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2.
Am J Public Health ; 110(3): 329-336, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944842

RESUMO

Objectives. To investigate the transfer of marketing knowledge and infrastructure for targeting racial/ethnic minorities from the tobacco to the food and beverage industry in the United States.Methods. We analyzed internal industry documents between April 2018 and April 2019 from the University of California San Francisco Truth Tobacco Industry Documents Library, triangulated with other sources.Results. In the 1980s, Philip Morris Companies purchased General Foods and Kraft Foods and created Kraft General Foods. Through centralized marketing initiatives, Philip Morris Companies directly transferred expertise, personnel, and resources from its tobacco to its food subsidiaries, creating a racial/ethnic minority-targeted food and beverage marketing program modeled on its successful cigarette program. When Philip Morris Companies sold Kraft General Foods in 2007, Kraft General Foods had a "fully integrated" minority marketing program that combined target marketing with racial/ethnic events promotion, racial/ethnic media outreach, and corporate donations to racial/ethnic leadership groups, making it a food industry leader.Conclusions. The tobacco industry directly transferred racial/ethnic minority marketing knowledge and infrastructure to food and beverage companies. Given the substantial growth of food and beverage corporations, their targeting of vulnerable populations, and obesity-related disparities, public policy and community action is needed to address corporate target marketing.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Indústria Alimentícia/organização & administração , Marketing/métodos , Grupos Minoritários , Indústria do Tabaco/organização & administração , Indústria Alimentícia/história , Indústria Alimentícia/métodos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Marketing/economia , Marketing/história , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Indústria do Tabaco/história , Indústria do Tabaco/métodos , Estados Unidos
4.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 41, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Wuliang Mountains of the Jingdong region is a settlement area of the Yi community located in south-western Yunnan Province in China. Due to its unique geographical location, this area harbours abundant medicinal plant resources. The medicinal plants used by the local people have a long history and play an important role in their daily life. During the long-term mixed lifestyle, the knowledge of traditional medicinal plants in different communities has been assimilated to some extent. Therefore, this paper is based on ethnobotanical investigations to document traditional medicinal plants used by local people and discuss the differences between the Yi and Han communities in the study area. METHODS: Data on traditional medicinal plants were collected from September 2016 to August 2017 in the Yi autonomous county of Jingdong. Seven townships and 16 villages were selected for the field investigations. Information was obtained through key informant interviews. A total of 44 key informants were interviewed, and all of them were herbalists or herbal sellers. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 302 traditional medicinal plant species belonging to 117 families and 252 genera were investigated and documented, most of which were obtained from herbalists. Although family Asteraceae was the most prevalent, with 27 species, the most commonly utilized species were members of family Papaveraceae, Dactylicapnos scandens (D. Don) Hutch., which is used as an antipyretic drug. Herbs comprised half of the total number of species, and the whole plant is the most frequently utilized plant part. The plants were used to treat more than 93 human diseases, with antipyretic drugs being the most common form of herbal medicine. The traditional medicinal plants used in the study area possess a high ratio of being documented in the literature. According to the analysis, the Chinese Pharmacopoeia recorded 76 species and the Resources of Traditional Chinese Medicine recorded 233 species of traditional medicinal plants. By evaluating the endangered status of the traditional medicinal plants in the study area, we found good conservation status of the cited medicinal plants. Regarding the similarity between the communities, there were significant differences between the Yi and Han communities, as indicated by the Jaccard similarity index (0.232). CONCLUSIONS: Medicinal plants are the embodiment of wisdom from our ancestors and play a significant role in treating various human disorders. As one of the birthplaces of Yi medicine, the study area possesses a high species diversity of traditional medicinal plants used by local people. With the rapid development of modern medicine, however, the inheritance of this valuable culture is facing enormous threats even though its potential value has not yet been fully explored. Therefore, some effective protection measures should be taken, and some modern techniques should be implemented to prove the safety and improve the scientific acceptance of the traditional medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica/métodos , Marketing/economia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fitoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural
5.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(4): 366-372, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency, duration and nature of unhealthy marketing during the highest-rating sporting event in Australia in 2017. METHODS: A content analysis of the 2017 Australian Football League (AFL) Grand Final television broadcast identified episodes of unhealthy food and sugary drink, alcohol and gambling marketing (and pro-health marketing as a comparison). RESULTS: There were 559 unhealthy marketing episodes (47 minutes 17 seconds). Most (81%) were for unhealthy food and sugary drink products, while alcohol (9%) and gambling (10%) were less frequent. The total duration of unhealthy marketing was delivered primarily via fixed advertising (55%), dynamic advertising (32%) and branded objects (11%). For unhealthy food and sugary drinks, at least one episode was visible 25% of the time. For each of alcohol and gambling, at least one episode was visible 4% of the time. Unhealthy food and sugary drink marketing peaked in Quarter 2. Pro-health marketing was limited, with 26 episodes (2 minutes 59 seconds). CONCLUSIONS: The 2017 AFL Grand Final broadcast featured a high frequency and extensive duration of unhealthy marketing, especially for unhealthy food and sugary drink brands. Implications for public health: Findings strengthen evidence supporting calls to increase regulation of sport sponsorship by unhealthy brands.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Apoio Financeiro , Jogo de Azar , Marketing/economia , Esportes/economia , Televisão , Austrália , Alimentos , Futebol Americano , Humanos , Marketing/métodos , Futebol
6.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 16: E43, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950786

