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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 163, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952807

RESUMO

From an epidemic in December to a global pandemic in early March, COVID-19 arrived on Moroccan soil on March 2nd and ophthalmology consultations decreased considerably. The majority of ophthalmologists come to the fore to ensure continuity of care and emergency care following health regulations. We developed a questionnaire to collect information on the general approach of 35 ophthalmologists regarding the impact of COVID -19 on consultation activities. The results of the survey objectified that 88.57% of the ophthalmologists surveyed maintained their consultation activities; ¾ of them only treated urgent cases or patients whose condition required undelayed management. The majority of ophthalmologists reported a decrease in consultations of at least 90% compared to their standard workflow. Active ophthalmologists believe that the risk of being infected or infecting their patients and others ranges from medium to high in the majority of cases despite protective barrier gestures.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oftalmologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Oftalmologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Pandemias
2.
Sleep Med ; 74: 248-253, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lockdown of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) is associated with several stressful factors that can negatively affect peoples' sleep quality and mental health. OBJECTIVES: We conducted this study to evaluate sleep disorders and psychological impact associated with the spread of the COVID-19 and the lockdown on the Moroccan population. We also aimed to study the effects of respondents' beliefs and attitudes about sleep on sleep disorders, anxiety-related symptoms, and depressive symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used a questionnaire enclosing respondents' sociodemographic information, five psychological and behavioral tests including Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep (DBAS-16), Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) test. RESULTS: Our results highlighted widespread false beliefs about sleep and the prevalence of sleep disorders, anxiety, and depression-related symptoms within the Moroccan population. Nearly 82.3% of respondents revealed false beliefs about sleep. Furthermore, we confirmed a strong positive correlation between knowledge and attitudes about sleep and the prevalence of sleep disorders, anxiety, and depression-related symptoms. However, we found no significant difference in the prevalence of sleep and psychological disorders, between healthcare workers and other professions workers. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed a high prevalence of sleep disorders, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in the Moroccan population during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Moreover, false beliefs on sleep understanding were prevalent and were presenting a risk factor leading to sleep disorders, anxiety, and depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Isolamento Social , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 602, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine for the first time, in Morocco, the nasal carriage rate, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and virulence genes of Staphylococcus. aureus isolated from animals and breeders in close contact. METHODS: From 2015 to 2016, 421 nasal swab samples were collected from 26 different livestock areas in Tangier. Antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes were determined by disk diffusion according to EUCAST 2015. The presence of nuc, mecA, mecC, lukS/F-PV, and tst genes were determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for all isolates. RESULTS: The overall S. aureus nasal carriage rate was low in animals (9.97%) and high in breeders (60%) with a statistically significant difference, (OR = 13.536; 95% CI = 7.070-25.912; p < 0.001). In general, S. aureus strains were susceptible to the majority of antibiotics and the highest resistance rates were found against tetracycline (16.7% in animals and 10% in breeders). No Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in animals and breeders. A high rate of tst and lukS/F-PV genes has been recovered only from animals (11.9 and 16.7%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Despite the lower rate of nasal carriage of S. aureus and the absence of MRSA strains in our study, S. aureus strains harbored a higher frequency of tst and lukS/F-PV virulence genes, which is associated to an increased risk of infection dissemination in humans. This highlights the need for further larger and multi-center studies to better define the transmission of the pathogenic S. aureus between livestock, environment, and humans.


Assuntos
Nariz/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Portador Sadio , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Leucocidinas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nuclease do Micrococo/genética , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Virulência/genética
4.
Cancer Control ; 27(3): 1073274820941973, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755231

RESUMO

The world is facing the pandemic linked to COVID-19 virus infection that has rapidly spread worldwide, and severe complications have been reported to occur in around a third of patients. To date, there is no approved vaccine or specific therapy against COVID-19, but many trials are ongoing with some of them showing promising results. It has been shown recently that patients with cancer are at high risk of infection and they are more susceptible to develop severe events such as the necessity of invasive ventilation and death. Therefore, this crisis presents a real challenge for health systems especially in low- and middle-income countries where the health systems are already fragile such as African countries. In this article, we describe the epidemiological situation of the infection in Morocco and the different challenges in cancer centers in the era of COVID-19, in addition to various strategies that have been implemented to prevent and control the infection spread in oncological units in order to ensure the continuation of adequate cancer care.


