteins are part of the molecular control regulating the biomineralization processes underpinning shell production. Under changing environmental conditions, differential expression of these proteins leads to the phenotypic plasticity of shells seen in many mollusc species. Low salinity decreases the availability of calcium and inorganic carbon in seawater and consequently energetic constraints often lead to thin, small and fragile shells in Mytilid mussels inhabiting Baltic Sea. To understand how the modulation of shell matrix proteins alters biomineralization, we compared the shell proteomes of mussels living under full marine conditions in the North Sea to those living in the low saline Baltic Sea. Modulation of proteins comprising the Mytilus biomineralization tool kit is observed. These data showed a relative increase in chitin related proteins, decrease in SD-rich, GA-rich shell matrix proteins indicating that altered protein scaffolding and mineral nucleation lead to impaired shell microstructures influencing shell resistance in Baltic Mytilid mussels. Interestingly, proteins with immunity domains in the shell matrix are also found to be modulated. Shell traits such as periostracum thickness, organic content and fracture resistance qualitatively correlates with the modulation of SMPs in Mytilid mussels providing key insights into control of biomineralization at molecular level in the context of changing marine conditions.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto , Proteoma , Animais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mar do Norte , Água do Mar
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235388, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604405

RESUMO

The plasticity of different kelp populations to heat stress has seldom been investigated excluding environmental effects due to thermal histories, by raising a generation under common garden conditions. Comparisons of populations in the absence of environmental effects allow unbiased quantification of the meta-population adaptive potential and resolution of population-specific differentiation. Following this approach, we tested the hypothesis that genetically distinct arctic and temperate kelp exhibit different thermal phenotypes, by comparing the capacity of their microscopic life stages to recover from elevated temperatures. Gametophytes of Laminaria digitata (Arctic and North Sea) grown at 15°C for 3 years were subjected to common garden conditions with static or dynamic (i.e., gradual) thermal treatments ranging between 15 and 25°C and also to darkness. Gametophyte growth and survival during thermal stress conditions, and subsequent sporophyte recruitment at two recovery temperatures (5 and 15°C), were investigated. Population-specific responses were apparent; North Sea gametophytes exhibited higher growth rates and greater sporophyte recruitment than those from the Arctic when recovering from high temperatures, revealing differential thermal adaptation. All gametophytes performed poorly after recovery from a static 8-day exposure at 22.5°C compared to the response under a dynamic thermal treatment with a peak temperature of 25°C, demonstrating the importance of gradual warming and/or acclimation time in modifying thermal limits. Recovery temperature markedly affected the capacity of gametophytes to reproduce following high temperatures, regardless of the population. Recovery at 5°C resulted in higher sporophyte production following a 15°C and 20°C static exposure, whereas recovery at 15°C was better for gametophyte exposures to static 22.5°C or dynamic heat stress to 25°C. The subtle performance differences between populations originating from sites with contrasting local in situ temperatures support our hypothesis that their thermal plasticity has diverged over evolutionary time scales.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Laminaria/fisiologia , Regiões Árticas , Células Germinativas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Germinativas Vegetais/fisiologia , Aquecimento Global , Temperatura Alta , Laminaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mar do Norte , Fenótipo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Temperatura
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234238, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609771

RESUMO

Spiophanes bombyx (Claparède, 1870) from the Gulf of Naples, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy, was the first described Spiophanes with fronto-lateral horns on the prostomium. It was also considered the only horned species occurring in European waters. Our sequence data of five gene fragments suggest the presence of two horned sibling Spiophanes species in northern Europe: S. cf. bombyx in the North and the Norwegian seas, and S. cf. convexus in Brittany, northern France, and Bay of Biscay, northern Spain. Spiophanes cf. bombyx worms are genetically close to a single examined specimen of S. bombyx from Venice Lagoon, Italy but their conspecificity should be verified by further study. Our sequence data show that horned Spiophanes from the North Pacific are genetically distant from horned European species, and that S. uschakowi Zachs, 1933, originally described from the Sea of Japan (East Sea) is a valid species. The data also suggest the presence of two horned sibling Spiophanes species in the North East Pacific: S. hakaiensis Radashevsky & Pankova, n. sp. distributed from Alaska south to about Point Conception, and S. norrisi Meißner & Blank, 2009, distributed from San Francisco Bay south to Baja California Sur, Mexico. Spiophanes from South America, morphologically similar to S. norrisi, are suggested to belong to a new species. Molecular data also suggest the presence of two sibling species among the worms from northern Europe identified by morphology as S. kroyeri Grube, 1860. Worms from the Barents Sea and northern part of the North Sea are tentatively referred to as S. cf. kroyeri; worms from the northern and central parts of the North Sea and from the Bay of Biscay, northern Spain, are tentatively referred to as S. cf. cirrata M. Sars in G.O. Sars, 1872. Sequence data also show that S. duplex from California is genetically different from morphologically similar worms from South America. The South American worms are referred to resurrected S. soederstroemi Hartman, 1953 which was originally described from off Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and then considered as a junior synonym of S. duplex. Analysis of divergence times of Spiophanes lineages suggested that the origin of the most recent common ancestor of horned Spiophanes with metameric nuchal organs was around 11.1 mya (95% HPD: 5.1-19.0 mya) and that the divergence of the North Atlantic and North Pacific lineages was around 7.9 mya (95% HPD: 4.1-13.3 mya). The North Atlantic lineage was estimated to have diverged 4.8 mya (95% HPD: 2.2-8.6 mya), resulting in the origin of S. cf. bombyx and S. cf. convexus. The North Pacific lineage was estimated to have diverged first by the isolation and speciation of S. norrisi 1.7 mya (95% HPD: 2.3-1.0 mya), and then by the isolation and speciation of S. uschakowi and S. hakaiensis n. sp. 1.3 mya (95% HPD: 2.0-0.7 mya). The estimates place the divergences soon after maximum glacial period in the North Pacific (2.4-3.0 mya).


