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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10498-10504, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452369

RESUMO

Owing to the changing needs of agriculture, the exploration of new pest control agents remains as critical as ever. The analogues 3a-3v of the natural product cerbinal were synthesized from genipin by an efficient and practical method under additive-free conditions. The antiviral and insecticidal effects of cerbinal and these cyclopenta[c]pyridines (3a-3v) were evaluated systematically. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited higher anti-TMV activities than the lead compound cerbinal. Compound 3s (2-(4-methoxyphenyl)) had the most promising inhibitory activities against TMV (inactivation effect 49.0 ± 0.8%, curative effect 41.2 ± 4.3%, and protection effect 51.5 ± 2.7% at 500 µg/mL). Among the synthesized compounds, only 3v (2-(2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)) reached the activity level of cerbinal against Plutella xylostella. This suggested that the cyclopenta[c]pyridines obtained by modifications of cerbinal at position 2 are very significant for the anti-TMV activity, and yet were exceptionally less active for the insecticidal activities.


Assuntos
Antivirais/síntese química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/síntese química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Indenos/química , Indenos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Descoberta de Drogas , Indenos/síntese química , Inseticidas/síntese química , Iridoides/química , Estrutura Molecular , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Piridinas/síntese química , Piridinas/química , Piridinas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(7): 106, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267229

RESUMO

Xenorhabdus nematophila HB310 secreted the insecticidal protein toxin complex. Two chitinase genes, chi60 and chi70, were found in X. nematophila toxin complex locus. In order to clarify the function of two chitinases, chi60 and chi70 genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli Transetta (DE3). As a result, we found that the Chi60 and Chi70 belonged to glycoside hydrolases (GH) family 18 with a molecular mass of 65 kDa and 78 kDa, respectively. When colloidal chitin was treated as the substrate, Chi60 and Chi70 were proved to have the highest enzymatic activity at pH 6.0 and 50 °C. Chi60 and Chi70 had obvious growth inhibition effect against the second larvae of Helicoverpa armigera with growth inhibiting rate of 81.99% and 90.51%. Chi70 had synergistic effect with the insecticidal toxicity of Bt Cry 1Ac, but the Chi60 had no synergistic effect with Bt Cry 1Ac. Chi60 and Chi70 showed antifungal activity against Alternaria brassicicola, Verticillium dahliae and Coniothyrium diplodiella. The results increased our understanding of the chitinases produced by X. nematophila and laid a foundation for further studies on the mechanism of the chitinases.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Quitinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Quitinases/genética , Quitinases/metabolismo , Xenorhabdus/metabolismo , Alternaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitina/metabolismo , Quitinases/classificação , Clonagem Molecular , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Estabilidade Enzimática , Escherichia coli/genética , Expressão Gênica , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Molecular , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micotoxinas/genética , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Verticillium/efeitos dos fármacos , Xenorhabdus/genética
3.
J Insect Sci ; 19(4)2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346626

RESUMO

Striacosta albicosta (Smith) is a key pest of maize and dry beans in North America. It has expanded its distribution from the western Great Plains of the United States to the Great Lakes region in the United States and Canada. There has been limited research on the baseline biological aspects of this insect under controlled conditions. The objective of this study was to detail the biological parameters of S. albicosta feeding on an artificial diet under laboratory conditions. Overall survival from neonate to adult at 26.6 ± 1°C was 36.72% and the total developmental time was approximately 110 d. Survival of the egg, larval, prepupal, and pupal stages were 75.71, 98.50, 51.78, and 95.10%, respectively. Average duration of the egg, larval, prepupal, and pupal stages was 4.64, 28.20, 41.50, and 25.91 d, respectively. During the larval stage, 92.50% of larvae developed through seven instars and the remaining through six instars. Larvae that developed through six and seven instars exhibited a mean growth ratio of 1.60 and 1.47, respectively; however, there was no difference in pupal weight. Eggs laid by field-mated moths showed a fertility of 75.71%, compared with 4.18% from laboratory-reared moths. These data suggest that S. albicosta develop primarily through seven instars and the most vulnerable developmental stage is the prepupa. Laboratory conditions strongly affected fertility success. Information presented here greatly expands our understanding of S. albicosta biology, which can be used to improve the efficiency of laboratory bioassays and management techniques for this critical crop pest.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Mariposas/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/fisiologia , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/fisiologia , Reprodução
4.
J Insect Sci ; 19(4)2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309984