Assuntos
Institutos de Câncer/normas , Institutos de Câncer/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Oncologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008410, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735585

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a major zoonosis in Morocco despite the launch of a national control programme in 2005. As its economic consequences have not been studied yet in Morocco, this study estimated CE impact in terms of monetary losses, disability-adjusted life years (DALY), and DALY for zoonotic diseases (zDALY) in the entire country and in specific regions for the 2011 to 2014 period. The direct monetary losses were related to organ seizure from infected animal in slaughterhouses, and to healthcare expenses as well as lost wages for infected humans. Animal production losses concerned milk yield, fertility, carcass weight, and wool production. Losses due to human infection were also composed of disability and productivity losses at work. Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate monetary losses and zDALY values. Nationwide, the estimated DALY was 0.5 years per 100,000 persons per year, and the zDALY was 55 years per 100,000 persons per year. Total yearly losses were estimated at 73 million USD (54-92 million USD). However, losses differed significantly among regions. Most of the economic losses consisted of unperceived consequences, i.e. decreased animal production and reduced productivity of asymptomatic individuals. Future studies should determine the socioeconomic and epidemiological factors underlying the differences in economic losses among regions to develop better adapted control programmes.


Assuntos
Equinococose/economia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/economia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Animais , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Modelos Econômicos , Método de Monte Carlo , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Public Health ; 186: 83-86, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between ownership of a potted street garden (PSG) and depression levels in a densely populated, disadvantaged Moroccan neighbourhood. STUDY DESIGN: The study design used was a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Data were collected through a face-to-face survey conducted in January 2019. In total, there were 388 participants, in three densely populated neighbourhoods of the Beni-Makada district of Tangier, Morocco. We measured depression levels using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and data were analysed using weighted moderated ordinary least squared regression analysis. RESULTS: PSG ownership was associated with a .74-point increase in depression score (b = .74, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .38, 1.10, ß = .22, Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) = 1.15; P < .001). PSG ownership also moderated the negative association between depression levels and neighbourhood life satisfaction (F [3,336] = 5.058, P < .001, R2 change = .039). A one-level increase in PSG being perceived as a public amenity by their owners was associated with a .36-point decrease in depression score (b = -.36, 95% CI = -.71, -.01, ß = -.14, VIF = 1.08; P < .05), whereas a 1-min increase in PSG daily care duration was associated with .04-point increase in depression score (b = .04, 95% CI = .01, .06, ß = .24, VIF = 1.68; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that PSG ownership might have a negative impact on mental health in densely populated, disadvantaged neighbourhoods. This negative association might be due to the fact of PSGs being deemed as private property present in an unsafe and uncontrolled environment.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Jardins/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Propriedade , Saúde Pública , Qualidade de Vida , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto Jovem
8.
Trop Doct ; 50(4): 322-325, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605424

RESUMO

An epidemiological study on the stings of Pelagia noctiluca was carried out on four Mediterranean beaches in Morocco. Data were retrieved from patients seeking medical treatment after a jellyfish sting. A total of 1321 patients presented with P. noctiluca stings during the summer of 2018. Most of the injuries were observed in persons aged 11-20 years. The stings were located more on the lower (53%) than on the upper limbs (27%). A total of 61% of those seeking treatment were Moroccan tourists, 29% were local residents and 9% were foreign tourists. The main medications provided were antiseptics (54%), non-pharmacological treatments (41%) and antibiotics (4%). The continuing presence of P. noctiluca in the Moroccan Mediterranean makes it necessary to set effective strategies to prevent and minimise their impact.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Cifozoários , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Praias/estatística & dados numéricos , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
10.
Trop Doct ; 50(4): 317-321, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501173

