Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 14.064
Filtrar
1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(18)2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899946

RESUMO

Gait deterioration caused by prolonged walking represents one of the main consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aims at proposing quantitative indices to measure the gait deterioration effects. The experimental protocol consisted in a 6-min walking test and it involved nine patients with MS and twenty-six healthy subjects. Pathology severity was assessed through the Expanded Disability Status Scale. Seven inertial units were used to gather lower limb kinematics. Gait variability and asymmetry were assessed by coefficient of variation (CoV) and symmetry index (SI), respectively. The evolution of ROM (range of motion), CoV, and SI was computed analyzing data divided into six 60-s subgroups. Maximum difference among subgroups and the difference between the first minute and the remaining five were computed. The indices were analyzed for intra- and inter-day reliability and repeatability. Correlation with clinical scores was also evaluated. Good to excellent reliability was found for all indices. The computed standard deviations allowed us to affirm the good repeatability of the indices. The outcomes suggested walking-related fatigue leads to an always more variable kinematics in MS, in terms of changes in ROM, increase of variability and asymmetry. The hip asymmetry strongly correlated with the clinical disability.


Assuntos
Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/diagnóstico , Marcha/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Avaliação da Deficiência , Progressão da Doença , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Tempo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0231996, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857774

RESUMO

Lower-limb wearable robotic devices can improve clinical gait and reduce energetic demand in healthy populations. To help enable real-world use, we sought to examine how assistance should be applied in variable gait conditions and suggest an approach derived from knowledge of human locomotion mechanics to establish a 'roadmap' for wearable robot design. We characterized the changes in joint mechanics during walking and running across a range of incline/decline grades and then provide an analysis that informs the development of lower-limb exoskeletons capable of operating across a range of mechanical demands. We hypothesized that the distribution of limb-joint positive mechanical power would shift to the hip for incline walking and running and that the distribution of limb-joint negative mechanical power would shift to the knee for decline walking and running. Eight subjects (6M,2F) completed five walking (1.25 m s-1) trials at -8.53°, -5.71°, 0°, 5.71°, and 8.53° grade and five running (2.25 m s-1) trials at -5.71°, -2.86°, 0°, 2.86°, and 5.71° grade on a treadmill. We calculated time-varying joint moment and power output for the ankle, knee, and hip. For each gait, we examined how individual limb-joints contributed to total limb positive, negative and net power across grades. For both walking and running, changes in grade caused a redistribution of joint mechanical power generation and absorption. From level to incline walking, the ankle's contribution to limb positive power decreased from 44% on the level to 28% at 8.53° uphill grade (p < 0.0001) while the hip's contribution increased from 27% to 52% (p < 0.0001). In running, regardless of the surface gradient, the ankle was consistently the dominant source of lower-limb positive mechanical power (47-55%). In the context of our results, we outline three distinct use-modes that could be emphasized in future lower-limb exoskeleton designs 1) Energy injection: adding positive work into the gait cycle, 2) Energy extraction: removing negative work from the gait cycle, and 3) Energy transfer: extracting energy in one gait phase and then injecting it in another phase (i.e., regenerative braking).


Assuntos
Análise da Marcha/métodos , Marcha/fisiologia , Robótica/instrumentação , Adulto , Tornozelo/fisiologia , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Exoesqueleto Energizado/tendências , Feminino , Quadril/fisiologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Locomoção , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4054, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792511

RESUMO

Many neurological and musculoskeletal diseases impair movement, which limits people's function and social participation. Quantitative assessment of motion is critical to medical decision-making but is currently possible only with expensive motion capture systems and highly trained personnel. Here, we present a method for predicting clinically relevant motion parameters from an ordinary video of a patient. Our machine learning models predict parameters include walking speed (r = 0.73), cadence (r = 0.79), knee flexion angle at maximum extension (r = 0.83), and Gait Deviation Index (GDI), a comprehensive metric of gait impairment (r = 0.75). These correlation values approach the theoretical limits for accuracy imposed by natural variability in these metrics within our patient population. Our methods for quantifying gait pathology with commodity cameras increase access to quantitative motion analysis in clinics and at home and enable researchers to conduct large-scale studies of neurological and musculoskeletal disorders.


