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1.
Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech ; 87(1): 17-23, 2020.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131966

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a tried and tested method in treating knee joint instability which brings valuable results in an acceptable time frame. In the long-term follow-up, however, a higher risk of knee osteoarthritis development is described. One of the possible reasons is considered to be the abnormal kinematics of the operated knee. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which the ACL reconstruction helps restore the correct gait cycle compared to the healthy limb. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included patients after the ACL reconstruction performed in the period from 1 January 2016 to 31 March 2018. With the use of strict criteria, 11 patients were selected for kinematic analysis, who underwent examinations in a gait laboratory and were also evaluated using the Tegner and Lysholm rating systems and the IKDC (International Knee Documentation Committee) knee score, namely preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The kinematic assessment of gait was carried out using the Vicon MX system with the placement of reflexive markers in line with the Plug-In Gait model. RESULTS The clinical outcomes (namely the score according to Tegner, Lysholm as well as the IKDC) during the first year postoperatively showed a major improvement in knee function and the achievement of the pre-injury activity level. The kinematic analysis revealed lower knee extension at the stance phase and lower overall range of motion of the limb with the injured ACL compared to the healthy limb. The follow-up evaluation at 6 and 12 months postoperatively showed a persisting between-limbs difference in knee extension, whereas the range of motion gradually improved during the year. CONCLUSIONS Although our study confirmed that the ACL reconstruction is an efficient method to treat knee joint instability, it also indicated that even at one year after the ACL reconstruction, the kinematics of the operated knee was not fully restored to the level of the heathy knee. The persisting limb-difference in gait kinematics could contribute to the gradual development of degenerative changes in the operated knee joint. Key words: anterior cruciate ligament deficiency, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, knee kinematics during gait, knee osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Articulação do Joelho , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Seguimentos , Marcha , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 268: 45-59, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141878

RESUMO

Accurate assessment of postural balance is necessary to identify and measure falls risk, inform clinical practice, determine efficacy of treatment and ultimately falls prevention. The aim of this scoping review was to identify gaps and inform practice, research and policy. There are a multitude of technologies available for assessing balance and no one that meets the requirements of every situation. Force plates had provided the gold standard technology for measuring centre of pressure variables as the cornerstone of balance assessment. Inertial measurements units are now considered as valid and reliable, however inertial sensors in smartphone require further refinement to measure with the same degree of accuracy. Fusion systems combine wearable and non-wearable technology in formal gait labs but also gaming. The flexibility provided choice of wearable, non-wearable and fusion systems meets most clinical and research requirements.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Postural , Smartphone , Acidentes por Quedas , Marcha , Humanos
3.
J Frailty Aging ; 9(1): 23-29, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stride-to-stride fluctuations, or gait variability, can be captured easily using body worn inertial sensors. Previously, sensor-measured gait variability has been found to be associated with fall risk and central nervous changes. However, further research is needed to clarify the clinical relevance of this method. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we look at how gait variability is associated with muscle strength, measured two years earlier. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This is study of longitudinal associations. Participants were community-dwelling volunteers between 70-81 years. MEASUREMENTS: Participants were tested while walking with a single sensor at their lower back, and they walked back and forth over a distance of 6.5 meters under four conditions: at preferred speed, at fast speed, with an added cognitive task, and while walking across an uneven surface. Gait variability in the anteroposterior (AP), mediolateral (ML) and vertical (V) directions was identified. A muscle strength score was composed by transforming hand grip strength, isometric knee extension strength and the 30 second chair rise-test to z-scores and adding them. RESULTS: 56 individuals were analysed (mean age at baseline 75.8 (SD 3.43), 60 percent women). In a backwards regression method using age, gender and baseline walking speed as covariates, muscle strength predicted gait variability after two years for AP variability during preferred speed (Beta= .314, p=.025) and uneven surface walking (Beta=.326, p=.018). Further, muscle strength was associated with ML variability during preferred speed (Beta=.364, p=.048) and fast speed (Beta=.419, p=.042), and V variability during preferred speed (Beta=.402, p=.002), fast speed (Beta=.394, p=.004) and uneven surface walking (Beta=.369, p=.004). CONCLUSIONS: Sensor-measured gait variability tended to be associated with muscle strength measured two years earlier. This finding could emphasize the relevance of this relatively novel measure of gait in older adults for both research and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Marcha/fisiologia , Força Muscular , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(3): 320-322, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187939