RESUMO

Since 2004, no indigenous cases of schistosomiasis have been found in Morocco; only imported cases have been detected. The aim of the present study was to describe and analyse the epidemiological profile of imported schistosomiasis between 2005 and 2017, and, by this, attract attention to the probability of a reintroduction of this disease. During this period, 27 cases were recorded in Morocco, with a male predominance (13:1). All cases reported were found among African immigrants from Mauritania (37%), Mali (18%) and Senegal (15%). Schistosoma heamatobium was the most dominant specie. Most cases were reported in Rabat and Agadir, where there are many snail habitats. To prevent a re-emergence of the disease, the main challenge would be to consolidate and maintain a sustainable surveillance and control system of the importation of bilharzia. The frequency of asymptomatic schistosomiasis justifies a systematic health check-up for all travellers, migrants and immigrants.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/transmissão , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Schistosoma/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Caramujos/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Future Oncol ; 16(26): 2007-2016, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583680

RESUMO

Management of cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic is a worldwide challenge - in particular in developing countries where the risk of saturation of health facilities and intensive care beds must be minimized. The first case of COVID-19 was declared in Morocco on 2 March 2020, after which a panel of Moroccan experts, consisting of medical oncologists from universities and regional and private oncology centers, was promptly assembled to conduct a group reflection on cancer patient's management. The main objective is to protect the immunocompromised population from the risk of COVID-19, while maintaining an adequate management of cancer, which can quickly compromise their prognosis. Recommendations are provided according to each clinical situation: patients undergoing treatment, new cases, hospitalized patients, palliative care and surveillance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Oncologia/normas , Neoplasias/terapia , Oncologistas/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Oncologia/organização & administração , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
13.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 9769267, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565842

RESUMO

Since the epidemic of COVID-19 was declared in Wuhan, Hubei Province of China, and other parts of the world, several studies have been carried out over several regions to observe the development of the epidemic, to predict its duration, and to estimate its final size, using complex models such as the SEIR model or the simpler ones such as the SIR model. These studies showed that the SIR model is much more efficient than the SEIR model; therefore, we are applying this model in the Kingdom of Morocco since the appearance of the first case on 2 March 2020, with the objective of predicting the final size of the epidemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Pandemias
16.
Tunis Med ; 98(4): 266-282, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-250596

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The Maghreb Central, like all the countries of the world, was strongly mobilized (governments, ministries of health, population, civil society) in the response against COVID-19, immediately after the registration of the first cases on its territory (end of February, beginning of March) and according to pre-established control strategies. OBJECTIVES: Describe the perceptions of health professionals in the Central Maghreb (Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco) as to the Strengths/Opportunities and Weaknesses/Threats of the national response plans against COVID-19, during the first weeks of their execution, and report their proposals for optimizing the performance of control strategies. METHODS: This is a qualitative study of the perceptions of health professionals in the Maghreb Central regarding their experience of the first six weeks of fighting the COVID-19 pandemic. The data was collected using the "Delphi" technique in one turn, based on an electronic form such as "Google Form", developed according to SWOT analysis. The respondents' verbatim was grouped into homogeneous groups of items, the occurrence of which was subsequently measured. RESULTS: A total of 382 health professionals from the Maghreb Central participated in this study, with a median age of 37 years and a median professional tenure of 10 years. The major force of the Maghreb response strategies, the most shared by the respondents, was the performance of the human resources mobilized (doctors, biologists, nurses, etc.) who succeeded in quickly learning from the international epidemiological expertise accumulated in Asia and in Europe. The fight against COVID-19 in the Central Maghreb was confronted with the general and chronic fragility of the national health systems and the low support of the general population for the recommendations of the steering committees of response, threatening the capacity of the Maghreb to confront new epidemics. CONCLUSION: The success of the national response plans against COVID-19 and of possible epidemics or pandemics in the Central Maghreb, is strongly attributed to the commitment of health professionals and to community participation, necessitating the launch of assistant motivation programs. and development of health personnel and mobilization and loyalty of civil society.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Argélia/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Tunis Med ; 98(3): 175-190, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395811