RESUMO

Loopers such as Chrysodeixis includens (Walker), Rachiplusia nu (Guenée), and Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) are important defoliators in soybean, sunflower, and crucifer crops, respectively, in countries of the Americas. The biotic potential of these polyphagous species of Plusiinae was comparatively examined considering crop rotation and succession scenarios in which crucifer crops are cultivated during or after Brazilian winter. All the species developed and reproduced on soybean (BRS 133 Embrapa) and forage turnip (Cati AL 1000, Wolf Seeds do Brasil). The development of C. includens was similar on both host plants. The survival of R. nu was lower on forage turnip than on soybean. In contrast, T. ni performance (survival, fecundity, pupal weight) was better on forage turnip than on soybean. This suggests that in crop rotation and succession scenarios of soybean after brassicacea, C. includens is likely to have a higher number of generations per year and could be potentially more harmful.


Assuntos
Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Brassica napus , Feminino , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Masculino , Soja
5.
J Insect Sci ; 19(4)2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319420

RESUMO

Trichogramma spp., among the most common parasitoids used for augmentation biological control, often are mass-reared on eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller). To evaluate removal of nutritional components from the E. kuehniella larval diet and reduce production costs, colonies were maintained using one of three diets: a standard diet consisting of eight ingredients, a reduced diet containing whole wheat flour, glycerol, and Brewer's yeast, or a third minimal diet of only whole wheat flour. The standard diet sustained the fastest larval development, female pupae with the greatest mass, the highest level of adult emergence, and production of the most eggs per female. Eggs from moths reared as larvae on the standard or reduced diet had equivalent mass, length, and percent hatch. Females from larvae fed the minimal diet produced eggs with the least mass that were shorter and had the lowest percent hatch. Eggs from the three E. kuehniella colonies were exposed separately to Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko females to determine their acceptance for oviposition. More of the eggs from the standard diet were parasitized by the females, eggs from the reduced and minimal diets being less acceptable. The percent emergence of the parasitoids was the same regardless of diet; however, the largest wasps emerged from the standard diet eggs and a greater proportion of them were females. Consequently, the standard E. kuehniella larval diet resulted in the highest rate of reproduction and robust eggs that produced superior T. brassicae wasps.


Assuntos
Dieta , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Mariposas/parasitologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/parasitologia
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5962-5968, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cadra (=Ephestia) cautella (Walker) is a serious cosmopolitan pest that can feed on a wide variety of stored foods. It is controlled mainly by fumigation with phosphine, to which strong resistance has been documented in major stored-product insects in many countries. The need for reliable, user- and environmentally friendly alternatives is therefore high on the agenda to avoid the development of potential resistance and to reduce human exposure to toxic insecticides. Two modified atmospheres (MAs) composed of high carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and low oxygen (O2 ) (90% and 96% CO2 in air) were studied at the laboratory at 20 °C and 65 ± 3% relative humidity (RH) against C. cautella. RESULTS: Eggs (1, 2, and 3 days old), young and mature larvae (10 and 20 days old), pupae (1, 2 and 3 days old) and adults (1 day old) were exposed to two MAs consisting of high CO2 and low O2 for the range of 2 to 104 h. Eggs, old larvae, and pupae were found to be the most tolerant. Adults were rather easily killed and young larvae were the most susceptible. Lethal exposure time (LT99 ) values were between 11.74 h and 128.97 h. CONCLUSION: Modified atmospheres consisting of high CO2 and low O2 offer an affordable combination to control C. cautella effectively. From the perspective of economics and efficacy, 90% CO2 might be the concentration of choice. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Atmosfera/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Controle de Insetos/instrumentação , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxigênio/análise , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
J Insect Sci ; 19(3)2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234208