RESUMO

In 2015, the tobacco industry spent $8.24 billion to market tobacco products in convenience stores, supermarkets, pharmacies, and other retail or point-of-sale settings. Community tobacco control partnerships have numerous evidence-based policies (eg, tobacco retailer licensing and compliance, tobacco-free-school buffer zones, eliminating price discounts) to counter point-of-sale tobacco marketing. However, deciding which point-of-sale policies to implement - and when and in what order to implement them - is challenging. The objective of this article was to describe tools and other resources that local-level tobacco use prevention and control leaders can use to assemble the data they need to formulate point-of-sale tobacco policies that fit the needs of their communities, have potential for public health impact, and are feasible in the local policy environment. We were guided by Kingdon's theory of policy change, which contends that windows of policy opportunity open when 3 streams align: a clear problem, a solution to the problem, and the political will to work for change. Community partnerships can draw on 7 data "springs" to activate Kingdon's streams: 1) epidemiologic and surveillance data, 2) macro retail environment data, 3) micro retail environment data, 4) the current policy context, 5) local legal feasibility of policy options, 6) the potential for public health impact, and 7) political will.


Assuntos
Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Marketing/economia , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria do Tabaco/métodos , Produtos do Tabaco/economia
7.
BioDrugs ; 33(3): 299-306, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diverging approaches towards market entry and uptake of biosimilars, even within a country, leads to regional variation in biosimilar use. This is the case in Sweden, where the 21 county councils control the healthcare budget and offer regional guidance. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyse the market dynamics of originator and biosimilar etanercept (outpatient setting) in the different counties of Sweden, and examine the influence of local policy measures and practices, in addition to national policy. METHODS: This study was performed in three steps: (1) a structured review of the literature on (biosimilar) policies in Sweden; (2) analysis of market data on the counties' originator and biosimilar etanercept uptake (quarter two 2012 to quarter four 2017) provided by IQVIA™; and (3) discussion of findings in face-to-face semi-structured interviews with the national pricing and reimbursement agency, key experts in the county councils of Skåne, Västra Götaland and Stockholm, and an industry representative. RESULTS: Notwithstanding the existence of a national managed entry agreement for etanercept, wide variations in biosimilar market shares between counties were observed (40-82% in 2017). Over time, early and late adopters of biosimilar etanercept can be distinguished. In quarter four 2017, biosimilar market shares of all counties slightly decreased in accordance with the lower priced originator product from 1 October 2017. As prescriptions for treatment with etanercept are often provided for a year, two approaches are possible to switch patients: active pullback of prescriptions resulting in additional workload, or wait until the patient's next visit. Qualitative analysis indicated that the choice to use the biosimilar or the originator product depends on differences in rebated prices of the biosimilar and originator product, the presence of key opinion leaders, local guidelines, and financial streams and local gainsharing arrangements. Our estimates of current rebated prices and costs after gainsharing for the county councils and Government reveal only limited price differences between products. CONCLUSIONS: Regional variations in use of biosimilar etanercept can be seen although prices are coordinated nationally. This suggests that counties react differently to price differences and highlights the role of local policy and attitudes of stakeholders towards biosimilars and switching. It seems that some counties are hesitant to switch patients, as it is associated with an increased administrative workload that might not be compensated for by savings associated with a lower priced product.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Biossimilares/uso terapêutico , Indústria Farmacêutica/legislação & jurisprudência , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/economia , Medicamentos Biossimilares/economia , Custos de Medicamentos , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Etanercepte/economia , Etanercepte/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Marketing/economia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Suécia
8.
Ther Deliv ; 10(2): 91-97, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729888