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mortality, particularly at younger ages, is a key measure of population health. AIM: To describe under 5 children mortality trends and its related factors in the Great Maghreb countries over the last three decades 1994-2019. METHODS: We conducted an observational descriptive study to clarify the situation in the Maghreb countries with regard to the under-five death rates and the various causes related to them during the last three decades (1990-2019). The data was collected from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD). RESULTS: he overall trend for the five Maghreb countries was towards the decrease in the mortality rates for all age groups and for both sexes. Mauritania remains at the top of the list in term of the number of deaths followed directly by Morocco. The number of deaths of under-5 children is higher among boys in all Maghreb countries and the most affected age group is under 1 year old. Regarding the causes of under-5 mortality in Maghreb countries, the top-5 causes were similar; except in Mauritania where infectious diseases remain the leading under-5 mortality cause, like in other sub-Saharan countries. CONCLUSION: Despite the big drop in under 5 child Mortality rates, a lot remains to be done in Maghreb countries to improve children health.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Líbia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mauritânia/epidemiologia , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Tunísia/epidemiologia
19.
Tunis Med ; 98(4): 266-282, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395789

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The Maghreb Central, like all the countries of the world, was strongly mobilized (governments, ministries of health, population, civil society) in the response against COVID-19, immediately after the registration of the first cases on its territory (end of February, beginning of March) and according to pre-established control strategies. OBJECTIVES: Describe the perceptions of health professionals in the Central Maghreb (Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco) as to the Strengths/Opportunities and Weaknesses/Threats of the national response plans against COVID-19, during the first weeks of their execution, and report their proposals for optimizing the performance of control strategies. METHODS: This is a qualitative study of the perceptions of health professionals in the Maghreb Central regarding their experience of the first six weeks of fighting the COVID-19 pandemic. The data was collected using the "Delphi" technique in one turn, based on an electronic form such as "Google Form", developed according to SWOT analysis. The respondents' verbatim was grouped into homogeneous groups of items, the occurrence of which was subsequently measured. RESULTS: A total of 382 health professionals from the Maghreb Central participated in this study, with a median age of 37 years and a median professional tenure of 10 years. The major force of the Maghreb response strategies, the most shared by the respondents, was the performance of the human resources mobilized (doctors, biologists, nurses, etc.) who succeeded in quickly learning from the international epidemiological expertise accumulated in Asia and in Europe. The fight against COVID-19 in the Central Maghreb was confronted with the general and chronic fragility of the national health systems and the low support of the general population for the recommendations of the steering committees of response, threatening the capacity of the Maghreb to confront new epidemics. CONCLUSION: The success of the national response plans against COVID-19 and of possible epidemics or pandemics in the Central Maghreb, is strongly attributed to the commitment of health professionals and to community participation, necessitating the launch of assistant motivation programs. and development of health personnel and mobilization and loyalty of civil society.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Argélia/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(2): 139-146, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319942

RESUMO

The pre-analytical step of the cytobacteriological examination of urine (CBEU) is one of the most critical in microbiology. The objectives of our study were to determine the rate of urinary contamination and to analyze the factors that would facilitate this in order to propose solutions to this problem. METHOD: This is a 26-month descriptive study including all CBEU requests to our laboratory. Urine was treated in accordance with the recommendations of the medical microbiology recommendations. Urine was considered contaminated in the case of polymorphic culture with at least three different types of germs with a count from 103 CFU/mL. RESULTS: We collected 16,412 CBEU requests. Urine was contaminated in 4,830 cases (29.43%). Of the contaminated urine, 39.23% (n=1,895) was from emergency departments, 79.44% (n=3,837) was collected in the middle of the stream, 69.83% (n=3,373) was from a female patient and 16.34% (n=789) was from children under the age of 5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: To reduce urine contamination, quality instructions describing sampling procedures should be available and samples in the middle of the stream and through the collection adhesive bags should be replaced by sus-pubic puncture samples in children, whenever the profit/risk ratio of this method is favourable.


Assuntos
Urinálise/normas , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Coleta de Urina/normas , Urina/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Fase Pré-Analítica/normas , Fase Pré-Analítica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Urinálise/métodos , Urinálise/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Coleta de Urina/métodos , Coleta de Urina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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