RESUMO

From November to December of 2018, twenty 65-year-old or older women patients with knee osteoarthritis were recruited from the Department of Physical Therapy, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University. Meanwhile, twenty healthy 65-year-old or older women were recruited from the local community. The results showed that the knee contact angle of the patient group was more flexed (P=0.040), and the minimum angle of the knee joint increased (P=0.008) during the stance period compared to the healthy group. However, there was no significant difference in the maximum contact angle between the angle of hip and ankle joints. In addition, the tibialis anterior muscle of the patients was significantly smaller than the healthy group (P=0.023). Therefore, knee osteoarthritis could change the gait and muscle activity of older women, especially the knee joint.


Assuntos
Marcha , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia
5.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(3): 207-212, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008288

RESUMO

Objective: To find more objective evidence and support for clinical classification of Parkinson's disease by means of tremor analysis in patients with early confirmed Parkinson's disease. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect 65 patients with early Parkinson's disease treated in the Third Hospital of Peking University from January 2015 to December 2016. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hoehn-Yahr scale (H-Y scale), Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) were recorded in all patients. According to the ratio of UPDRS rigidity score to tremor score, the patients were divided into tremor dominant (TD), postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD) and mixed types. All patients were examined by tremor analysis and the results were analyzed and compared. Results: Among the 65 patients, the mean age of onset was (63±10) years, the course of disease was (14±8) months. Twenty-one patients were classified to TD group, 28 patients were classified to PIGD type, and 16 patients with mixed type. There was no significant difference in frequency and amplitude of tremor between the three groups (P>0.05), but the proportion of alternating contraction and harmonic resonance of active and antagonistic muscles in TD group was significantly higher (P<0.05). Twenty patients (71.4%) in TD group showed typical Parkinson's disease manifestations in tremor analysis. Only four patients (14.3%) in PIGD group showed the typical manifestations. More patients in PIGD group showed no clear main peak of tremor at rest. Some patients showed 6-8 Hz/sec peak frequency in posture position and simultaneous contraction of the active and antagonist muscles. These two manifestations occured simultaneously in mixed type patients, including 10 cases (62.5%) with typical Parkinson's disease manifestations. Conclusion: As an objective electrophysiological method to evaluate tremor type, tremor analysis can be used as an important assistant method for clinical classification of Parkinson's disease. It can provide information of the pathway of pathological loss in different types and give important hints in prognosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/classificação , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Tremor/fisiopatologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Marcha , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Tremor/etiologia
7.
J Sports Sci ; 38(5): 542-551, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924128

RESUMO

Males and females demonstrate unique running mechanics that may contribute to sex-related differences in common running related injuries. Understanding differences in muscle forces during running may inform intervention approaches, such as gait retraining addressing muscle force distribution. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle force characteristics and inter-trial variability between males and females during running. Twenty female and 14 male collegiate cross-country runners were examined. Three-dimensional kinetic and kinematic data were collected during overground running and used to estimate muscle forces via musculoskeletal modelling. Principle components analysis was used to capture the primary sources of variance from the muscle force waveforms. The magnitude of the forces for the hamstrings, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles were higher across the majority of stance in male runners regardless of footstrike pattern. Males also demonstrated greater inter-trial variability in the timing of the peak gluteus maximus force and the magnitude of local peaks in the gastrocnemius force waveform. Male and female collegiate cross-country runners appear to employ unique lower extremity muscle force characteristics during overground running.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Músculos Isquiotibiais/fisiologia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 910-916, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926523