RESUMO

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a destructive pest of tomato that can cause up to 100% yield loss. The predatory bug Nabis pseudoferus (Remane) (Hemiptera: Nabidae) and the parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae (Bezdenko) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) are natural enemies of this pest. Since the interaction between predators and parasitoids in different trophic levels including intraguild predation (IGP) can decrease or increase the efficiency of natural enemies, the effects of age-dependent parasitism of host eggs on IGP between these two species were investigated under laboratory conditions. In no-choice and choice preference tests, the predatory bug was exposed to 40 parasitized and nonparasitized eggs of different ages (24, 48, and 72 h old). Investigation of switching behavior was conducted using various combinations of tomato leafminer eggs (30:90, 45:75, 60:60, 75:45, and 90:30 nonparasitized:parasitized eggs) using eggs of different ages (24, 48, and 72 h old). In no-choice tests, the highest feeding rate of the predatory bug was 39.21 ± 0.36 eggs on 24-h-old nonparasitized eggs and the lowest feeding rate was 1.4 ± 0.80 eggs on 72-h-old parasitized eggs. In choice tests, comparison of the Manly's ß indices indicated that the predatory bug preferred to feed on nonparasitized eggs with 48- and 72-h-old eggs, but there was no significant preference for the 24-h-old eggs. Results of switching test showed that the linear regression between Manly's ß index and different ratios of nonparasitized eggs to parasitized and nonparasitized eggs was not significant in 72-h-old eggs. However, this regression was significant with 24- and 48-h-old eggs and the predator's preference was dependent upon the ratio of nonparasitized and parasitized tomato leafminer eggs. Results of the current study showed that the increasing age of parasitized egg decreased intensity of IGP between N. pseudoferus and T. brassicae.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/fisiologia , Mariposas/parasitologia , Óvulo/parasitologia , Comportamento Predatório , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
J Insect Sci ; 19(3)2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115474

RESUMO

The hawk moth Theretra oldenlandiae (Fabricius) is an important insect pest because in the larval stage it feeds on agricultural crops and ornamental plants such as the eddoe and garden balsam. In this study, we established methods for rearing T. oldenlandiae in the laboratory using an artificial diet containing dry powder of a wild grass Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep. Several artificial diets were tested with different ratios of a commercial diet, Insecta LFM, and the dry leaf powder, and including different antibiotics, and the composition of the standard diet on which larvae performed best was determined. The standard diet contains 20 g of Insecta LFM, 4 g of leaf powder, 100 ml of water, 75 mg of chloramphenicol, and 200 µl of propionic acid. Larvae reared on the standard diet became larger pupae than those reared on C. japonica leaves. This result suggests that the larvae have growth potential that is masked on C. japonica leaves, and that C. japonica may not be the most suitable host species for T. oldenlandiae larvae in terms of nutrient level.


Assuntos
Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Fertilidade , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 18509-18519, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049864

RESUMO

Polyethylene (PE) is one of the major persistent plastic that is not biodegradable at considerable rates in most environments, and is the major source of unceasing environmental pollution. Recently, biodegradation of plastic wastes through waxworms and mealworms were reported. The present study focuses on the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) degradation capabilities of the larvae of Achroia grisella (lesser waxworm) and its ability to complete its life cycle when fed with HDPE. Effects of added nutrition on PE degradation were assessed, providing wax comb as co-feed (PE-WC). The egested frass of the waxworm fed on waxcomb (WC), PE, and PE-WC were studied by analyzing the changes in physiochemical properties through FTIR and 1H NMR techniques in addition to weight loss percentage of PE and survival rates of the tested lesser waxworms. The post-degradation studies of WC and PE showed 90.5 ± 1.2% and 43.3 ± 1.6% weight loss, respectively, by a group of 100 lesser waxworms. Over an 8-day period, PE consumption increased with an ingestion of 1.83 mg of PE per day per larvae. Supplementing the PE feed of lesser waxworms with WC facilitated enhanced PE degradation showing 69.6 ± 3.2% weight loss. Twenty-eight day survival rates for lesser waxworms fed on WC, PE, and PE-WC were 91.3 ± 1.01%, 74.6 ± 2.9%, and 86 ± 1.4%, respectively. The FTIR and 1H NMR analysis of egested frass indicated formation of new functional organic groups, supporting biodegradation of PE in lesser waxworms. The frass of the lesser waxworm fed on PE samples shows the presence of new carbonyl and alcoholic groups with increase in unsaturated hydrocarbon indicating formation of biodegraded intermediates. Lesser waxworms fed with WC, PE, and PE-WC completed all life cycle stages (larvae, pupae, moth, and egg) developing into a second generation. The second generation of PE-WC fed larvae of A. grisella efficiently degrades PE at par with first generation counterparts.