Assuntos
Marcha/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Redes Neurais de Computação , Caminhada/fisiologia
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1933): 20200431, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811308

RESUMO

Ground contact duration and stride frequency each affect muscle metabolism and help scientists link walking and running biomechanics to metabolic energy expenditure. While these parameters are often used independently, the product of ground contact duration and stride frequency (i.e. duty factor) may affect muscle contractile mechanics. Here, we sought to separate the metabolic influence of the duration of active force production, cycle frequency and duty factor. Human participants produced cyclic contractions using their soleus (which has a relatively homogeneous fibre type composition) at prescribed cycle-average ankle moments on a fixed dynamometer. Participants produced these ankle moments over short, medium and long durations while maintaining a constant cycle frequency. Overall, decreased duty factor did not affect cycle-average fascicle force (p ≥ 0.252) but did increase net metabolic power (p ≤ 0.022). Mechanistically, smaller duty factors increased maximum muscle-tendon force (p < 0.001), further stretching in-series tendons and shifting soleus fascicles to shorter lengths and faster velocities, thereby increasing soleus total active muscle volume (p < 0.001). Participant soleus total active muscle volume well-explained net metabolic power (r = 0.845; p < 0.001). Therefore, cyclically producing the same cycle-average muscle-tendon force using a decreased duty factor increases metabolic energy expenditure by eliciting less economical muscle contractile mechanics.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Tendões/fisiologia , Adulto , Tornozelo/fisiologia , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia
5.
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 42(4): 218-223, jul.-ago. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193509

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVO: La amputación de miembros inferiores genera ajustes en los sistemas somato sensorial y musculoesquelético modificando la manera como se mantiene la estabilidad, parámetro sensible y clínicamente relevante en la evaluación clínica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar las características de la estabilidad en personas con amputación transtibial unilateral (ATU) en fase posprotésica. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo de serie de casos que incluyó 5 varones con ATU con marcha independiente y que no usaran dispositivos de asistencia. Se evaluó la estabilidad estática y dinámica con ojos abiertos (OA) y ojos cerrados (OC). RESULTADOS: La estabilometría estática mostró una superficie de elipse de baricentro corporal mayor con OC y en el miembro inferior sano (MIS) respecto al miembro inferior protetizado (MIP), la media del índice de Romberg se ubicó en el rango de referencia; la estabilometría dinámica mostró límites de estabilidad menores en sentido anterior y hacia el MIS, y aún más reducidos con OC. CONCLUSIÓN: Las personas con ATU tienden a generar mayor apoyo y oscilaciones en el MIS y menores límites de estabilidad en el MIP para mantener el control de la estabilidad estática y dinámica


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The amputation of lower limbs leads to adjustments in somatosensory and musculoskeletal systems to modify the way that stability is maintained. This is a sensitive and relevant parameter within clinical evaluation. The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of stability in patients with a unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA) in the post-prosthetic phase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive study of a case series including five men with TTA and an independent gait, and who did not use assistive devices. Static and dynamic stability was evaluated with open eyes (OE) and closed eyes (CE). RESULTS: Static stabilometry displayed a greater elliptical surface area of body centre of gravity with CE and in the Healthy Lower Limb (HLL) compared to the Prosthetic Lower Limb (PLL). The mean Romberg ratio (EC/EO) was within the reference range. Dynamic stabilometry showed lower limits of stability in the anterior direction and towards the HLL, and even more reduced stability with CE. CONCLUSION: People with TTA tend to generate more support and oscillations in the HLL and lower stability limits in the PLL to maintain static and dynamic stability control


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amputação/métodos , Amputação/reabilitação , Cotos de Amputação , Amputados , Desenho de Prótese , Membros Artificiais , Marcha/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238247, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853239

RESUMO

Switching different gait according to different movements is an important direction in the study of exoskeleton robot. Identifying the movement intention of the wearer to control the gait planning of the exoskeleton robot can effectively improve the man-machine interaction experience after the exoskeleton. This paper uses a support vector machine (SVM) to realize wearer's motion posture recognition by collecting sEMG signals on the human surface. The moving gait of the exoskeleton is planned according to the recognition results, and the decoding intention signal controls gait switching. Meanwhile, the stability of the planned gait during the movement was analyzed. Experimental results show that the sEMG signal decoding human motion intentional, and control exoskeleton robot gait switching has good accuracy and real-time performance. It helps patients to complete rehabilitation training more safely and quickly.