RESUMO

Assessment of pododermatitis, osteoarthritis, and other causes of lameness in penguins can be challenging. Subjective gait analysis using visual observation and response to analgesic therapy can be affected by observer variation and caregiver placebo bias. A pressure-sensitive walkway (PSW), however, allows for objective gait analysis and assessment of analgesic therapeutic response. In this study, a 3-m-long PSW was used to analyze gait in 21 adult Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti). Medical record reviews and comprehensive examinations were performed on all penguins; five penguins were considered abnormal, with either right-sided (n = 3) or bilateral historical lameness-causing disease (n = 2) and were analyzed separately from the normal data set. All penguins walked across the PSW four times and gait parameters (step and stride distances and velocities, maximum force, impulse, and peak pressure) were calculated for each foot in each penguin. Statistical comparisons were made between right and left feet, sexes, and normal and abnormal penguins for each gait parameter. Among normal penguins, there were no significant differences between feet or sex. Left step width was shorter in abnormal penguins than that of normal penguins. Study results established baseline values for Humboldt penguins. This will allow objective monitoring of progression and response to therapy in penguin lameness cases, both current and future. The data also provide a foundation to compare gait parameters with other penguin populations and species.


Assuntos
Análise da Marcha/veterinária , Marcha , Spheniscidae/fisiologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Análise da Marcha/instrumentação , Análise da Marcha/métodos , Masculino
9.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(3): 161-167, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902130

RESUMO

Aerobic performance is negatively impacted by tropical climate due to impairment of thermoregulatory mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that a torso application of a 4% menthol solution would have the same effect on a best performance 10-km run as an external use of cold water. Thirteen trained male athletes completed four outdoor 10-km runs (T=29.0±1.3°C, relative humidity 59.0±13.6%) wearing a tee-shirt soaked every 2-km either in a cold (~6°C) or warm/ambient (~28°C) solution, consisting in water or in a 4% menthol solution, (CTL, MENT-Amb, CLD and MENT-CLD). Run performances were improved from 4.8 to 6.1% in CLD (51.4±5.5 min), MENT-Amb (52.2±5.9 min) and MENT-CLD (51.4±5.1 min) conditions (vs. CTL, 55.4±8.4 min, P<0.05), without differences between these three conditions, whereas heart rate (177±13bpm), body temperature (38.7±0.6°C) and drink ingestion (356±170 g) were not modified. Thermal sensation after running was lower in MENT-CLD (vs. CTL, P<0.01) and thermal acceptability was higher in CLD and MENT-Amb (vs. CTL, P<0.05), but thermal comfort, feeling scale and rate of perceived exertion remained unchanged. The use of menthol on skin enhances aerobic performance in a tropical climate, and no differences in performance were observed between menthol and traditional percooling strategies. However, combining both menthol and traditional percooling brought no further improvements.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Umidade , Mentol/administração & dosagem , Corrida/fisiologia , Clima Tropical , Administração Cutânea , Adulto , Ingestão de Líquidos , Marcha/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1251: 29-38, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933146

RESUMO

A mutual link between somatic and visceral neural pathways is known in medicine. This study addresses therapeutic effectiveness of an integrated rehabilitative approach of thermal aquatic environment, combined with neuromuscular manual stimulation, on activation of afferent sensory visceral and somatic efferent neuronal motor pathways in different pathologies of neuromuscular motor and respiratory systems. The study included 63 patients subjected to a protocol consisting of hydroponic treatment, hydrokinesitherapy associated with ozonized vascular pathway, and mud therapy associated with cardiorespiratory treatment performed in aquatic environment and aided by neuromuscular manual therapy. The therapeutic protocol consisted of rehabilitation sessions 5 days a week for 2 months. The outcome measures were spirometry tests and the following evaluation instruments: Tinetti Gait and Balance assessment scale, Functional Independence Measurement, visual analogue scale, and the EQ-5D-5 L instrument. The tests were applied before and after the protocol completion. The findings demonstrate a general increase in patients' everyday living autonomy and quality of life, with a particular improvement in respiratory function tests. We conclude that the integrated thermal approach holds promise in therapeutic rehabilitation of disabilities.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Testes de Função Respiratória , Resultado do Tratamento , Escala Visual Analógica
13.
J Sports Sci ; 38(5): 518-527, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900052