Assuntos
Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polietileno/análise , Resíduos/análise , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Mariposas/metabolismo
10.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(1): 31-37, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116536

RESUMO

The use of physical barriers is a common defensive strategy in small-sized endophagous arthropods, but this feeding mode often results in tracks being left on host organisms, thus increasing predation risk. Mechanisms of escape from tracking predators are thus particularly important for endophagous arthropods. Leaf miners are herbivorous insects that inhabit the interiors of leaves and produce various forms of tracks on their host plants. Such tracks are called "mines," and parasitoid wasps, which are the primary enemy of leaf miners, use mines as cues to find host larvae. In the present study, we use the leaf-mining moth Acrocercops transecta (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), which changes mine forms during larval growth, and its primary parasitoid Aneurobracon philippinensis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Larvae of A. transecta make narrow linear mines in the first and second instars, the third instars expand the mines to flat blotch mines, and the fourth and fifth instars construct three-dimensional tentiform blotch mines. A laboratory parasitization experiment showed that successful oviposition rates were significantly lower on tentiform blotch mines than on other mine types. In contrast, all fifth instars that were transplanted into flat blotch mines were oviposited, suggesting that older instars did not deter ovipositing parasitoids and that the lower rates of successful oviposition on tentiform blotch mines were attributable to refuges inside such mines provided by their three-dimensional structure. Field data demonstrated a plateau in parasitism rates in fourth instar larvae, confirming the results of the laboratory experiment. These results indicate that different mine forms affect the viability of endophagous larvae.


Assuntos
Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Juglans/parasitologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/parasitologia , Oviposição/fisiologia
11.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(5-6): 515-524, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127421

RESUMO

Although the tritrophic interactions of plants, insect herbivores and their natural enemies have been intensely studied for several decades, the roles of entomopathogens in their indirect modulation of plant-insect relationships is still unclear. Here, we employed a sublethal dose of a baculovirus with a relatively broad host range (AcMNPV) to explore if feeding by baculovirus-challenged Helicoverpa zea caterpillars induces direct defenses in the tomato plant. We examined induction of plant defenses following feeding by H. zea, including tomato plants fed on by healthy caterpillars, AcMNPV-challenged caterpillars, or undamaged controls, and subsequently compared the transcript levels of defense related proteins (i.e., trypsin proteinase inhibitors, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) and other defense genes (i.e., proteinase inhibitor II and cysteine proteinase inhibitor) from these plants, in addition to comparing caterpillar relative growth rates. As a result, AcMNPV-challenged caterpillars induced the highest plant anti-herbivore defenses. We examined several elicitors and effectors in the secretions of these caterpillars (i.e., glucose oxidase, phospholipase C, and ATPase hydrolysis), which surprisingly did not differ between treatments. Hence, we suggest that the greater induction of plant defenses by the virus-challenged caterpillars may be due to differences in the amount of these secretions deposited during feeding or to some other unknown factor(s).


Assuntos
Baculoviridae/patogenicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Mariposas/fisiologia , Animais , Catecol Oxidase/genética , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Larva/virologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/virologia , Peroxidase/genética , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo
12.
J Insect Sci ; 19(2)2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953584

RESUMO

The life history, morphology, and biology of the immature stages and phylogenetic relationships of Rotunda rotundapex (Miyata & Kishida, 1990) are described and illustrated for the first time. The species is univoltine: eggs hatch in spring (March or April) and the life cycle from egg to adult is completed in about 3 wk, with larvae developing rapidly on young leaves of the host plants, Morus australis and to a lesser extent Broussonetia monoica (Moraceae), and adults emerging in April-May. Eggs are laid in clusters on twigs of the host plant, are covered by scales during female oviposition, and remain in diapause for the remainder of the year (i.e., for 10-11 mo). Larvae (all instars) are unique among the Bombycidae in that they lack a horn on abdominal segment 8. A strongly supported molecular phylogeny based on six genes (5.0 Kbp: COI, EF-1α, RpS5, CAD, GAPDH, and wgl) representing seven genera of Bombycinae from the Old World revealed that Rotunda is a distinct monotypic lineage sister to Bombyx. This phylogenetic position, together with morphological data of the immature stages (egg and larval chaetotaxy), supports the current systematic classification in which the species rotundapex has been placed in a separate genus (Rotunda) from Bombyx in which it was previously classified.


Assuntos
Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Mariposas/classificação , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Feminino , Moraceae , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/fisiologia , Filogenia
13.
J Insect Sci ; 19(2)2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817820

RESUMO

The rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton, an alternate host for the production of the parasitoid, Habrobracon hebetor Say, was reared on different diets, including pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] (Poales: Poaceae) flour only, and in combinations of flours of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] (Poales: Poaceae), peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) (Fabales: Fabaceae), and cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] (Fabales: Fabaceae) to identify the optimal and economical proportion to be used under the conditions of Niger. The addition of cowpea or peanut to the pearl millet diet slightly increased C. cephalonica larval development time. Likewise, the addition of cowpea or peanut to cereal diets yielded a higher C. cephalonica larval survival. Female moths emerging from larvae fed on cereal and legume mixed diets produced higher eggs compared to the ones fed on sole and mixed cereals. Among legumes, cowpea addition is most interesting in terms of cost/production of C. cephalonica larvae. However, female moths emerging from larvae fed on different millet cowpea mix (5, 25, and 50%) laid significantly more eggs than those fed on sole pearl millet. Further, individual C. cephalonica larvae fed on 75% pearl millet + 25% cowpea produced significantly more H. hebetor. With an initial 25 C. cephalonica larvae kept for a 3-mo rearing period, the number of H. hebetor parasitoids produced will reach 2.68-10.07 million. In terms of cost/production ratio, the 75% pearl millet: 25% cowpea yielded better results.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Dieta , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/parasitologia , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Vespas/fisiologia
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(15): 4224-4231, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905158

RESUMO

Sulfimides and sulfoximines are highly relevant for medicinal chemistry and crop protection, as the resulting products can reveal interesting bioactivities. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of a series of novel 2,4-diphenyl-1,3-oxazolines containing sulfiliminyl and sulfoximinyl moieties. The acaricidal and insecticidal activities of the new compounds were evaluated and indicated that these compounds exhibited excellent acaricidal activities against spider mite larvae and eggs. The LC50 values of 6a-7, 6b-3, 6b-4, 6c-2, and 6c-4 against spider mite larvae were about 4 to 6 times lower than that of the commercial insecticide etoxazole (0.0221 mg L-1), and the LC50 value of 6a-4 against spider mite eggs was 0.0006 mg L-1, which was 10 times lower than that of etoxazole (0.0063 mg L-1). At the same time, most of the compounds showed insecticidal activity though their structure-activity relationships that were different. Oxazolines containing an N-cyano sulfiliminyl moiety at the para position of the 4-phenyl group exhibited better insecticidal activities against cotton bollworm and corn borer than etoxazole, whereas the compounds containing groups derived from sulfiliminyl and sulfoximinyl had weak insecticidal activities. This research again proved that the substituent type at the para site of the 4-phenyl moiety has a decisive role on the biological activity and insecticidal spectrum.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/síntese química , Inseticidas/síntese química , Acaricidas/química , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Desenho de Drogas , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estrutura Molecular , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tetranychidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetranychidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
J Insect Sci ; 19(2)2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822779