Assuntos
Marcha/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Eletromiografia/métodos , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Movimento/fisiologia , Robótica/métodos , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237636, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813715

RESUMO

We report the discovery of two very early, basal-amniote fossil trackways on the same bedding plane in eolian sandstone of the Pennsylvanian Manakacha Formation in Grand Canyon, Arizona. Trackway 1, which is Chelichnus-like, we interpret to be a shallow undertrackway. It displays a distinctive, sideways-drifting, footprint pattern not previously documented in a tetrapod trackway. We interpret this pattern to record the trackmaker employing a lateral-sequence gait while diagonally ascending a slope of about 20°, thereby reducing the steepness of the ascent. Trackway 2 consists only of aligned sets of claw marks. We interpret this trackway to be a deeper undertrackway, made some hours or days later, possibly by an animal that was conspecific with Trackmaker 1, while walking directly up the slope at a speed of approximately 0.1 m/sec. These trackways are the first tetrapod tracks reported from the Manakacha Formation and the oldest in the Grand Canyon region. The narrow width of both trackways indicates that both trackmakers had relatively small femoral abduction angles and correspondingly relatively erect postures. They represent the earliest known occurrence of dunefield-dwelling amniotes-either basal reptiles or basal synapsids-thereby extending the known utilization of the desert biome by amniotes, as well as the presence of the Chelichnus ichnofacies, by at least eight million years, into the Atokan/Moscovian Age of the Pennsylvanian Epoch. The depositional setting was a coastal-plain, eolian dunefield in which tidal or wadi flooding episodically interrupted eolian processes and buried the dunes in mud.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Marcha/fisiologia , Paleontologia/métodos , Vertebrados/fisiologia , Caminhada , Animais , Arizona , Meio Ambiente , Fósseis , Locomoção , Modelos Biológicos , Vertebrados/classificação
8.
J Sports Sci ; 38(17): 1936-1942, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731786

RESUMO

We performed a randomized, controlled trial to analyse the effects of resistance training (RT) on cognitive and physical function among older adults. Fifty participants (mean age 67 years, ~60% woman) were randomly assigned to an RT program or a control group. Participants allocated to RT performed three sets of 10-15RM in nine exercises, three times per week, for 12-weeks. Control group did not perform any exercise. Variables included cognitive (global and executive function) and physical function (gait, mobility and strength) outcomes. At completion of the intervention, RT was shown to have significantly mitigated the drop in selective attention and conflict resolution performance (Stroop test: -494.6; 95%CI: -883.1; -106.1) and promoted a significant improvement in working memory (digit span forward: -0.6; 95%CI: -1.0; -0.1 and forward minus backward: -0.9; 95% CI: -1.6; -0.2) and verbal fluency (animal naming: +1.4, 95%CI 0.3, 2.5). No significant between-group differences were observed for other cognitive outcomes. Regarding physical function, at completion of the intervention, the RT group demonstrated improved fast-pace gait performance (-0.3; 95% CI: -0.6; -0.0) and 1-RM (+21.4 kg; 95%CI: 16.6; 26.2). No significant between-group differences were observed for other mobility-related outcomes. In conclusion, RT improves cognitive and physical function of older adults.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Treinamento de Resistência , Idoso , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos
9.
Gerontology ; 66(4): 401-408, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between gait performance and cognitive impairment. The main purposes of this study were: (1) to design and validate a complex gait test (CGT) in older people, (2) to analyze the effects of age and sex on CGT, and (3) to analyze the association between CGT performance and physical functioning and cognitive measures. METHODS: A total of 279 older people (60-97 years) were analyzed in 2019. Fitness tests, gait performance, and several cognitive measures such asthe Trail-Walking Test and Montreal Cognitive Assessment were used. RESULTS: The CGT reported adequate reliability and validity parameters. In the test-retest analysis, the intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.868 (p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between the CGT and Trail-Walking Test (r = 0.592; p < 0.001). The linear regression analysis showed that the CGT was associated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (R2 = 0.357; p =0.001). The binary logistic regression analysis revealed that a high CGT score was a risk factor for mild cognitive impairment (odds ratio 1.201, 95% CI 1.081-1.334; p = 0.001). The ROC curve of the mild cognitive impairment was predicted by the CGT performance (area under the curve = 0.768, 95% CI 0.647-0.889; p < 0.001), reaching the cut-off point at 20.25 s. CONCLUSIONS: The CGT showed good reliability and validity and may serve as a potential biomarker in mild cognitive impairment prediction in older adults aged 60-97 years.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/normas , Marcha/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha , Caminhada/fisiologia
10.
J Sports Sci ; 38(20): 2382-2389, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600126

