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1.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(1): 22-27, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Sale and Supply of Alcohol Act 2012 came into force to promote the safe and responsible sale, supply, and consumption of alcohol in New Zealand. The Act was intended to minimise harm caused by excessive consumption of alcohol and reduce exposure to alcohol promotion. This study assessed supermarket adherence to sections 112-114 of the Act related to the display and advertisement of alcohol. It also assessed consumer exposure to alcohol marketing in these businesses. METHODS: This paper reports on an audit of nine supermarkets in a major New Zealand city. RESULTS: Supermarkets exhibited high average adherence with the Act (86% adherence across audit fields); despite this, exposure to alcohol displays, promotions and advertisements remained an issue regardless of supermarket geographic location, size or chain affiliation. CONCLUSIONS: Supermarkets are an increasingly popular source of off-licence alcohol sales. Exposure to alcohol marketing in these businesses will likely influence consumer purchasing behaviour. Implications for public health: As an important public health challenge, based on this study, it would appear that supermarkets mostly meet the provisions of the Sale and Supply of Alcohol Act 2012, but not the intent. Additional work is required to strengthen their response to the Act.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribução , Comportamento do Consumidor , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor/métodos , Marketing/métodos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Nova Zelândia
2.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(1): 34-39, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential impact of tobacco being available only from pharmacies, only from liquor stores or only from petrol stations on the New Zealand tobacco retail landscape. METHODS: Tobacco retailers and pharmacies were mapped using GIS. Comparisons were made between tobacco retailers and pharmacies. Simple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between outlet types and deprivation. RESULTS: A total of 5,243 tobacco outlets, including liquor stores and petrol stations, and 1,035 pharmacies were identified. The density of all outlets was greater in areas of higher deprivation. The majority of tobacco retailers and pharmacies were located in urban areas. Outlets were mapped in relation to walking distances from secondary schools; significant differences between outlet types are presented. CONCLUSIONS: The policy options examined in this study would considerably reduce the overall availability of tobacco, decrease cues to smoke and reduce the density of tobacco sales around schools. However, inequities in availability would exist with access to tobacco in rural areas disproportionately reduced, and a positive sociodemographic gradient remaining. Implications for public health: Substantially reducing tobacco availability has been identified as a crucial tobacco control strategy. This study provides information on the impact of different policy options to support Smokefree 2025.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Pública , Produtos do Tabaco/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Marketing , Nova Zelândia , Farmácia , Características de Residência , Produtos do Tabaco/economia
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 107, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To document the evidence about marketing of ultra-processed foods and "non-alcoholic" beverages in Latin America. METHODS: We performed a structured search of quantitative and qualitative studies in PubMed, SciELO and LILACS, published between January 2000 and May 2017 and conducted in Latin America. We conducted a quality assessment following a standardized tool and a thematic analysis to identify key typologies of marketing across studies. RESULTS: Out of 521 studies screened by title and abstract, we included 36 in this review; 27 of them analyzed television advertisement. Other marketing channels studied were food packaging, point of sale and outdoor advertisement. Studies found television advertises foods and beverages that are mostly ultraprocessed foods and have low nutritional value, particularly those promoted during children's programming. We also observed children have a literal interpretation of images printed on food packaging, so this can be deceiving. Several studies also found proximity to unhealthy foods may increase their consumption. Finally, the thematic analysis identified the following typologies of food marketing: a) television advertisement, b) food packaging marketing, c) marketing strategies at points of sale and d) other marketing strategies. We found almost no advertisements for unprocessed or minimally processed foods such as fruits and vegetables. We did not find any studies on digital marketing conducted in the region. CONCLUSIONS: This review found that the main channel of food marketing was television advertising. This synthesis provides insights to the challenges unhealthy eating represents to the public health of Latin America and identifies knowledge gaps to guide future research.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Fast Foods , Indústria Alimentícia , Marketing/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Humanos , América Latina , Marketing/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Televisão
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1609: 460437, 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409488