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of slope on three-dimensional running kinematics at high speed. Thirteen male sprinters ran at high speed (7.5 m/s) on a motorised treadmill in each a level and a 5.0% slope condition. Three-dimensional motion analysis was conducted to compare centre of mass (CoM) energetics, pelvis segment and lower limb joints kinematics. We found that contact time was not affected by the slope, whereas flight time and step length were significantly shorter in uphill compared to level running. Uphill running reduced negative CoM work and increased positive CoM work compared to level running. Ankle, knee and hip joints were more flexed at initial ground contact, but only the knee was more extended at the end of stance in uphill compared to level running. Additionally, the hip joint was more abducted, and the free leg side of the pelvis was more elevated at the end of stance in uphill running. Our results demonstrate that joint motion must be developed from a more flexed/adducted position at initial contact through a greater range of motion compared to level running in order to meet the greater positive CoM work requirements in uphill running at high speed.


Assuntos
Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Marcadores Fiduciais , Marcha , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 214-230, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795815

RESUMO

Injuries and lack of motivation are common reasons for discontinuation of running. Real-time feedback from wearables can reduce discontinuation by reducing injury risk and improving performance and motivation. There are however several limitations and challenges with current real-time feedback approaches. We discuss these limitations and challenges and provide a framework to optimise real-time feedback for reducing injury risk and improving performance and motivation. We first discuss the reasons why individuals run and propose that feedback targeted to these reasons can improve motivation and compliance. Secondly, we review the association of running technique and running workload with injuries and performance and we elaborate how real-time feedback on running technique and workload can be applied to reduce injury risk and improve performance and motivation. We also review different feedback modalities and motor learning feedback strategies and their application to real-time feedback. Briefly, the most effective feedback modality and frequency differ between variables and individuals, but a combination of modalities and mixture of real-time and delayed feedback is most effective. Moreover, feedback promoting perceived competence, autonomy and an external focus can improve motivation, learning and performance. Although the focus is on wearables, the challenges and practical applications are also relevant for laboratory-based gait retraining.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Retroalimentação , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Motivação , Corrida/fisiologia , Corrida/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Percepção , Corrida/lesões
15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(2): 104500, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of falls can be as high as 73% in the stroke population. Falls occur as a result of multiple factors. Factors such as balance impairments can be improved through physical therapy intervention. However, insurance payers limit the number of visits per patient. It is crucial to find other ways to assess balance after discharge from rehabilitation. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine if the Nintendo Wii Fit can be used as a fall risk assessment tool among the poststroke population. METHODOLOGY: A sample of 11 stroke survivors were recruited (mean age 63.36 years). Each participant completed a balance and fall risk assessment using the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up & Go, Four Square Step Test, Five Times Sit-to-Stand and 8-Foot Walk Test. Bivariate correlation will examine the validity of the Nintendo Wii Fit as a fall risk assessment tool in this population. RESULTS: The Nintendo Wii Fit Balance Test was found to be correlated with gait speed measured by the 8-Foot Walk Test. There is no correlation between the Wii Fit Balance Tests and most common standardized fall risk measures. Standardized fall risk outcome measures also significantly correlate with each other. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that while there is a potential utility of the game system to be used at home by patient and caregivers, the Wii Fit Balance Test may not be an appropriate substitute to the standardized fall risk assessment tool for stroke patients in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Marcha , Exame Físico/instrumentação , Equilíbrio Postural , Transtornos das Sensações/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Jogos de Vídeo , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos das Sensações/etiologia , Transtornos das Sensações/fisiopatologia , Transtornos das Sensações/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 638-648, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677832

RESUMO

The reliability of locomotion scoring is often low, making it unclear how a single gait score should be interpreted. In addition, differences in assessment frequency between longitudinal studies makes it hard to compare results. Our aims were to evaluate how lameness definition and assessment frequency affect measures of lameness incidence. Six dairy farms in British Columbia, Canada, were enrolled, and 262 cows that were sound at dry-off had their locomotion score (LS) assessed weekly from dry-off to calving, using a 1 to 5 scale. Cows were categorized as remaining sound or becoming lame using 3 different case definitions (LAME1: ≥LS3 at least once; LAME2: ≥2 consecutive scores of LS3, or ≥LS4 at least once; and LAME3: ≥3 consecutive scores of LS3, or ≥LS4 at least once). We analyzed the correspondence between the 3 definitions with percent agreement and weighted κ (linear and quadratic weighting). Comparing LAME1 to LAME3 resulted in lower percent agreement (53%) and κ values (linear κw = 0.50; quadratic κw = 0.64) than comparing LAME2 and LAME3 (85%; linear κw = 0.83; quadratic κw = 0.89), indicating that cows scored LS3 twice were likely to be scored LS3 a third time. We also compared the 3 case definitions against trim records from trimmings occurring 90 d or less before calving (n = 117), and used logistic regression models to determine sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value. Using the LAME1 criterion resulted in high sensitivity (horn lesions = 0.90; infectious lesions = 0.92) and low specificity (horn = 0.21; infectious = 0.24). We observed higher specificity for LAME2 (horn = 0.62; infectious = 0.66) and LAME3 (horn = 0.71; infectious = 0.77), but LAME2 had higher sensitivity than LAME3 (horn = 0.89 vs. 0.64; infectious = 0.69 vs. 0.64). When evaluating the effects of assessment frequency, we obtained 3 data sets by keeping every, every other, and every third locomotion assessment, and using LAME2 as a case definition. More cows were categorized as lame when assessment frequency increased. Of the cows that were classified as lame when assessed weekly, 72% of the mildly lame, and 33% of the severely lame were classified as sound when assessed every third week. Our results suggest that a single LS3 score should not be used as a criterion for lameness in longitudinal studies. To correctly identify new cases of lameness, dairy cows should be assessed at least every 2 wk.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/classificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Marcha , Incidência , Coxeadura Animal/classificação , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico , Modelos Logísticos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 649-665, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704020

RESUMO

In this longitudinal study, we tested the hypothesis that cows that are lame around dry-off are at increased risk of transition diseases (TD), including metritis, subclinical ketosis (SCK), retained fetal membranes, hypocalcemia, or displaced abomasum. We also hypothesized that the relationship between lameness and TD would be mediated through reduced feeding time. We enrolled 461 cows at 9 wk before their expected calving date on 6 commercial freestall farms in the lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada. Cows were gait-scored weekly using a scale of 1 to 5. Lameness status was classified based on consecutive gait scores as lame (2 consecutive gait scores = 3 or 1 score ≥4) or sound (2 consecutive gait scores ≤2). Lameness status was summarized as (1) lameness at dry-off (sound or lame); (2) lameness group (always sound = sound on all visits, chronically lame = lame on all visits, and other = changed from sound to lame or vice versa); and (3) proportion of weeks lame during the dry period. Body condition scores were recorded at dry-off and at calving and collectively used to calculate change in body condition for each cow. A subsample of cows (n = 159) was evaluated for feeding time once a week during the dry period. All cows were evaluated for SCK (positive = ß-hydroxybutyrate ≥1.2 mmol/L) and metritis (positive = foul smell, red/brown watery vaginal discharge) every 3 to 4 d between d 3 and 17 after calving. We retrieved data on treatment of retained fetal membranes, hypocalcemia, and displaced abomasum during the first 17 d after calving, cow parity, and milk production in the previous lactation from farm records. We created a binary variable, TD (any of SCK, metritis, retained fetal membranes, hypocalcemia, or displaced abomasum), to differentiate between healthy cows and cows that developed TD. Lameness at dry-off was associated with the occurrence of metritis and TD, but not with SCK. Cows that were chronically lame and cows that had an increased proportion of weeks lame during the dry period had higher occurrence of metritis and TD. Lameness was also associated with reduced feeding time, which in turn was associated with increased likelihood of SCK and TD, but not with metritis. Lameness was not associated with change in body condition; however, cows that lost body condition score during the dry period had increased odds of developing SCK, metritis, and TD. Change in body condition was highly associated with body condition score at dry-off. These results suggest that association between lameness and TD is partially mediated through reduced feeding time.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendas , Feminino , Marcha , Nível de Saúde , Cetose/etiologia , Cetose/veterinária , Lactação , Estudos Longitudinais , Paridade , Placenta Retida/veterinária , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
18.
Sports Biomech ; 19(1): 120-140, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456487

RESUMO

Dynamic stability of locomotion plays an important role in running injuries, particularly during trail running where ankle injuries occur frequently. Several studies have investigated dynamic stability of locomotion using wearable accelerometer measurements. However, no study has reviewed how dynamic stability of locomotion is quantified using accelerometry. Therefore, the present review aims to synthetise the methods and findings of studies investigating stability related parameters measured by accelerometry, during locomotion on various surfaces, and among asymptomatic participants. A systematic search of studies associated with locomotion was conducted. Only studies including assessment of dynamic stability parameters based on accelerometry, including at least one group of asymptomatic participants, and conditions that occur during trail running were considered relevant for this review. Consequently, all retrieved studies used a non-obstructive portable accelerometer or an inertial measurement unit. Fifteen studies used a single tri-axial accelerometer placed above the lumbar region allowing outdoor recordings. From trunk accelerations, a combination of index of cycle repeatability and signal dispersion can adequately be used to assess dynamic stability. However, as most studies included indoor conditions, studies addressing the biomechanics of trail running in outdoor conditions are warranted.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Corrida/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Meio Ambiente , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Corrida/lesões , Caminhada/lesões
19.
Gait Posture ; 75: 1-7, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coordination is the ability to assemble and maintain appropriate relations between joints. Investigating limb coordination in curve-turning (CT) walking could provide insightful information about the coordinating strategies and neuro-musculoskeletal system (NMSS) control in human motion. RESEARCH QUESTION: Although preschoolers have already established an adult-like gait, how preschoolers perform their specific gait pattern when walking in CT and what coordination strategies they would choose during the turning process have not yet been systematically considered. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate preschoolers' coordination mechanism during asymmetric motion, in order to understand the development of their NMSS control in locomotion. METHODS: Kinematics data in the lower and upper limbs of 45 healthy preschoolers walking with the curve-turning task was measured by the Coda Motion System. The Continuous Relative Phase (CRP) angle and the variability between the knee and ankle, hip and knee, as well as the thorax-humerus joint (THJ) and elbow were calculated. RESULTS: The outcome demonstrates that as the curve angles increased, the stride length and Froude number of preschoolers significantly decreased (p < 0.05 for all); meanwhile, a more out of phase coordination pattern in CRP and an increase in VCRP values were found. Group analysis showed that the significant differences in CRP and VCRP between preschoolers and adults increased with curve angles in all coupled joints - the highest in that of the Knee-Ankle coupling, followed by those of the Hip-Knee and THJ-Elbow. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that to achieve curve-turning, preschoolers first chose to modify their STP, then to adjust coordination for coupling-joints in the Knee-Ankle, Hip-Knee, and THJ-Elbow systems. Additionally, preschoolers are still in a gait fine-tuning period and their NMSS control of motion is not as precise as that of adults.


Assuntos
Marcha/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Articulação do Tornozelo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Gait Posture ; 75: 14-21, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately one-third of falls are caused by the swing foot contacting an object or the ground, resulting in a trip. The increased incidence of trip-related falls among older adults may be explained by greater within-person minimum toe clearance (MTC) variability. RESEARCH QUESTION: Will kinematic variability at any of the 6 major joints in the lower limbs, individually or in combination, be associated with MTC variability? METHODS: This cross-sectional study investigated whether single or multiple joint movements best explained MTC variability in older adults. Twenty healthy older adults (7 males, 13 females; mean age = 71.3 ±â€¯7.2 years) were recruited. Participants were fitted with a modified Cleveland Clinic marker set and walked for 50 trials at self-selected speeds over a 7-meter walkway (with a rest at 25 trials) while 6 infrared cameras recorded kinematics. RESULTS: Seven joint movements were evaluated, and swing hip flexion-extension variability was the only joint movement significantly associated with MTC variability (r = 0.577, p = 0.008) and explained 29.6% (adjusted R2) of the variance of MTC variability in older adults (F (1, 18) = 8.897, p = 0.008). SIGNIFICANCE: Identifying the joint movement/s associated with inconsistencies in toe clearance will improve our understanding of endpoint control in older adults and may lead to the development of effective trip prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Marcha/fisiologia , Dedos do Pé/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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