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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 283, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754360

RESUMO

Self-denial and sense of duty are fundamental ethical principles in health care. Since the outbreak of health crisis, healthcare workers have been the first bulwark against the spread of coronavirus, and therefore, the occupational category at higher risk of contamination. In this regard, in a statement dated 23 March 2020, the World Health Organization published a guidance regarding the management of the disease caused by Covid-19 in health workers, but also in workers employed in all sectors exposed to the risk of contamination. In Morocco, the Ministry of Health published on April 6, on its official website, a condolence message to the families of the first two doctors died following contraction of coronavirus, while specifying that coronavirus infection was not due to the exercise of their professional functions. The Minister of Labor and Professional Integration recently appointed an internal committee to undertake a reflection on this issue. At present, given Morocco's law, what are the chances to categorize coronavirus as an occupational disease?


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , SARS-CoV-2
2.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(9): 911-917, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569047

RESUMO

Background: Sandflies are active vectors of several diseases, including leishmaniasis, which Morocco hopes to eliminate by 2030. Despite efforts to limit their spread, they still remain a public health problem in the country, as the behaviour of individuals in relation to sandflies plays an important role in the sustainability of the epidemiological cycle. Aims: To explore and determine the knowledge and behaviours related to sandfly diseases. Methods: A quantitative method was adopted using a questionnaire assisted by a personal interview. Based on the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis cases reported in recent years in Al-Hajeb province, we conducted a field survey among 281 persons in April and May 2019 residing in the communities where the cases of the disease are registered. Results: 61.6% of Moroccans know sandflies by the name "Chniwla"; 44.1% thought that sandflies do not transmit diseases; 41.3% thought they multiplied in contaminated water; 52.7% thought sandfly bites could not be avoided; and 6.4% recognized the role of individuals in the fight against vectors. Conclusions: The need to raise public awareness of the risks of sandflies, using the popular concepts obtained to simplify scientific terms and formulate targeted health education strategies that make the individual an active player in vector control.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animais , Humanos , Insetos Vetores , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Marrocos/epidemiologia
3.
Arab J Gastroenterol ; 22(3): 229-235, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: In developing countries, endemic indications, blood shortages, and the scarcity of liver surgeons and intensive care providers can affect liver resection (LR) outcomes, but these have been rarely addressed in the literature. Therefore, in this study we determined risk factors for major complications after LR in a North African general surgery and teaching department. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2010 to December 2015, 213 consecutive LRs were performed on 203 patients. All patients underwent a postoperative follow-up of >90 days. Postoperative complications were assessed according to the Clavien-Dindo (CD) classification of surgical complications. A score of CD ≥III is considered as major postoperative complications. In this study, we analyzed the variables assumed to affect these complications. RESULTS: The overall 90-day complication rate was 35.7% (n = 76), including a CD ≥III of 14% (n = 30) and a mortality rate of 6.1% (n = 14). According to the multivariate analysis, a preoperative performance status (PS) of ≥2 (P = 0.011; odds ratios [OR], 6.8; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.55-29.8), an estimated intraoperative blood loss of >500 ml (P = 0.002; OR, 3.71; 95% CI, 1.23-11.20), and bilioenteric anastomosis (P < 0.004; OR, 7.76; 95% CI, 1.5-3.89) were independent risk factors for major complications after LR. CONCLUSION: We recommend that, in the setting of a non-Eastern/non-Western general surgery and teaching department, patients with a PS of ≥2 should undergo a specific selection and preoperative optimization protocol; intermittent clamping indications should be extended; and special attention should paid to patients undergoing LR associated with biliary reconstruction, such as for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Hepatectomia , Hepatectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fígado , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Future Oncol ; 17(35): 4871-4882, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472365

RESUMO

Objective: Our study goal was to evaluate the behavioral response and practices of cancer patients to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Middle East and north Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a validated anonymous 45-question survey administered via SurveyMonkey® to cancer patients in 13 centers in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco and Saudi Arabia. Results: During the study period (from 21 April to 30 May 2020), 3642 patients participated in the study. The majority of patients (84.81%) were worried about contracting the infection. The reported strict adherence to precautions included avoiding the following actions: hand-shaking (77.40%), hugging and kissing (82.89%), social gathering (90.09%), meeting friends (84.68%) and visiting markets (75.65%). In a multivariate analysis, patients with poor precautionary practices were about twice as likely to cancel their medical appointment or a treatment session. Conclusion: Improving cancer patients' knowledge of and adherence to precautionary measures is needed not just to reduce the risk of acquiring infection but also to minimize the interruption of their medical care.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/virologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/psicologia , Neoplasias/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 374, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367453