RESUMO

Thermal papers (e.g. point of sale receipts, adhesive labels, tickets) significantly contribute to contamination of paper material cycles and the environment with substances of (eco-) toxicological concern. In particular, they contain color developers like endocrine disrupting bisphenols in typical concentrations of about 1-2 percent per weight (wt%). Bisphenol A (BPA) was used as the common color developer over the last decades, but it will be restricted for thermal paper application in the European Union to a limit of 0.02 wt% from 2020 onwards. Consequently, a variety of BPA substituents such as bisphenol S (BPS) and its derivatives gain importance in thermal paper application. In this study, a rapid, reliable and cost-effective method for identification and quantification of BPA, alternative color developers and related substances like sensitizers is presented based on HPLC separation coupled with diode array detection (DAD) and Corona charged aerosol detection (CAD). Quantification was performed with regard to the intended use of the substances in thermal papers. Besides traditional UV external calibration using reference standards, alternative quantification approaches, in particular UV chromophore concentration for BPS derivatives and CAD universal response technique for low-volatile color developers, were applied and compared in order to allow quantification without reference substances. A market analysis for intended used color developers and sensitizers was performed on thermal paper samples (n = 211) collected in Germany during 2018 and 2019. Pergafast 201 (in 41.7% of the samples) was the most common color developer with concentrations above 0.02 wt%, followed by BPA (36.0%), BPS (13.3%) and other BPS derivatives known as D8, D-90, BPS-MAE and TGSA, that are mainly present in adhesive labels. Sensitizers were determined in over 90% of the samples.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Marketing , Papel , Fenóis/análise , Temperatura Ambiente , Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Cor , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , União Europeia , Alemanha , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Fenóis/química , Padrões de Referência , Sulfonas
5.
BMJ ; 367: l6718, 2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801724

Assuntos
Esportes , Marketing
6.
BMJ ; 367: l6694, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831471

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand and report on the nature of patient group interactions with the pharmaceutical industry from the perspective of patient group representatives by exploring the range of attitudes towards pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and how, why, and when interactions occur. DESIGN: Empirical qualitative interview study informed by ethics theory. SETTING: Australian patient groups. PARTICIPANTS: 27 participants from 23 Australian patient groups that represented diverse levels of financial engagement with the pharmaceutical industry. Groups were focused on general health consumer issues or disease specific topics, and had regional or national jurisdictions. ANALYSIS: Analytic techniques were informed by grounded theory. Interview transcripts were coded into data driven categories. Findings were organised into new conceptual categories to describe and explain the data, and were supported by quotes. RESULTS: A range of attitudes towards pharmaceutical industry sponsorship were identified that are presented as four different types of relationship between patient groups and the pharmaceutical industry. The dominant relationship type was of a successful business partnership, and participants described close working relationships with industry personnel. These participants acknowledged a potential for adverse industry influence, but expressed confidence in existing strategies for avoiding industry influence. Other participants described unsatisfactory or undeveloped relationships, and some participants (all from general health consumer groups) presented their groups' missions as incompatible with the pharmaceutical industry because of fundamentally opposing interests. Participants reported that interactions between their patient group and pharmaceutical companies were more common when companies had new drugs of potential interest to group members. Patient groups that accepted industry funding engaged in exchanges of "assets" with companies. Groups received money, information, and advice in exchange for providing companies with marketing, relationship building opportunities with key opinion leaders, coordinated lobbying with companies about drug access and subsidy, assisting companies with clinical trial recruitment, and enhancing company credibility. CONCLUSIONS: An understanding of the range of views patient groups have about pharmaceutical company sponsorship will be useful for groups that seek to identify and manage any ethical concerns about these relationships. Patient groups that receive pharmaceutical industry money should anticipate they might be asked for specific assets in return. Selective industry funding of groups where active product marketing opportunities exist might skew the patient group sector's activity towards pharmaceutical industry interests and allow industry to exert proxy influence over advocacy and subsequent health policy.


Assuntos
Conflito de Interesses , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Política de Saúde , Marketing/ética , Defesa do Paciente/ética , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Austrália , Humanos
7.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 43(6): 442-446, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854533

RESUMO

After years of international regulatory practice, the third party certification bodies have become an important social force in the field of medical devices supervision. It is broadly discussed how to introduce social resources to play an active role in the supervision of medical devices under the regulatory system of medical devices in China. Shanghai Medical Products Administration has carried out research and preliminary practice on the participation of third-party institutions in post-marketing supervision of medical devices. The article mainly focuses on purpose, entry point, inspection criteria and result disposal of introducing the participation of third-party institutions in the post-marketing supervision, meanwhile, discusses the next work direction at the same time.


Assuntos
Certificação , Marketing , China
8.
Rom J Ophthalmol ; 63(3): 297-305, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687635

RESUMO

Introduction: It is acknowledged that leading pharmaceutical companies lately spend more on marketing than they are investing in research and technology development. Romania registers one of the largest market growths in the pharmaceutical industry from Central and Eastern Europe, and it is one of the main investors on the advertising market. The rapid changes in the pharmaceutical landscape have demanded for organizations to re-evaluate their infrastructure and the information delivery methods, as well as cut through the clutter and build competitive advantages by using effective advertising. The dry eye is a commonly disease encountered worldwide, which is treated with the help of over-the-counter (OTC) artificial tear drops. Aim: The aim of this study was twofold: to determine the profile of the Romanian consumer who uses artificial tear drops and to assess the components of experiential marketing used in a TV advertisement, which have the highest influence on the consumer's perception of effective advertising. Material and method: We selected a TV advertisement that used the magical concept of the artificial tear drops in the shape of water in a desert area, suggesting an eye irritation. The instrument for data collection was a self-administered questionnaire based on the watched advertising spot about the OTC artificial tear drops. The sample was made up of 384 participants and the sampling method was the snowball technique. Moreover, a model using Structural Equation was validated in order to assess the established relationships between the experiential marketing components and the effectiveness of the OTC artificial tear drops advertising. Findings: The findings showed that the demographic profile of the OTC artificial tear drops consumer is a female, with the mean age of 39 years, who graduated from university, with an average income of 2500 RON (Romanian currency), single, and with an office job. The mean number of hours spent in front of a computer per day was 10. The structural equation model revealed that the component think experience has the highest direct influence on the consumer's perception of an advertisement about OTC artificial tear drops as being effective. Discussion: The pharmaceutical market is different from other markets in that the decision maker is not the purchaser except for the OTC drugs that do not require a receipt from a physician. Think experience focuses on rational decision-making and problem solving but in a creative way.


Assuntos
/métodos , Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Lubrificantes Oftálmicos/farmacologia , Marketing/métodos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Romênia
9.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 16(12): 1041-1052, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774330

RESUMO

Introduction: Sleep assessment devices are essential for the detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of sleep disorders. This paper provides a state-of-the-art review and comparison of sleep assessment devices and a market analysis.Areas covered: Hardware devices are classified into contact and contactless devices. For each group, the underlying technologies are presented, paying special attention to their limitations. A systematic literature review has been carried out by comparing the most important validation studies of sleep tracking devices in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A market analysis has also been carried out in order to list the most used, best-selling, and most highly-valued devices. Software apps have also been compared with regards to the market.Expert opinion: Thanks to technological advances, the reliability and accuracy of sensors has been significantly increased in recent years. According to validation studies, some actigraphs present a sensibility higher than 90%. However, the market analysis reveals that many hardware devices have not been validated, and especially software devices should be studied before their clinical use.


Assuntos
Marketing , Polissonografia/economia , Polissonografia/instrumentação , Sono/fisiologia , Actigrafia/instrumentação , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about how policies and industry activities impact smokeless tobacco demand. We examined how tobacco control policies and retail promotion may affect smokeless tobacco sales. METHODS: We used Nielsen market-level retail scanner data for smokeless tobacco sales in convenience stores in 30 US regions from 2005 to 2010. Tobacco policy variables, including excise taxes, state tobacco control program expenditures, and clean indoor air laws, were merged to Nielsen markets. We estimated regression models for per capita unit sales. RESULTS: Higher cigarette tax was significantly associated with lower sales volume of smokeless tobacco. Sales of smokeless tobacco in markets with a weight-based SLT excise tax were higher than in markets with an ad valorem tax. A higher average product price was associated with decreased sales overall but results varied by package quantity and brand. CONCLUSIONS: This study observed that smokeless tobacco products were both complements and substitutes to cigarettes. Thus, smokeless tobacco may act as complements for some population segments and substitutes for others. A weight-based tax generally favors premium smokeless tobacco products.


Assuntos
Marketing/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Política Pública , Impostos , Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/economia
12.
Fam Med ; 51(9): 717-721, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596928
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590256

RESUMO

Celebrity endorsement used to promote energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) food and beverage products may contribute to poor dietary habits. This study examined celebrity endorsement of branded food and beverage products and marketing campaigns in the United States (US) from 1990 to 2017. Celebrity endorsement data were collected from peer-reviewed and grey literature. Interactive data visualizations were created for the endorsement relationships between celebrities, companies and products whose nutritional profiles were compared with the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Smart Snacks Standards. Logistic regression was used to explore associations between celebrities' demographic profiles and the nutritional profiles of products. Results showed 542 celebrities were associated with 732 endorsements representing 120 brands of 59 companies across 10 food and beverage categories. Two thirds (67.2%; n = 80) of the brands represented EDNP products that did not align with the USDA's Smart Snacks Standards. Logistic regression analysis indicated that Millennial (p = 0.008) and male celebrities (p = 0.041) were more likely to endorse EDNP products than Generation Z teen and female celebrities, respectively. No statistical significance was observed for celebrities of other demographic profiles. This study may inform future policies and actions of the US government, industry, researchers and consumer advocacy organizations to use celebrity endorsement to promote healthy food environments for Americans.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Pessoas Famosas , Alimentos , Marketing/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
14.
Pediatrics ; 144(5)2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has become increasingly prevalent among US youth and young adults in recent years. Exposure to e-cigarette marketing may stimulate e-cigarette use. In this study, we estimated the longitudinal association between e-cigarette marketing exposure and e-cigarette experimentation among US youth and young adult never tobacco users. METHODS: The analysis included nationally representative samples of youth (ages 12-17; n = 8121) and young adult (ages 18-24; n = 1683) never tobacco users from wave 2 (2014-2015) and wave 3 (2015-2016) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study. In the study, researchers measured past-month exposure to e-cigarette marketing through various places (eg, Web sites and events) at wave 2 and e-cigarette experimentation at wave 3. Statistical analysis included multivariable regressions to examine the associations between wave 2 e-cigarette marketing exposure and wave 3 e-cigarette experimentation. RESULTS: At wave 2, 70.7% of youth and 73.9% of young adult never tobacco users reported past-month exposure to e-cigarette marketing; at wave 3, 4.9% and 4.5% of youth and young adults experimented with e-cigarettes, respectively. Youth and young adults exposed to e-cigarette marketing at wave 2 were more likely (adjusted odds ratio = 1.53, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-2.17; and adjusted odds ratio = 2.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.16-6.42, respectively) to have experimented with e-cigarettes at wave 3 than those not exposed. Marketing exposure through each place at wave 2 was associated with e-cigarette experimentation at wave 3. CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarette marketing exposure predicted subsequent e-cigarette experimentation among youth and young adult never tobacco users. Increased restrictions on marketing through various channels may help minimize their exposure to e-cigarette marketing messages.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Marketing , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547234