RESUMO

Elliptical trainers that increase the inter-pedal distance may have potential benefits for knee osteoarthritis by decreasing the amount of knee varus. Modifying elliptical trainers with a converging footpath and reduced inter-pedal distance may be beneficial for reducing anterior knee pathology risk by decreasing knee valgus angles. Twenty-one college students participated in a single testing session. Participants exercised on two different elliptical trainers, one modified with a converging footpath and reduced inter-pedal width, and a standard elliptical trainer. Participants exercised for 2 min at three ramps incline at 120 strides per minute and constant work rate. Three-dimensional kinematics and electromyography of the dominant lower limb were recorded. Multiple 2 × 3 (Elliptical x Incline) ANOVAs with Bonferroni corrections were used to compare the two elliptical trainers at each incline for kinematics and muscle activity. The modified elliptical trainer displayed significantly decreased peak knee valgus (p = 0.031, η p 2 = 0.234 ), peak knee flexion (p = 0.006, η p 2 = 0.246 ), and interactions for peak knee flexion (p = 0.001, η p 2 = 0.250 ) and vastus lateralis (p < 0.01, η p 2 = 0.380 ) muscle activity compared to the standard elliptical trainer. The decreased peak knee valgus and flexion angles could be beneficial for reducing long-term injury risk for anterior knee pathologies.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Equipamentos Esportivos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletromiografia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3282, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to know the relationship between the sensory function, gait ability, and cognitive function with dependency in older adults. METHOD: a descriptive cross-sectional design, 146 older adults took part. MEASUREMENTS: Snellen chart, Audiometer, Stereognosia tests, Semmes-Weinstein monofilament, basic aromas and flavors, GAITRite system, Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test, the Barthel Index, and the Lawton and Brody Index. RESULTS: sensory function, cognitive function and gait explain 25% dependence on basic activities of daily life and 21% dependence on instrumental activities of daily life. The variables that influence dependence on basic activities were taste (p=.029), gait speed (p=.009), cadence (p=.002) and step length (p=.001) and, in instrumental activities, gait speed (p=.049), cadence (p=.028) and step length (p=.010). CONCLUSION: gait speed, cadence and stride length are variables that influence both dependence on basic and instrumental activities of daily life.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Análise da Marcha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
12.
J Frailty Aging ; 9(3): 179-184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical frailty and impaired executive function of the brain show similar pathophysiology. Both of these factors lead to dysfunction of neuromuscular and abilities in elderly. High-speed power training (HSPT) has been determined to have positive effects on neuromuscular function and gait performance, as well as executive function in the elderly. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-week HSPT on neuromuscular, gait and executive functions in frail elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We performed a randomized controlled trial of frail elderly from community and medical center in republic of Korea. Forty-two physically frail elderly with MCI were randomly allocated to control (n=22, age=74.22±4.46) and intervention groups (n=18, age=73.77±4.64). The intervention group was subjected to HSPT, 3 times weekly for 8 weeks. MEASUREMENTS: Isometric contraction of knee extension and flexion with electromyography (EMG) was measured to determine the neuromuscular function such as knee extensor strength, rate of torque development, movement time, pre-motor time, motor time, rate of EMG rise, and hamstrings antagonist co-activation. Additionally, the 4.44-meter gait and timed up-and-go (TUG) test were administered to assess gait performance. A frontal assessment battery was measured in this study. RESULTS: The 8-week HSPT regimen improved the knee extensor strength from 1.13±0.08 to 1.25±0.07 (p<0.05), the 200-ms RTD from 3.01±0.3 to 3.55±0.24 (p<0.05) and the rate of EMG rise from 166.48±13.31 to 197.94±11.51 (p<0.05), whereas the movement time and motor time were statistically decreased from 921.69±40.10 to 799.51±72.84, and 271.40±19.29 to 181.15±38.08 (p<0.05), respectively. The 4.44-m gait speed and TUG significantly decreased from 6.39±0.25 to 5.5±0.24, and 11.05±0.53 to 9.17±0.43 respectively (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest the favorable effects of 8-week HSPT on the neuromuscular function and the gait performance in the frail elderly with MCI without increase in the executive function.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234200, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although gait speed is a widely used measure in older people, testing methods are highly variable. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the influence of testing procedures on resulting gait speed. METHODS: We followed the PRISMA checklist for this systematic review. Two independent reviewers screened Pubmed and Embase for publications on pairwise comparisons of testing procedures of usual gait speed. Descriptives were abstracted from the included publications using a predefined extraction tool by two independent reviewers. We defined the cut-off for the minimal clinically imporant diffence in gait speed as 0.1 m/sec. RESULTS: Of a total of 2109 records identified for screening, 29 reports on 53 pairwise comparisons were analyzed. The median (range) difference in gait speed for dynamic versus static start was 0.06 (-0.02 to 0.35) m/sec (14 reports); for longer versus shorter test distance 0.04 (-0.05 to 0.23) m/sec (14 reports); for automatic versus manual timing 0.00 (-0.05 to 0.07) m/sec (12 reports), for hard versus soft surfaces -0.11 (-0.18 to 0.08) m/sec (six reports), and electronic walkways versus usual walk test 0.04 (-0.08 to 0.14) m/sec (seven reports), respectively. No report compared the effect of finishing procedures. CONCLUSIONS: The type of starting procedure, the length of the test distance, and the surface of the walkway may have a clinically relevant impact on measured gait speed. Manual timing resulted in statistically significant differences of measured gait speed as compared to automatic timing, but was below the level of clinical importance. These results emphasize that it is key to use a strictly standardized method for obtaining a reliable and valid measurement of gait speed.