RESUMO

Exorista larvarum (L.), a polyphagous gregarious larval parasitoid of lepidopterans, can be mass produced both in vivo, using the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as a factitious host, and in vitro, on artificial media composed of crude components. The present study was focused on another aspect of E. larvarum rearing, namely the influence of adult food on parasitoid performance. The standard food, consisting of lump sucrose and cotton balls soaked in a honey and water solution (1), was compared with other foods or food combinations, namely lump sucrose alone (2), honey and water solution (3), sucrose and water solution either alone (4) or combined with bee-collected pollen (5), and, finally, pollen alone (6). All foods were provided together with distilled water supplied in drinking troughs. Based on the parameters considered (i.e., female longevity, number of eggs laid on host larvae, puparia obtained from eggs, and adults emerged from puparia), pollen alone was deemed to be the most suitable food for adult females of E. larvarum. In particular, the pollen showed a longevity-promoting effect, increasing the number of eggs laid on host larvae throughout the female lifespan. The use of this adult food may also result in a higher flexibility of the management of E. larvarum colonies because it can be replaced weekly, as no desiccation or mold infections were ever found to occur.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Mariposas/parasitologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , Dieta , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/parasitologia , Larva/fisiologia , Longevidade , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução
16.
Transgenic Res ; 28(2): 199-212, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790127

RESUMO

Transgenic cotton expressing the toxin Cry1Ac from Bacillus thuringiensis L. (Bt) is widely cultivated in Pakistan after its formal approval in 2010. The exposure of the local target pests to the Cry1Ac endotoxin for this duration might have changed the baseline susceptibility. To probe the status of resistance in one of the main target pests, Helicoverpa armigera, field-collected larvae were reared in the lab for conducting leaf fed bioassays. Twenty-six cotton accessions collected from farmers, including 25 Bt-cotton and one non-Bt, were tested to quantify the level of Cry1Ac, an insecticidal crystalline protein (ICP), in leaves of lower, middle and upper canopies of plants. The concentration of ICP was tested through Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay and found significantly variable (P < 0.01) between and within accessions. The highest mean expression was observed in Accession-2 and Accession-4, while the lowest in Accession-21 and Accession-19. Among fresh leaf tissues from different parts of the plant, the highest mean expression was recorded at 60 days after sowing in upper canopy leaves of cotton accessions, which decreased in lower parts of the plant with the lowest mean expression in lower canopy leaves. Laboratory bioassays, to calculate lethal dose, for H. armigera showed that LD50 and LD95 were 0.62 µg/g and 1.59 µg/g of fresh tissue weight, respectively. A strong positive correlation also exists between the levels of Cry1Ac protein and insect mortality (r = 0.84). These findings suggested the future risk of cultivation of Bt cotton, carrying single Cry1Ac gene, in Pakistan, as resistance surging in H. armigera against Cry protein. These results may also have significant implications for the resistance management in Bt crops, especially cotton, in future.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Bactérias/toxicidade , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Gossypium/microbiologia , Proteínas Hemolisinas/toxicidade , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/microbiologia , Paquistão , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(8): 3976-3982, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Four trials were conducted; the first established optimal cooking time for false codling moth diets using a microwave oven while the other three trials aimed at determining nutrient requirements, testing these, and evaluating alternative cheaper raw materials. RESULTS: Microwave preparation for 8 min, using a 1000 W microwave oven was found to be the optimal cooking time for all treatment diets at 200 g kg-1 moisture. The minimum specification (MS) diet yielded more larvae per jar (mean ± standard deviation) (759 ± 29) than the control (CON) (652 ± 32) diet and the ideal amino acid profile (IAAP) diet (596 ± 46). The third trial subsequently utilized diets formulated according to the MS diet nutrient specifications but using novel and cheaper raw materials (D1 and D2). Production characteristics of diets D1 and D2 was compared to that of CON. Diets D1 and D2 yielded more larvae per jar (D1 = 911 ± 40; D2 = 830 ± 40) than that of CON (428 ± 40) with the added advantage that the newly formulated diets were cheaper. CONCLUSION: Reduced cost feeds were formulated, mixed and tested which resulted in substantial saving in the mass rearing of the species for integrated pest management. This method shows potential for diet development of other insect species as well. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Culinária/métodos , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/economia , Animais , Culinária/economia , Dieta/economia , Dieta/veterinária , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Mariposas/metabolismo , Controle Biológico de Vetores
18.
Environ Entomol ; 48(2): 291-298, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810733