RESUMO

There has been a large increase in the adoption of tobacco advertising restrictions worldwide over the last two decades. Much of the literature studies their direct effect on cigarette demand. This paper investigates the indirect effect of advertising restrictions by evaluating the effect of the policies on the degree of concentration in the tobacco market. By using the variation between countries in timing of adoption of advertising restrictions, I estimate difference-in-difference models to examine the effect of an advertising ban on market-concentration, as measured by HHI. I find that advertising bans lead to an increase in market-concentration: HHI increased by 0.06 points for countries that adopted a ban between 2001 and 2017 conditional on trade and socio-economic characteristics, representing a 13% increase with respect to the mean (0.44). The effect is higher in developing countries (0.08 points increase). Further, I find that 'comprehensive' restrictions have a stronger impact on concentration, and 'limited' restrictions have little or no impact. These findings point to an important trade-off for policymakers: on one hand, advertising restrictions are likely to reduce consumption of cigarettes; on the other hand, due to an increase in market-concentration, they may be giving more power to tobacco companies.


Assuntos
/legislação & jurisprudência , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Marketing/normas , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria do Tabaco/normas , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos do Tabaco/normas , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Marketing/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547350

RESUMO

Food packaging is used for marketing purposes, providing consumers with information about product attributes at the point-of-sale and thus influencing food choice. The Australian government focuses on voluntary policies to address inappropriate food marketing, including the Health Star Rating nutrition label. This research explored the way marketing via packaging information influences Australian parents' ability to select healthy foods for their children, and who parents believe should be responsible for helping them. Five 90-min focus groups were conducted by an experienced facilitator in Perth, Western Australia. Four fathers and 33 mothers of children aged 2-8 years participated. Group discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim and inductive thematic content analysis conducted using NVivo11. Seven themes were derived: (1) pressure of meeting multiple demands; (2) desire to speed up shopping; (3) feeding them well versus keeping them happy; (4) lack of certainty in packaging information; (5) government is trusted and should take charge; (6) food manufacturers' health messages are not trusted; (7) supermarkets should assist parents to select healthy foods. Food packaging information appears to be contributing to parents' uncertainty regarding healthy food choices. Supermarkets could respond to parents' trust in them by implementing structural policies, providing shopping environments that support and encourage healthy food choices.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferências Alimentares , Alimentos/economia , Política de Saúde , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comércio , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Austrália Ocidental
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(8)2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387257

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Although studies have elucidated the significant biomedical potential of biogenic metallic nanoparticles (MNPs), it is very important to explore the hazards associated with the use of biogenic MNPs. Evidence indicates that genetic toxicity causes mutation, carcinogenesis, and cell death. Materials and Methods: Therefore, we systematically review original studies that investigated the genotoxic effect of biologically synthesized MNPs via in vitro and in vivo models. Articles were systematically collected by screening the literature published online in the following databases; Cochrane, Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, ProQuest, and EBSCO. Results: Most of the studies were carried out on the MCF-7 cancer cell line and phytosynthesis was the general approach to MNP preparation in all studies. Fungi were the second most predominant resource applied for MNP synthesis. A total of 80.57% of the studies synthesized biogenic MNPs with sizes below 50 nm. The genotoxicity of Ag, Au, ZnO, TiO2, Se, Cu, Pt, Zn, Ag-Au, CdS, Fe3O4, Tb2O3, and Si-Ag NPs was evaluated. AgNPs, prepared in 68.79% of studies, and AuNPs, prepared in 12.76%, were the two most predominant biogenic MNPs synthesized and evaluated in the included articles. Conclusions: Although several studies reported the antigenotoxic influence of biogenic MNPs, most of them reported biogenic MNP genotoxicity at specific concentrations and with a dose or time dependence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to systematically evaluate the genotoxicity of biologically synthesized MNPs and provide a valuable summary of genotoxicity data. In conclusion, our study implied that the genotoxicity of biologically synthesized MNPs varies case-by-case and highly dependent on the synthesis parameters, biological source, applied assay, etc. The gathered data are required for the translation of these nanoproducts from research laboratories to the clinical market.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/efeitos adversos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Humanos , Marketing/métodos , Marketing/normas
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