Assuntos
Marcha/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Humanos , Velocidade de Caminhada
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492029

RESUMO

Walking stability is achieved by adjusting the medio-lateral and anterior-posterior dimensions of the base of support (step length and step width, respectively) to contain an extrapolated center of mass. We aimed to calculate total recovery time after different types of perturbations during walking, and use it to compare young and older adults following different types of perturbations. Walking trials were performed in 12 young (age 26.92 ± 3.40 years) and 12 older (age 66.83 ± 1.60 years) adults. Perturbations were introduced at different phases of the gait cycle, on both legs and in anterior-posterior or medio-lateral directions, in random order. A novel algorithm was developed to determine total recovery time values for regaining stable step length and step width parameters following the different perturbations, and compared between the two participant groups under low and high cognitive load conditions, using principal component analysis (PCA). We analyzed 829 perturbations each for step length and step width. The algorithm successfully estimated total recovery time in 91.07% of the runs. PCA and statistical comparisons showed significant differences in step length and step width recovery times between anterior-posterior and medio-lateral perturbations, but no age-related differences. Initial analyses demonstrated the feasibility of comparisons based on total recovery time calculated using our algorithm.


Assuntos
Caminhada/fisiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Algoritmos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cognição , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Análise da Marcha/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Projetos Piloto , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Fatores de Tempo , Caminhada/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233266, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492034

RESUMO

For gait classification, hoof-on and hoof-off events are fundamental locomotion characteristics of interest. These events can be measured with inertial measurement units (IMUs) which measure the acceleration and angular velocity in three directions. The aim of this study was to present two algorithms for automatic detection of hoof-events from the acceleration and angular velocity signals measured by hoof-mounted IMUs in walk and trot on a hard surface. Seven Warmblood horses were equipped with two wireless IMUs, which were attached to the lateral wall of the right front (RF) and hind (RH) hooves. Horses were walked and trotted on a lead over a force plate for internal validation. The agreement between the algorithms for the acceleration and angular velocity signals with the force plate was evaluated by Bland Altman analysis and linear mixed model analysis. These analyses were performed for both hoof-on and hoof-off detection and for both algorithms separately. For the hoof-on detection, the angular velocity algorithm was the most accurate with an accuracy between 2.39 and 12.22 ms and a precision of around 13.80 ms, depending on gait and hoof. For hoof-off detection, the acceleration algorithm was the most accurate with an accuracy of 3.20 ms and precision of 6.39 ms, independent of gait and hoof. These algorithms look highly promising for gait classification purposes although the applicability of these algorithms should be investigated under different circumstances, such as different surfaces and different hoof trimming conditions.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Análise da Marcha/veterinária , Marcha/fisiologia , Cavalos/fisiologia , Aceleração , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Membro Anterior/fisiologia , Análise da Marcha/instrumentação , Análise da Marcha/estatística & dados numéricos , Membro Posterior/fisiologia , Casco e Garras/fisiologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/veterinária , Corrida/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Tecnologia sem Fio/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Phys Ther ; 100(9): 1568-1581, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Trunk training after stroke is an effective method for improving mobility, yet underlying associations leading to the observed mobility carryover effects are unknown. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of trunk training for gait and trunk kinematics and to find explanatory variables for the mobility carryover effects. METHODS: This study was an assessor-masked, randomized controlled trial. Participants received either additional trunk training (n = 19) or cognitive training (n = 20) after subacute stroke. Outcome measures were the Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA), the Trunk Impairment Scale, spatiotemporal gait parameters, center-of-mass excursions, and trunk and lower limb kinematics during walking. Multivariate analysis with post hoc analysis was performed to observe treatment effects. Correlation and an exploratory regression analysis were used to examine associations with the mobility carryover effects. RESULTS: Significant improvements after trunk training, compared with the findings for the control group, were found for the Trunk Impairment Scale, Tinetti POMA, walking speed, step length, step width, horizontal/vertical center-of-mass excursions, and trunk kinematics. No significant differences were observed in lower limb kinematics. Anteroposterior excursions of the trunk were associated with 30% of the variability in the mobility carryover effects. CONCLUSIONS: Carryover effects of trunk control were present during ambulation. Decreased anteroposterior movements of the thorax were the main variable explaining higher scores on the Tinetti POMA Gait subscale. However, the implementation and generalizability of this treatment approach in a clinical setting are laborious and limited, necessitating further research. IMPACT: Trunk training is an effective strategy for improving mobility after stroke. Regaining trunk control should be considered an important treatment goal early after stroke to adequately prepare patients for walking.


Assuntos
Marcha/fisiologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Tronco/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Método Simples-Cego , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
17.
J Rehabil Med ; 52(7): jrm00078, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the changes in gait parameters in adults with hemiparesis using a rolling cane (quadripod cane with small wheels; Wheeleo®) compared with a classical quadripod cane. DESIGN: A prospective, multicentric, cross-over randomized trial. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two ambulatory adults with hemiparesis. METHODS: Participants were assessed using a quadripod cane and a rolling cane. Outcome measures were changes in: walking speed during a 10-m walk test and a 6-min walk test; frequency of 2-step gait; physiological cost index; number of therapist interventions to control the balance; perceived exertion; and participant satisfaction. RESULTS: The following outcomes were improved with the use of a rolling cane: walking speed during a 10-m walk test at comfortable (+22%: p<0.001) and maximal (+30: p<0.001) speeds; walking speed (+50%: p<0.001) and distance (+49%: p