Assuntos
Anelídeos/genética , Poliquetos/classificação , Poliquetos/genética , Animais , Anelídeos/classificação , Europa (Continente) , Mar do Norte , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233921, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569285

RESUMO

In May 2016, the remote-controlled Automated Filtration System for Marine Microbes (AUTOFIM) was implemented in parallel to the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) observatory Helgoland Roads in the German Bight. We collected samples for characterization of dynamics within the eukaryotic microbial communities at the end of a phytoplankton bloom via 18S meta-barcoding. Understanding consequences of environmental change for key marine ecosystem processes, such as phytoplankton bloom dynamics requires information on biodiversity and species occurrences with adequate temporal and taxonomic resolution via time series observations. Sampling automation and molecular high throughput methods can serve these needs by improving the resolution of current conventional marine time series observations. A technical evaluation based on an investigation of eukaryotic microbes using the partial 18S rRNA gene suggests that automated filtration with the AUTOFIM device and preservation of the plankton samples leads to highly similar 18S community profiles, compared to manual filtration and snap freezing. The molecular data were correlated with conventional microscopic counts. Overall, we observed substantial change in the eukaryotic microbial community structure during the observation period. A simultaneous decline of diatom and ciliate sequences succeeded a peak of Miracula helgolandica, suggesting a potential impact of these oomycete parasites on diatom bloom dynamics and phenology in the North Sea. As oomycetes are not routinely counted at Helgoland Roads LTER, our findings illustrate the benefits of combining automated filtration with metabarcodingto augment classical time series observations, particularly for taxa currently neglected due to methodological constraints.


Assuntos
Eucariotos/classificação , Microbiota , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Eucariotos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Mar do Norte , Filogenia , Fitoplâncton/genética , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar
19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4305-4314, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579104

RESUMO

A new member of the family Flavobacteriaceae was isolated from the biofilm of a stone at Nordstrand, a peninsula at the German North Sea shore. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain ANORD1T was most closely related to the validly described type strains Polaribacter porphyrae LNM-20T (97.0 %) and Polaribacter reichenbachii KMM 6386T (96.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and clustered with Polaribacter gangjinensis K17-16T (96.0 %). Strain ANORD1T was determined to be mesophilic, Gram-negative, non-motile and strictly aerobic. Optimal growth was observed at 20-30 °C, within a salinity range of 2-7 % sea salt and from pH 7-10. Like other type strains of the genus Polaribacter, ANORD1T was tested negative for flexirubin-type pigments, while carotenoid-type pigments were detected. The DNA G+C content of strain ANORD1T was 30.6 mol%. The sole respiratory quinone detected was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). The major fatty acids identified were C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, C15 : 1 ω6c and iso-C15 : 0 3-OH. Based on the polyphasic approach, strain ANORD1T represents a novel species in the genus Polaribacter, with the name Polaribacter septentrionalilitoris sp. nov. being proposed. The type strain is ANORD1T (=DSM 110039T=NCIMB 15081T=MTCC 12685T).


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Flavobacteriaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Carotenoides/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Mar do Norte , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235015, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559229

RESUMO

Representatives of the marine dinophyte family Amphidomataceae produce lipophilic phycotoxins called azaspiracids (AZA) which may cause azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (AZP) in humans after consumption of contaminated seafood. Three of the four known toxigenic species are observed frequently in the eastern North Atlantic. In 2018, a research survey was performed to strengthen knowledge on the distribution and abundance of toxigenic Amphidomataceae and their respective toxins in Irish coastal waters and in the North Sea. Species-specific quantification of the three toxigenic species (Azadinium spinosum, Azadinium poporum and Amphidoma languida) was based on recently developed qPCR assays, whose performance was successfully validated and tested with specificity tests and spike experiments. The multi-method approach of on-board live microscopy, qPCR assays and chemical AZA-analysis revealed the presence of Amphidomataceae in the North Atlantic including the three targeted toxigenic species and their respective AZA analogues (AZA-1, -2, -33, -38, -39). Azadinium spinosum was detected at the majority of Irish stations with a peak density of 8.3 x 104 cells L-1 and AZA (AZA-1, -2, -33) abundances up to 1,274 pg L-1. Amphidoma languida was also present at most Irish stations but appeared in highest abundance in a bloom at a central North Sea station with a density of 1.2 x 105 cells L-1 and an AZA (AZA-38, -39) abundances of 618 pg L-1. Azadinium poporum was detected sporadically at the Irish south coast and North Sea and was rather low in abundance during this study. The results confirmed the wide distribution and frequent occurrence of the target species in the North Atlantic area and revealed, for the first time, bloom abundances of toxigenic Amphidomataceae in this area. This emphasizes the importance of future studies and monitoring of amphidomatacean species and their respective AZA analogues in the North Atlantic.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Compostos de Espiro/análise , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Toxinas Marinhas/metabolismo , Mar do Norte , Água do Mar/química , Compostos de Espiro/metabolismo
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