RESUMO

Introduction: the problem of malnutrition among children is a phenomenon associated with a rapid nutrition transition in Morocco and all developing countries. The objective of this study is to evaluate the nutritional status by anthropometry, food consumption and iron deficiency anemia among primary school children aged 6-12 years in Kenitra city (Morocco). Methods: the survey covered 271 students (55% of boys and 45% girls) aged 6 to 12. Information concerning food consumption patterns, socioeconomic status and other lifestyle factors was obtained using questionnaires and interviews. Anemia was defined when haemoglobin < 11.5 g/dl. Results: the results showed that, 6.3%, 2.2% and 17.3% children were stunted, thin and overweight respectively. No significant association was found between gender and nutritional status of children. 16.2% children were anemic and food consumption found not to be varied and below recommendations. Conclusion: the finding in this study showed that overweight and obesity occurred more frequently than the various forms of under nutrition in the population studied. The finding support the urgent need to improve the nutritional status of children by implementing preventive strategy for the problem of malnutrition among school-aged children.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Antropometria , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Afr Health Sci ; 21(1): 23-31, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394277

RESUMO

Background: Obesity constitutes a major risk factor for the development of diabetes, and has been linked with poor glycaemic control among type 2 diabetic patients. Aims: This study examines the prevalence of overweight/obesity and associated factors in type 2 diabetic patients in the Beni-Mellal Khenifra region in Morocco. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2017 among 975 diabetes patients attending primary health centres. Demographic and clinical data were collected through face-to-face interviews. Anthropometric measurements, including body weight, height and waist circumference, were taken using standardized techniques and calibrated equipment. Results: The prevalence of overweight was 40.4%, the general obesity was 28.8% and the abdominal obesity was 73.7%. Using multivariate analysis, we noted that the general obesity was associated with female sex (AOR= 3,004, 95% CI: 1.761-5.104, P<0.001), increased age (AOR=2.192, 95% CI: 1.116-4.307, P<0.023) and good glycaemic control (AOR=1.594, 95% CI: 1.056-2.407, P=0.027), whereas abdominal obesity was associated wih female sex (AOR=2.654, 95% CI: 1.507-4.671, P<0.001) and insulin treatment (AOR=2.927, 95% CI: 1.031-8.757, P=0.048). Conclusion: Overweight, general obesity and abdominal obesity were high among participants, especially among women. Taken together, these findings urge the implementation of a roadmap for this diabetic subpopulation to have a new lifestyle.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e31930, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388104

RESUMO

This report aimed to provide an overview of the epidemiological situation of COVID-19 in Morocco and to review the actions carried out as part of the national response to this pandemic. The methodology adopted was based on literature review, interviews with officials and actors in the field, and remote discussion workshops with a multidisciplinary and multisectoral working group. Morocco took advantage of the capacities already strengthened within the framework of the application of the provisions of the International Health Regulations (IHR) of 2005. A SWOT analysis made it possible to note that an unprecedented political commitment enabled all the necessary means to face the pandemic and carry out all the response activities, including a campaign of relentless communication. Nevertheless, and despite the efforts made, the shortage of human resources, especially those qualified in intensive care and resuscitation, has been the main drawback to be addressed. The main lesson learned is a need to further strengthen national capacities to prepare for and respond to possible public health emergencies and to embark on a process overhaul of the health system, including research into innovative tools to ensure the continuity of the various disease prevention and control activities. In addition, response to a health crisis is not only the responsibility of the health sector but also intersectoral collaboration is needed to guarantee an optimal coordinated fight. Community-oriented approaches in public health have to be strengthened through more participation and involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society in operational and strategic planning.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19/métodos , Teste para COVID-19/normas , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/psicologia , Quarentena/normas , Recursos Humanos/normas
8.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 26: 335-341, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli are an increasingly significant cause of hospital- and community-acquired infections worldwide. Whereas several reports have highlighted their increased prevalence also in North African countries, genomic data on isolates associated with these infections are still scarce. This study aimed to provide data on ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from patients with extraintestinal infections at the Military Teaching Hospital Mohamed V of Rabat, Morocco. METHODS: Whole-genome sequencing was carried out on 18 ESBL-producing extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolates for analysis of phylogenomic evolution, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance genes. Data were compared with ExPEC lineages from several surrounding countries using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and single nucleotide polymorphism-based phylogenetic approaches. RESULTS: The majority of E. coli isolates were ST131 (n = 15), followed by ST617 (n = 2) and a novel sequence type (ST10703) that is closely related to the pandemic ST405 clone. All ST131 isolates belonged to the O25b-ST131 pandemic clone. They harboured more virulence genes than their non-ST131 counterparts. IncF plasmid replicons and the blaCTX-M-15 ß-lactamase gene were identified in all isolates. No ESBL-producing E. coli isolates carried any known carbapenemase gene. CONCLUSION: Our findings underscore the pre-eminence of ST131 as the major factor driving the expansion of ExPEC in the Rabat region while highlighting the potential links with isolates circulating in other neighbouring countries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Genômica , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , beta-Lactamases/genética
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071889

RESUMO

To assess whether knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of the COVID-19 pandemic predicted changes in behaviors among the general Moroccan population, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted between 30 March and 20 April involving a total of 14,157 participants. The statistical analysis of the data included univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Our results suggest that less than ten days after the Moroccan government announced "Health state of Emergency" response to the COVID-19 outbreak, public knowledge, attitude and responses to the pandemic were relatively high. More than half the respondents (63.2%) reported that they complied with more than five of nine recommended safety measures, including avoiding going out (93.2%), and frequent handwashing with soap and water (78.2%). Factors associated with an increased likelihood to adopt safety measures included perceptions that COVID-19 was a human health risk, the pandemic will continue for a long time, availability of clear information, and a lack of medicine. The largest predictor of safety behavior change was age; participants older than 55 were more likely to adopt recommended safety behaviors. Although knowledge and perception among the general public was reasonable, more encouragement from government via health education programs is needed to maintain appropriate behaviors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Cancer Educ ; 36(Suppl 1): 95-100, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046820

RESUMO

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in Morocco after cardiovascular diseases. Changes associated with societal and economic development, longevity of the population, and lifestyle changes contribute to increasing the burden of cancer in the Morocco. Despite the advances and achievements in cancer care in Morocco, more efforts are needed to better treat, control, and prevent cancer in Morocco. This manuscript illustrates the professional cancer education activities in Morocco over the past 10 years. The manuscript also illustrates the current cancer education and the needed future directions in the field in this middle-income country that is undergoing significant epidemiologic and lifestyle transitions and projections for increasing cancer incidence and mortality in the next few decades.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle
11.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(4): 373-380, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955533

RESUMO

Background: Acute lower respiratory infection is a major cause of death in children aged < 5 years in Morocco. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was introduced to the Moroccan National Immunization Programme in 2010. Aims: To investigate the trend in the incidence of acute lower respiratory infection in children aged < 5 years during 2005-2014 in Morocco. Methods: Data on acute lower respiratory infection in children aged < 5 years were obtained from the data published annually by the Moroccan Ministry of Health. We used joinpoint regression analysis to estimate the trend in incidence of acute lower respiratory infection during the study period. Results: The incidence of acute lower respiratory infection increased significantly between 2005 and 2011: by 3.08% annually in children aged < 5 years and by 3.24% annually in children aged 1 to < 5 years. However, the incidence was stable after 2011 as the observed trends were not significant, although the incidence decreased from 2011 to 2014 by 4.26% annually in children aged < 5 years, by 3.57% annually in children aged 1 to < 5 years and by 5.14% annually in urban areas. Conclusions: Our results suggest a probable influence of the PCV on the trend in incidence of acute lower respiratory infection in Morocco.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Infecções Respiratórias , Criança , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Incidência , Lactente , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia
12.
Gene ; 791: 145709, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984442

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in Moroccan women. The main etiological factor for developing cervical cancer is the persistent infection with HPV16. Genetic studies have reported the occurrence of amino acid variations within the E6 oncoprotein that promotes host cell transformation by targeting p53 for degradation. To verify the biological effects of E6 polymorphisms towards p53 degradation, HPV16-E6 prototype and 7 variants isolated from cervical cancer biopsies of Moroccan women were evaluated for their activities by transient expression assays using pcDNA3.1-E6 constructs in C33A cell line. Expression of E6 genes in transfected cells was detected with reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), then, p53 levels were evaluated by western blot analysis. Significant dissimilarities in p53 degradation activities of HPV16-E6 prototype and intratypic variants were noticed. As compared to the prototype, the highest p53 degradation were exhibited by the African variants Af2-a/r, Af1-d/G295 and Af2-a/G285 (p < 0.001), followed by the European variants E- C442/G350 and E-G350/r (p < 0.01), then, the North American variant NA1-b/r (p < 0.05). The inter-variant differences were statistically significant between Af2-a/r variant and the North American variants NA1-b/r and NA1 (p < 0.05). Thus, the Af2-a/r variant was significantly more active in degrading p53 in our in vitro experiments (p < 0.0001). Our findings support the fact that HPV16-E6 variations have a biological impact on degrading p53, and so, represent a significant carcinogenic potential for developing cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 16/metabolismo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Mutação/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
13.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 210(4): 187-196, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031715

RESUMO

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) infections are characterized by dysfunctional cellular and humoral antiviral immune responses. The progressive loss of effector functions in chronic viral infection has been associated with the up-regulation of programmed death-1 (PD-1), a negative regulator of activated T cells and Natural Killer cells. In HIV-1 infection, increased levels of PD-1 expression correlate with CD8 + T-cell exhaustion. In vitro, PD-1 blockade using PD-1 antibodies led to an increase in HIV-1 specific CD8 + T and memory B cell proliferation. We aimed to investigate the impact of PDCD1 rs10204525 polymorphism on HIV-1 susceptibility, AIDS development, and treatment response outcomes in HIV-1 infection in a Moroccan population. A total of 214 HIV-1 seropositive and 250 seronegative subjects were enrolled to investigate the association between the between the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10204525 of PDCD1 gene and HIV-1 pathogenesis using a predesigned TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. No significant association was found between rs10204525 and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and AIDS development (p > 0.05). Genotype frequencies were significantly associated with the viral load before ART (p = 0.0105). HIV-1 viral load was significantly higher among subjects with the CC compared to TT genotype (p = 0.0043). In treated subjects, the median of viral load levels was significantly higher in CC and CT groups than TT subjects (p < 0.005). However, analysis of the correlation between CD4 + T-cell levels and PDCD1 polymorphism before and after ART showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). Our results demonstrated that rs10204525 polymorphism does not affect HIV-1 infection. However, this polymorphism may affect the response to treatment as measured by RNA viral load levels.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/genética , HIV-1/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , RNA Viral , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 264, 2021 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has triggered fear and distress among the public, thus potentiating the incidence rate of anxiety and depression. This study aims to investigate the psychological effect of quarantine on persons living in Morocco when the first COVID-19 cases were identified. The associations between anxiety, depression symptoms, and their predictors (sociodemographics, fatigue, and religious coping) were examined. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional survey, with a total of 1435 participants (≥18 years) recruited anonymously, was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic (from 3 to 30 April 2020). A structured questionnaire was used to assess psychosocial factors, COVID-19 epidemic-related factors, and religious coping. Religious coping, fatigue, and depression, and anxiety were measured by Brief Religious Coping Scale (Brief RCOPE), Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), respectively. A generalized linear model (logistic regression) was used to determine the predictive factors of depression and anxiety. RESULTS: The prevalence of anxiety and depression was 43.0% (n = 621) and 53.0% (n = 766), respectively. Both were associated with female gender, household income decline, tracking COVID-19 news, and fear to contract COVID-19 (aOR = 1.36 to 2.85). Additionally, 32.0% (n = 453) and 26.0% (n = 372) reported severe physical fatigue, and mental fatigue, respectively. Both latter factors were significantly and positively associated with depression as well as with anxiety. Depressive and anxious patients used more negative religious coping, while positive religious coping was slightly associated with depression. CONCLUSION: In this online survey of the general population in Morocco, anxiety and depressive symptoms are prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic. Pandemic and psychosocial factors, such as female gender, income decline, infection fears, massive COVID-19 news exposure, negative religious coping, and fatigue were associated with increased risk of depression and anxiety symptoms. Psychosocial and financial support should be provided to the quarantined population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Marrocos/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 349: 109202, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991875

RESUMO

The present work was carried out to understand the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp., in various samples in Northern of Morocco. For this purpose, a random sampling was undertaken from butcher shops, traditional markets, and slaughterhouse. First, the research of Campylobacter was performed according to the Moroccan standard NM ISO: 10272-1 (2008). Second, the isolates were identified by biochemical tests and real time PCR. After the biochemical and molecular identification of suspected colonies, a disk diffusion method was executed to determine the sensitivity of Campylobacter spp. against 18 antibiotics. The results showed a moderate prevalence of Campylobacter species (130/466) recovered mainly on the Campylobacter blood base agar, where C. coli (108/130) were more prevalent comparable to C. jejuni (22/130) in poultry and cattle meat, raw milk, cloacal and surface swabs, and stool of patient suffering from diarrhea. The findings supported also the sensitivity of multiplex qPCR to detect Campylobacter strains compared to Moroccan standard NM ISO: 10272-1 (2008). Among our isolates, C. jejuni were the most susceptible strain toward colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin, streptomycin, and erythromycin. Nonetheless, the presence of multidrug Campylobacter resistant strains was highly observed in C. jejuni isolated, particularly, from broiler chickens toward the antibiotic classes of cephalosporin, penicillin, monobactam, quinolone, fluoroquinolone, sulfamide, as well as tetracycline. This may be due to common use of these drugs in veterinary medicine and farms as growth factor, which limits the usefulness of these molecules. Hence, the study highlights the importance of resistance profile monitoring of these pathogens in Northern of Morocco, in order to develop appropriate control measures and to reduce the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Galinhas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Leite/microbiologia , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Prevalência
16.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 69(3): 116-126, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To objectively assess the quality of "crisis communication" media, during the COVID-19 pandemic, in the three Greater Maghreb countries (Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco). METHODS: A compliance audit for press releases and epidemiological bulletins was analyzed against a quality benchmark, which had been specifically designed by the authors. This framework, made up of five dimensions and 50 items, graded (0/1), was applied by two researchers in preventive medicine. Multiplying the scores by a coefficient of two resulted in a partial score of 20 points for each dimension and a total score of 100 points for the checklist taken as a whole. The quality of the communication media was considered to be good when exceeding the thresholds of 15/20 for the different dimensions and 75/100 for the entire grid. RESULTS: A total of 141 information media were included in this audit (Tunisia: 60; Algeria: 60; Morocco: 21). The overall median quality score for these media was only 56/100 (IIQ: [46-58]), without major variability between countries. The most appreciated dimension was "maintaining the confidence of the population", with an overall median score of 14/20 (12/20 for epidemiological bulletins and 16/20 for press releases). The most poorly rated dimension was "strengthening community participation", with a median score of only 4/20 (6/20 for epidemiological bulletins and 4/20 for press releases). CONCLUSION: The quality of the Maghreb crisis communication media during COVID-19 was insufficient in most of its dimensions and items, particularly from a psychosocial standpoint. Reinforcement of the capacities of communication officers to develop information material and supports during health crises is indispensable and should be considered as an urgent matter.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Meios de Comunicação/normas , Argélia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Tunísia/epidemiologia
17.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 100(3): 115372, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813354

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori infection is the most important etiological factor in gastroduodenal diseases development. Its evolution is influenced by several factors, including bacterial virulence genes such as cagA and cagE. This work aimed to evaluate the predictive value of cagE alone and in combination with cagA and CagA-EPIYA-C motifs number as a marker of the infection evolution. A total of 823 H. pylori DNA extracted from biopsies of consenting patients suffering from gastritis, peptic ulcer, or gastric cancer. The cagE, cagA status and cagA 3' region polymorphism were determined by PCR. The analysis shows that the risk of duodenal ulcer is 1.97-fold higher (CI = 1.18-3.30) in patients infected by strains cagA+/cagE+. And the risk of gastric cancer is 5.19-fold higher (CI = 1.18-22.70) in patients harboring strains cagE+/2EPIYA-C. The results suggest that cagE in combination with cagA-EPIYA-C motifs number can be used as predictive biomarker of H. pylori infection evolution.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Tunis Med ; 99(1): 120-128, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in Maghreb's countries. METHODS: It is a systematic review including articles and reports that applied the WHO "STEPwise" approach, or a similar approach, studying cardiovascular risk factors in the Maghreb countries: Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Libya and Mauritania between 2004 and 2018. RESULTS: We selected five articles, a report for each country. The prevalence of smoking was between 13.4% (12.2-14.6) in Morocco and 29.4% (28.3-30.4%) in Tunisia. 50.6% of the population of Mauritania had insufficient physical activity. The prevalence of high blood pressure was highest in Libya (40.6%) The prevalence of obesity was up to 41.1% (37-43.3) for women and 21.4% (19-23.8) in men in Libya. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was between 10.6% (9.7-11.6) in Morocco and 16.4% (14.7-19.1) in Libya. CONCLUSION: The distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in the Maghreb countries shows that the level of cardiovascular risk is high, particularly in the central Maghreb. This attests to the fairly advanced epidemiological transition related to the rapid modernization of the Arab countries, hence the importance of launching an integrated project for the fight against cardiovascular diseases based on the global experience.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Argélia/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tunísia/epidemiologia
19.
Tunis Med ; 99(1): 148-157, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899182

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Describe the cancer control strategies adopted by the Maghreb countries and identify their main weaknesses. METHODS: Data on cancer epidemiology and "Cancer plans" in the Maghreb were collected through a search in bibliographic databases, on GLOBOCAN and the sites of international and national organizations responsible for surveillance and cancer control. RESULTS: In the Maghreb, cancer registries observed low population coverage (Morocco: 20%; Tunisia: 60%; Algeria: 82%) and a lack of computerization. Primary prevention strategies remains insufficient as evidenced by the high prevalence of smoking in 2018 (Tunisia: 26%; Algeria: 19%; Morocco: 14%). Screening coverage for major cancers are still low in the Maghreb; In Tunisia for example the levels observed for cervical and breast cancers are respectively 14% and 10%. Regarding cancer care, the main problem is a limited access to cancer health services,   due to poorly decentralized infrastructure and equipment (Morocco: six oncology centers; Algeria: three oncology centers; Tunisia: only one institute specializing in cancer care). Palliative care is mainly supported by civil society in the Maghreb countries. CONCLUSION: The resources dedicated to cancer control in the Maghreb are limited, explaining its poor performance. Better governance in cancer control is required, with the adoption of multisectoral approach for prevention, and the strengthening of cancer surveillance and research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Argélia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Tunísia/epidemiologia
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 42, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854671

RESUMO

Introduction: intentional poisoning is a major public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiological features of criminal intoxication in Morocco. Method: we conducted a retrospective study of all cases of criminal intoxication identified by the Morocco Poison Control and Pharmacovigilance Centre (MPCPC) between 1980 and 2014. Results: during the study period, 611 cases of criminal poisoning were recorded, reflecting a rate of 2.1% of all intentional poisoning reported during the same period. The average age of intoxicated patients was 26.4±14.3 years. More than a quarter of the subjects were children under the age of 15 (28.6%). According to the study results, 55.9% were male, with a sex-ratio (M/F) of 1.3. The majority of cases (89.4%) occurred in urban areas. Collective intoxications were reported in 24.4% of cases. The most frequently used products were pesticides (19.1%) and plants (19%). Patients developed different symptoms based on the toxic substances used, the amount ingested and the time elapsed before treatment. A range of digestive, neurological, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders were reported. Out of 440 patients with outcome data available, 27 died. The remainder of patients survived with or without sequelae. Conclusion: criminal poisoning is a major issue. The number of cases is probably underestimated due to a large number of undiagnosed or unreported cases.


Assuntos
Crime , Farmacovigilância , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Venenos/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/epidemiologia , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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