RESUMO

Overgrazing by large mammalian herbivores has led to significant adverse impacts on ecosystems globally. Insects are often a key taxon affected by large herbivores because the plants that are grazed provide crucial food and habitat. By changing vegetation, overgrazing by herbivores could affect aspects of insect morphology, including through changes to larval development due to reduced food availability, and adult dispersal ability due to habitat fragmentation. We investigated the wing morphology of moth species in two contrasting sites at Lake Toya in Hokkaido, Japan. We compared moths on Nakajima Island where deer are overabundant, with moths from the lakeshore 3 km away where deer are far less abundant. We compared forewing size and aspect ratio (length/width) of 13 moth species from both lakeshore and island sites. Four species, three of which were herb-feeding generalists, had significantly smaller wings on the island compared with the lakeshore. Seven species demonstrated a reduction in wing aspect ratio, whereas one species, the largest we measured, showed an increase in wing aspect ratio. We suggest that these morphological changes could be induced by overgrazing by deer (i.e., a reduction in moth host plant biomass and quality) and/or the isolation of moth populations on Nakajima Island. Further work is needed to reveal how these confounded but potentially interacting effects contribute to the morphological changes we found in the moths on the island. Our results show that habitat isolation and overabundance of deer populations can affect moth wing morphology, with potential implications for their population dynamics and community structure.


Assuntos
Cervos , Herbivoria , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Ecossistema , Japão , Masculino , Asas de Animais
19.
J Insect Sci ; 19(1)2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715433

RESUMO

Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) is an important pest of crops worldwide, and several studies have focused on the development of this species on different artificial diets. However, studies evaluating the insect's food consumption and utilization using nutritionally different diets are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biology and to compare the consumption and use of food by H. armigera larvae on diets with different protein levels provided by several dietary ingredients used in the diets. The nutritional index, the relative consumption rate, the relative metabolic rate, the relative growth rate, and the apparent digestibility were higher in the diet with higher than the optimum level of protein. On the other hand, the conversion efficiency of digested food was lower, resulting in a higher metabolic cost. In terms of biological aspects, larval survival was higher for the diet with optimal protein content and lower for the diet with a higher protein level. The pupal period was longer for the diet with a higher protein content, while pupal survival was lower. Among the evaluated diets, the diet with an optimal protein containing white bean 75 g, wheat germ 60 g, soy bran 30 g, milk powder 30 g, brewer's yeast 37.5 g as the protein sources resulted in a higher net reproductive rate, a shorter time for the population to double in number, and the highest rates of population growth. The results suggest that lower or higher protein contents in the diets of H. armigera negatively affect the biological aspects of this species.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Metabolismo Energético , Traços de História de Vida , Mariposas/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Environ Entomol ; 48(2): 465-477, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715246

RESUMO

Bollworm (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) can cause economic losses in both non-Bt and Bt cotton. Larvae modify their behavior in the presence of Bt by moving away from terminals faster in Bt cotton compared to non-Bt cotton and avoiding Bt-treated diets. Our objectives were to understand differences in bollworm egg and larvae populations within, and dispersal away from, non-Bt and Bt pyramided-toxin cotton. We conducted small plot experiments in 2016 and 2017 to monitor on-plant egg and larval numbers, and off-plant dispersal of larvae, from non-Bt and different Bt toxin pyramided cotton. Bollworm adults preferred to oviposit in most Bt toxin pyramids compared to non-Bt; this was likely unrelated to detection of Bt by adults, but rather density-dependent aversion from high larval populations. First instar numbers were similar in all non-Bt/Bt toxin pyramids and dispersed at a similar rate. Second through fifth instar numbers were higher in non-Bt than Bt toxin pyramids but dispersed equally from all non-Bt/Bt toxin pyramids, regardless of Bt pyramid type. Development times of larvae were often slower in Bt toxin pyramids compared to non-Bt. Fifth instars were found in, and dispersing from, Bt toxin pyramids containing Vip3A, raising concerns of resistance development. Furthermore, differences in oviposition rate among non-Bt/Bt toxin pyramids and slowed development rate of larvae on Bt varieties could create inconsistencies in generation times emerging from Bt and non-Bt hosts, which could contribute to resistance development.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Bactérias , Endotoxinas , Gossypium , Proteínas Hemolisinas , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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