RESUMO

This industry update covers the period from 1 to 31 October 2018 and is based on information sourced from company press releases, scientific literature, patents and various news websites. With the expiry in Europe of AbbVie's (IL, USA) principal patent on Humira this month, the first biosimilar versions of the drug have been launched. AstraZeneca (Cambridge, UK) announced that is has out-licensed two none core drugs to Grunenthal (Aachen, German), while Pfizer (NY, USA) announced the creation of a new company, set up in collaboration with Bain Capital (MA, USA) to exploit Pfizer's clinical and preclinical assets in the neuroscience field. In digital health, 23andMe (CA, USA) announced that the US FDA has authorized marketing of one of its consumer genetic tests, that assesses the genetic factors that affect drug metabolization, hence the safety and efficacy of some drugs. Novartis (Basel, Switzerland) continued to grow its activities in digital health with the creation of the Novartis Biome, an incubator and support program for early-stage companies in this area. Novartis also announced that it has filed applications in the EU and USA for the approval of siponimod, a drug targeting secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and Roche (Basel, Switzerland) gained FDA approval for an antiviral treatment for influenza. Janssen (Beerse, Belgium) announced it had won a label extension for its blood glucose-lowering drug, Invokana®, for the reduction of cardiovascular events in diabetes. Roche presented data at ECTRIMS, a major annual conference on multiple sclerosis (MS), held in Berlin, Germany this month (10-12 October 2018), showing the potential benefits of administering its drug, Ocrevus, earlier in the treatment pathway for MS compared with other standard treatment. At the same event, Celgene (NJ, USA) presented results from a survey that showed MS patients' concern around brain atrophy and cognitive loss in MS, highlighting that the disease has a neurodegenerative as well as an inflammatory component. Novartis also presented a significant amount of data supporting its marketed drugs as well as its development pipeline in the disease. This month, presentation of data from two studies at the American Academy of Ophthalmology annual meeting (27-30 October 2018, Chicago, IL, USA) further supporting the potential of eye scans in the early detection of Alzheimer's. A paper by a research team at the University of Rochester (NY, USA) demonstrated the feasibility of a new mechanism to transport drugs across the blood-brain barrier, which could help development more effective CNS drugs.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Biossimilares/economia , Indústria Farmacêutica , Marketing/economia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos Biossimilares/uso terapêutico , Aprovação de Drogas/economia , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/economia , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Telemedicina , Úlcera/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1931: 223-243, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652294

RESUMO

Sorghum retains a crucial role in Sub-Saharan Africa for food and in the future feed. Unfortunately, the movement of sorghum technology onto farmers' fields in Sub-Saharan Africa has been slow in spite of substantial research since the great African drought of 1968-1973. What is necessary to get African sorghum yields and profitability up?After reviewing the situation of sorghum in the world, the USA, and Sub-Saharan Africa from 2007 to 2017 the results and the lessons of a twelve-year program in the Sahel of West Africa to introduce new sorghum technology and marketing strategies are the focus of the rest of the paper. In Mali, the program identified new technologies that were extended into a large number of farmers' associations. The Mali program then collaborated with two other agencies to scale up this pilot program. The pilot project demonstrated that yields with moderate fertilization, new varieties, and improved agronomic practices could be increased 50 to 100% and prices increased 30 to 50%. The 2012 military coup and then invasion of Al Queda from the north shut down both the pilot and the scaling up activities as the US government banned collaboration with Malian government agencies after the coup. The pilots were continued in Niger and Burkina Faso through 2014 and then with a Gates Foundation grant from 2014 to 2016. The pilot program in Mali responded to two of the three Second Generation problems identified. But more significantly the pilot project identified the lack of funds for responding to Second Generation problems as a major constraint for implementing a technology-marketing program in a low-income country.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/economia , Pobreza/economia , Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Fertilização , Humanos , Mali , Marketing/economia , Projetos Piloto , Dinâmica Populacional , Estados Unidos
11.
Public Health ; 166: 1-9, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and drink ('junk food') brands sponsoring sport is a growing public health concern. This study explored sports administrators' perceptions of the barriers to rejecting junk food sponsorship. STUDY DESIGN: This study used concept mapping. METHODS: The Concept Systems Global MAX™ web platform was used to collect and analyse data from 29 sports administrators across all levels of sport in Victoria, Australia. RESULTS: Brainstorming generated 33 barriers to rejecting junk food sponsorship. After the barriers were synthesised and edited, participants sorted and rated 32 barriers. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis identified a four-cluster solution: community attitudes and values (seven barriers); junk food is the easy sell (retail; five barriers); financial viability (16 barriers); and organisational capability (policy and governance; four barriers). The financial viability barriers were rated the most important (mean = 3.65 of 5) and the hardest to overcome (1.42). The organisational capability (policy and governance) barriers were rated the least important (2.14) and the easiest to overcome (3.20). CONCLUSIONS: Sports administrators clearly perceive that rejecting junk food sponsorship could place significant financial strain on their organisations. There appears to be considerable scope to build the capacity of sporting organisations to rejecting junk food sponsorship. Despite the literature indicating that most parents think junk food companies are not suitable sponsors, sports administrators perceive that there is a broad public acceptance of junk food sponsorship in sport. The fact that sports administrators perceive a link between junk food sponsorship and the lack of healthy options at club canteens and venue food outlets adds an additional, not previously identified, level of complexity to the junk food sponsorship in sport debate.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Fast Foods , Apoio Financeiro , Marketing/economia , Esportes/economia , Formação de Conceito , Humanos , Percepção , Vitória
12.
Tob Control ; 28(2): 146-151, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29853561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While national surveys showed declines in e-cigarette use in the USA between 2015 and 2016, recent reports indicate that JUUL, a sleekly designed e-cigarette that looks like a USB drive, is increasingly being used by youth and young adults. However, the extent of JUUL's growth and its marketing strategy have not been systematically examined. METHODS: A variety of data sources were used to examine JUUL retail sales in the USA and its marketing and promotion. Retail store scanner data were used to capture the retail sales of JUUL and other major e-cigarette brands for the period 2011-2017. A list of JUUL-related keywords was used to identify JUUL-related tweets on Twitter; to identify JUUL-related posts, hashtags and accounts on Instagram and to identify JUUL-related videos on YouTube. RESULTS: In the short 3-year period 2015-2017, JUUL has transformed from a little-known brand with minimum sales into the largest retail e-cigarette brand in the USA, lifting sales of the entire e-cigarette category. Its US$150 million retail sales in the last quarter of 2017 accounted for about 40% of e-cigarette retail market share. While marketing expenditures for JUUL were moderate, the sales growth of JUUL was accompanied by a variety of innovative, engaging and wide-reaching campaigns on Twitter, Instagram and YouTube, conducted by JUUL and its affiliated marketers. CONCLUSIONS: The discrepancies between e-cigarette sales data and the prevalence of e-cigarette use from surveys highlight the challenges in tracking and understanding the use of new and emerging tobacco products. In a rapidly changing media environment, where successful and influential marketing campaigns can be conducted on social media at little cost, marketing expenditures alone may not fully capture the influence, reach and engagement of tobacco marketing.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/economia , Marketing/economia , Marketing/estatística & dados numéricos , Vaping/economia , Comércio/tendências , Humanos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/tendências , Estados Unidos
13.
Int J Psychol ; 54(1): 23-32, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28075007

RESUMO

Google Books Ngram was used to assess changes in frequency of usage in words corresponding to collectivistic and individualistic values in Russia during the time of economic changes. It was found that in many domains transition to market economy was associated with a rise in the use of words corresponding to individualistic values and a decrease in the use of words associated with collectivistic values. In several cases, words corresponding to collectivistic terms were used more often than words corresponding to individualistic values. The results suggest that economic changes lead to a change in values structure, but that individualistic and collectivistic values can co-exist because of the transitional sate of the Russian society.


Assuntos
Marketing/economia , Valores Sociais , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Individualidade , Idioma , Federação Russa
14.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(2): 220-226, 2019 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253208

RESUMO

Objectives: This experiment tested whether introducing graphic antitobacco posters at point-of-sale (POS) had any effect on adolescents' susceptibility to future cigarette smoking and whether these effects were moderated by adolescents' baseline risk of cigarette smoking. Methods: The study was conducted in the RAND StoreLab, a life-sized replica of a convenience store that was developed to experimentally evaluate how changing aspects of tobacco advertising displays in retail POS environments influence tobacco use risk and behavior during simulated shopping experiences. In this study, 441 adolescents were randomized to one of the four conditions in a 2 (graphic antismoking poster placed near the tobacco power wall: no, yes) × 2 (graphic antismoking poster placed near the cash register: no, yes) experimental design. The outcome of interest was susceptibility to future cigarette smoking. Results: The addition of antismoking posters at POS led to a significant increase in future smoking susceptibility among those adolescents who already were at high risk for smoking in the future (p < .045). The introduction of graphic antismoking posters had no impact on committed never smokers, regardless of poster location; never smokers' susceptibility to future smoking was uniformly low across experimental conditions. Conclusions: Introducing graphic antismoking posters at POS may have the unintended effect of further increasing cigarette smoking susceptibility among adolescents already at risk.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Marketing/tendências , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/tendências , Adolescente , /métodos , Criança , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing/economia , Marketing/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/economia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Fumar Tabaco/economia
15.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2018: 6587049, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30532771

RESUMO

This work proposes a methodology that reduces the error of future estimations in commercialization based on multivariate spatial prediction techniques (cokriging) considering the products with strong associations. It is based on the Apriori algorithm to find association rules in sales of agricultural products of local markets. Results show the improvement in spatial prediction accuracy after using the best association rules.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Comércio , Mineração de Dados , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Marketing/economia , Animais , Comércio/economia , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Equador , Humanos , Gado , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos
16.
PLoS Med ; 15(12): e1002712, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In response to public concerns and campaigns, some United Kingdom supermarkets have implemented policies to reduce less-healthy food at checkouts. We explored the effects of these policies on purchases of less-healthy foods commonly displayed at checkouts. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a natural experimental design and two data sources providing complementary and unique information. We analysed data on purchases of small packages of common, less-healthy, checkout foods (sugary confectionary, chocolate, and potato crisps) from 2013 to 2017 from nine UK supermarkets (Aldi, Asda, Co-op, Lidl, M&S, Morrisons, Sainsbury's, Tesco, and Waitrose). Six supermarkets implemented a checkout food policy between 2013 and 2017 and were considered intervention stores; the remainder were comparators. Firstly, we studied the longitudinal association between implementation of checkout policies and purchases taken home. We used data from a large (n ≈ 30,000) household purchase panel of food brought home to conduct controlled interrupted time series analyses of purchases of less-healthy common checkout foods from 12 months before to 12 months after implementation. We conducted separate analyses for each intervention supermarket, using others as comparators. We synthesised results across supermarkets using random effects meta-analyses. Implementation of a checkout food policy was associated with an immediate reduction in four-weekly purchases of common checkout foods of 157,000 (72,700-242,800) packages per percentage market share-equivalent to a 17.3% reduction. This decrease was sustained at 1 year with 185,100 (121,700-248,500) fewer packages purchased per 4 weeks per percentage market share-equivalent to a 15.5% reduction. The immediate, but not sustained, effect was robust to sensitivity analysis. Secondly, we studied the cross-sectional association between checkout food policies and purchases eaten without being taken home. We used data from a smaller (n ≈ 7,500) individual purchase panel of food bought and eaten 'on the go'. We conducted cross-sectional analyses comparing purchases of common checkout foods in 2016-2017 from supermarkets with and without checkout food policies. There were 76.4% (95% confidence interval 48.6%-89.1%) fewer annual purchases of less-healthy common checkout foods from supermarkets with versus without checkout food policies. The main limitations of the study are that we do not know where in the store purchases were selected and cannot determine the effect of changes in purchases on consumption. Other interventions may also have been responsible for the results seen. CONCLUSIONS: There is a potential impact of checkout food polices on purchases. Voluntary supermarket-led activities may have public health benefits.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Características da Família , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/tendências , Marketing/tendências , Política Nutricional/tendências , Lanches/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/economia , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/métodos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Marketing/economia , Marketing/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Nutricional/economia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 79(6): 881-892, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573019

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to document exposure to alcohol advertising by sex, age, and the level and type of alcohol people consume. METHOD: We use unique marketing survey data that link the media individuals consume and advertising appearing in those media. Our sample of 306,451 men and women represents the population age 18 and older living in the 48 contiguous United States between 1996 and 2009. We measure advertising exposure not with the standard expenditure data but with counts of actual advertisements people likely saw. We relate advertising exposure across groups defined by age, gender, and the amount of beer, wine, and spirits consumed. RESULTS: We found that drinkers, particularly young male drinkers, see much more alcohol advertising. Men, especially younger men, see more advertisements for alcohol of all types than do women. Their higher exposure is largely explained by sex differences in the propensity to read sports and adult magazines and to watch sports and gambling television programs. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence highlights the need to recognize, and when possible, control for the fact that a selected group of individuals is more likely to see alcohol advertising. Firms successfully place advertising on programs and in magazines viewed by youth and drinkers. To estimate whether seeing advertising causes people to drink (more), researchers need to develop clever identification strategies.


Assuntos
/tendências , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências , Televisão/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing/economia , Marketing/tendências , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/economia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Televisão/economia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 15(1): 111, 2018 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted coupons strongly influence purchasing behavior and may represent an innovative approach for improving dietary behaviors. METHODS: The retail analytics firm, Dunnhumby, provided secondary retail data containing grocery transactions, targeted coupon exposures, and coupon use for 2500 households over 2-years. The USDA Quarterly At-Home Food Purchasing Database was used to categorize individual foods into 52 categories and combined into 12 food groups. Mixed effects linear models estimated the difference-in-difference effects of coupon exposure on category-level purchase rate/wk. pre- and post-campaign; models also tested effect modification by food category. RESULTS: Category-level food purchases significantly increased post-campaign. Mean (SD) food purchases/wk. Among exposed households (17.34 (13.08) units/wk) vs. unexposed households (3.75 (4.59) units/wk) were higher (p < 0.001). Difference-in-difference effects of coupon exposure showed a higher increase in purchase rate among exposed vs. unexposed households (5.73 vs. 0.67, p < 0.001). Food category significantly modified the association between coupon exposure and coupon campaign. Category-level purchase rate among exposed vs. unexposed households was relatively higher in less healthful (e.g. convenience foods) vs. more healthful categories (e.g. nuts) with a 1.17 unit/wk. increase in convenience foods purchase (p < 0.001) vs. a 0.03 unit/wk. increase in nuts (p < 0.001). Exploratory analyses suggested that price elasticity of food categories for targeted coupons (1.02-2.81) was higher than previous estimates for untargeted coupons. CONCLUSION: Across food categories, coupon exposure increased category-level purchase rate, with a relatively larger effect size for less healthful than more healthful categories. Promising results from this preliminary study suggest that experimental research is warranted to determine whether targeting with the explicit purpose of improving dietary quality can more effectively influence diet, and whether it can do so more cost effectively.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Marketing/economia , Comércio , Análise Custo-Benefício , Características da Família , Fast Foods/economia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
19.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 33: 37-41, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236835

RESUMO

This paper explores institutional drivers for developing MOOCs by juxtaposing them against the original drivers for generating MOOCs: to offer open access education. However, the original impetus for MOOC development may be shifting towards a business oriented model. Therefore, instead of contributing to corporate social responsibility and inclusivity agendas facilitating open access to education, MOOCs are akin to an institution's shop window allowing the pseudo 'purchaser' the opportunity to glimpse behind the scenes. Hence, we ask: are MOOCs merely a sophisticated form of window dressing, showing pseudo 'purchasers' what institutions want them to see enticing them to purchase more lucrative products? Notwithstanding the motivation for developing MOOCs participants must first access them. Therefore the paper examines what MOOCs actually offer participants who are likely to access them and concludes by examining how MOOCs can be developed to facilitate better completion rates and encourage wider participation from hard to access groups.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância/normas , Internet , Aprendizagem , Marketing/economia , Responsabilidade Social , Educação a Distância/métodos , Tecnologia Educacional , Humanos , Populações Vulneráveis
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