Assuntos
Bengala/provisão & distribução , Marcha/fisiologia , Paresia/complicações , Paresia/reabilitação , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232246, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353030

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Observational gait analysis is a widely used skill in physical therapy. Meanwhile, the skill has not been investigated using objective assessments. The present study investigated the differences in eye movement between professionals and trainees, while observing gait analysis. METHODS: The participants included in this study were 26 professional physical therapists and 26 physical therapist trainees. The participants, wearing eye tracker systems, were asked to describe gait abnormalities of a patient as much as possible. The eye movement parameters of interest were fixation count, average fixation duration, and total fixation duration. RESULTS: The number of gait abnormalities described was significantly higher in professionals than in trainees, overall and in limbs of the patient. The fixation count was significantly higher in professionals when compared to trainees. Additionally, the average fixation duration and total fixation duration were significantly shorter in professionals. Conversely, in trunks, the number of gait abnormalities and eye movements showed no significant differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Professionals require shorter fixation durations on areas of interest than trainees, while describing a higher number of gait abnormalities.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Análise da Marcha/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Apoio ao Desenvolvimento de Recursos Humanos/métodos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232328, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428037

RESUMO

Digital natives developed in an electronic dual tasking world. This paper addresses two questions. Do digital natives respond differently under a cognitive load realized during a locomotor task in a dual-tasking paradigm and how does this address the concept of safety? We investigate the interplay between cognitive (talking and solving Raven's matrices) and locomotor (walking on a treadmill) tasks in a sample of 17 graduate level participants. The costs of dual-tasking on gait were assessed by studying changes in stride interval time and its variability at long-range. A safety index was designed and computed from total relative change between the variability indices in the single walking and dual-task conditions. As expected, results indicate high Raven's scores with gait changes found between the dual task conditions compared to the single walking task. Greater changes are observed in the talking condition compared to solving Raven's matrices, resulting in high safety index values observed in 5 participants. We conclude that, although digital natives are efficient in performing the dual tasks when they are not emotional-based, modification of gait are observable. Due to the variation within participants and the observation of high safety index values in several of them, individuals that responded poorly to low cognitive loads should be encouraged to not perform dual task when executing a primate task of safety to themselves or others.


Assuntos
Uso do Telefone Celular , Cognição , Locomoção/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232901, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396578

RESUMO

During pregnancy, an array of changes occurs in women body to enable the growth and development of the future baby and the consequent delivery. These changes are reflected in the range of motion of trunk, pelvis, lower limbs and other body segments, affect the locomotion and some of these changes may persist to the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to describe the changes affecting the gait during pregnancy and to determine the effect of tested footwear on kinematic gait characteristics during pregnancy as previous studies indicate that special orthopaedic insoles and footwear might be useful in prevention of the common musculoskeletal pain and discomfort related to pregnancy. Participants from the control group (n = 18), without any intervention, and the experimental group (n = 23), which was wearing the tested shoes, were measured at their 14, 28 and 37 gestational weeks and 28 weeks postpartum to capture the complete pregnancy-related changes in gait. The gait 3D kinematic data were obtained using Simi Motion System. The differences between the control and experimental group at the first data collection session in most of the analysed variables, as well as relatively high standard deviations of analysed variables indicate large individual differences in the gait pattern. The effect of tested footwear on kinematic gait pattern changes may be explained by its preventive effect against the foot arches falling. In the control group, changes associated previously with the foot arches falling and hindfoot hyperpronation were observed during advanced phases of pregnancy and postpartum, e.g. increase in knee flexion or increase in spinal curvature. For the comprehensive evaluation of the tested footwear on pregnancy gait pattern, future studies combining the kinematic and dynamic plantographic methods are needed.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Marcha/fisiologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/prevenção & controle , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Órtoses do Pé , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA