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5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 344, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection, identification, and treatment of chronic hepatitis B through screening is vital for those at increased risk, e.g. born in hepatitis B endemic countries. In the Netherlands, Moroccan immigrants show low participation rates in health-related screening programmes. Since social networks influence health behaviour, we investigated whether similar screening intentions for chronic hepatitis B cluster within social networks of Moroccan immigrants. METHODS: We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) where each participant ("recruiter") was asked to complete a questionnaire and to recruit three Moroccans ("recruitees") from their social network. Logistic regression analyses were used to analyse whether the recruiters' intention to request a screening test was similar to the intention of their recruitees. RESULTS: We sampled 354 recruiter-recruitee pairs: for 154 pairs both participants had a positive screening intention, for 68 pairs both had a negative screening intention, and the remaining 132 pairs had a discordant intention to request a screening test. A tie between a recruiter and recruitee was associated with having the same screening intention, after correction for sociodemographic variables (OR 1.70 [1.15-2.51]). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of our pilot study show clustering of screening intention among individuals in the same network. This provides opportunities for social network interventions to encourage participation in hepatitis B screening initiatives.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Rede Social , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/etnologia , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/etnologia , Países Baixos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(1): 61-74, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346890

RESUMO

The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) is a prospective cohort study of older adults in the Netherlands, initially based on a nationally representative sample of people aged 55-84 years. The study has been ongoing since 1992, and focuses on the determinants, trajectories and consequences of physical, cognitive, emotional and social functioning. Strengths of the LASA study include its multidisciplinary character, the availability of over 25 years of follow-up, and the cohort-sequential design that allows investigations of longitudinal changes, cohort differences and time trends in functioning. The findings from LASA have been reported in over 600 publications so far (see www.lasa-vu.nl). This article provides an update of the design of the LASA study and its methods, on the basis of recent developments. We describe additional data collections, such as additional nine-monthly measurements in-between the regular three-yearly waves that have been conducted among the oldest old during 2016-2019, and the inclusion of a cohort of older Turkish and Moroccan migrants.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Afeto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/etnologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Aptidão Física , Estudos Prospectivos , Turquia/etnologia
7.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226342, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older women perform consistently poorer on physical performance tests compared to men. Risk groups for this "female disadvantage" in physical performance and it's development over successive birth cohorts are unknown. This is important information for preventive strategies aimed to enhance healthy aging in all older women. This study aims to longitudinal investigate whether there are risk groups for a more apparent female disadvantage and study its trend over successive birth cohorts. METHODS: Data of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) were used. All participants were aged 55-65 years at baseline. Longitudinal data of two birth cohorts with baseline measurements in 1992/1993 (n = 966, 24 year follow-up) and 2002/2003 (n = 1002, 12 year follow-up) were included. Follow-up measurements were repeated every three/four years. Cross-sectional data of two additional cohorts were included to compare ethnic groups: a Dutch cohort (2012/2013, n = 1023) and a Migration cohort (2013/2014, n = 478) consisting of migrants with a Turkish/Moroccan ethnicity. RESULTS: Mixed model analysis showed that women aged 55 years and older had a lower age- and height-adjusted gait speed (-0.03 m/s; -0.063-0.001), chair stand speed (-0.05 stand/s; -0.071--0.033), handgrip strength (-14,8 kg; -15.69--13.84) and balance (OR = 0.71; 0.547-0.916) compared to men. The sex difference in handgrip strength diminished with increasing age, but remained stable for gait speed, chair stand speed and balance. In general, results were consistent across different, educational levels and Turkish/Moroccan ethnic groups and birth cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: There is a consistent "female disadvantage" in physical performance among older adults, which remains stable with increasing age (except for handgrip strength) and is consistent across different educational levels, ethnic groups and successive birth cohorts. So, no specific risk groups for the female disadvantage in physical performance were identified. Preventive strategies aimed to enhance healthy aging in older women are needed and should target all older women.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Escolaridade , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Caracteres Sexuais , Idoso , Envelhecimento/etnologia , Estatura , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/etnologia , Países Baixos , Turquia/etnologia
8.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569600

RESUMO

This study examines how preconception folic acid supplement use varied in immigrant women compared with non-immigrant women. We analyzed national population-based data from Norway from 1999-2016, including 1,055,886 pregnancies, of which 202,234 and 7,965 were to 1st and 2nd generation immigrant women, respectively. Folic acid supplement use was examined in relation to generational immigrant category, maternal country of birth, and length of residence. Folic acid supplement use was lower overall in 1st and 2nd generation immigrant women (21% and 26%, respectively) compared with Norwegian-born women (29%). The lowest use among 1st generation immigrant women was seen in those from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Morocco, and Somalia (around 10%). The highest use was seen in immigrant women from the United States, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Iceland (>30%). Folic acid supplement use increased with increasing length of residence in immigrant women from most countries, but the overall prevalence was lower compared with Norwegian-born women even after 20 years of residence (adjusted odds ratio: 0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.60-0.67). This study suggests that immigrant women from a number of countries are less likely to use preconception folic acid supplements than non-immigrant women, even many years after settlement.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , África Oriental/etnologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Marrocos/etnologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Noruega/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 701, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parental support is an important element in overweight prevention programs for children. The purpose of this study was to examine everyday life situations in which mothers encounter difficulties encouraging healthy energy balance-related behavior in their school-age children. METHODS: We formed four focus groups containing 6-9 participants each. The participants were mothers of Dutch, Turkish, or Moroccan descent with a child 8-13 years of age. All focus group sessions were recorded, transcribed, and coded. Content was analyzed conventionally using ATLAS.ti 6. RESULTS: Twenty-seven difficult everyday life situations were identified in 14 settings. The five most frequently reported situations were a daily struggle regarding eating vegetables, eating breakfast on time before going to school, eating candy and snacks between meals, and spending excessive time watching television and using the computer. A perceived loss of parental control, the inability to establish rules and the failure to consistently enforce those rules were the most commonly cited reasons for why the mothers experience these situations as being difficult. CONCLUSIONS: We identified five difficult everyday life situations related to healthy energy balance-related behavior. These five difficult situations were used as the input for developing a web-based parenting program designed to prevent children from becoming overweight. We reasoned that if we use these situations and the underlying reasons, many parents would recognize these situations and are willing to learn how to deal with them and complete the e-learning.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Mães/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/etnologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições/psicologia , Marrocos/etnologia , Países Baixos/etnologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Percepção , Turquia/etnologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117196

RESUMO

Quality of life and its relationship to oral health is an important consideration in the determinants of health of vulnerable groups. The aim of this study is to assess oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and its related factors in native and immigrant population families from the Platform of Longitudinal Studies on Immigrant Families (PELFI) study in Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 401 adults aged 18 years and older from Spain, Ecuador, Colombia, and Morocco. The OHIP-14 instrument was applied, and three summary variables were used (prevalence, extent, and severity). Sociodemographic and self-perceived health variables were included. Bivariate analyzes were carried out to summarize the variables of the OHIP-14 according to sociodemographic and health variables, and bivariate analyzes of the OHIP-14 dimensions was conducted by country of origin. Multivariate linear models were used to investigate predictors for the dimensions of the OHIP-14. Multivariate logistic models were used to estimate the association of OHRQoL with immigration status using crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (OR-95% CI). It was found that 14.8% of men and 23.8% of women reported negative impacts in terms of OHRQoL (statistically significant differences: p < 0.05). There were statistically significant differences according to the country of origin in the prevalence and severity outcomes of the OHIP-14 in women (p < 0.05), and severe outcomes were observed in Moroccan women. In women, statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in OHRQoL were observed according to age and marital status. There were some differences between OHIP-14 summary outcomes according to the health variables. Some sociodemographic and health variables were predictors for the OHIP-14 and their dimensions with differences by sex. Multivariate analysis showed a statistically significant association between OHRQoL and immigration status for Moroccan women. Differences in OHRQoL were found according to sociodemographic and health variables. Further research could clarify the predictors of OHRQoL through epidemiological surveillance and longitudinal studies.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Colômbia/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Equador/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/etnologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Autoimagem , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
11.
Respir Med ; 150: 113-119, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961936

RESUMO

Little is known about adult-onset asthma in different ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to examine ethnic differences in the prevalence of adult-onset asthma and factors associated with this phenotype. Cross-sectional data of 23,356 participants of the HELIUS study were used, including Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Moroccan, Turkish and Ghanaian origin participants. Adult-onset asthma was defined as: self-reported asthma symptoms or start of asthma-medication at age ≥18 years combined with a smoking history <10 pack years. The prevalence of adult-onset asthma and its association with potential risk factors were assessed by logistic regression analyses. The adjusted prevalence of adult-onset asthma was higher in the Turkish, Moroccan and South-Asian Surinamese groups (4.9-6.0%) compared to the Dutch, Ghanaian and African Surinamese origin groups (2.4-2.6%). In addition to ethnicity, age, female sex, BMI, and doctors' diagnosis of nasal allergy/hay fever and chronic sinusitis/polyps were independently associated with adult-onset asthma. There are significant differences in the adjusted prevalence of adult-onset asthma among six ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Idade de Início , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/etnologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Gana/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/etnologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Países Baixos/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Suriname/etnologia , Turquia/etnologia
12.
Med Anthropol Q ; 33(3): 386-402, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816594

RESUMO

In Morocco, where extramarital sex and abortion are illegal, single mothers' ambiguous status before the law inflects medical decision-making. Leaky boundaries between the court and the hospital required doctors and administrators to work with multiple forms of documentation while anticipating external surveillance. Gaps between everyday experience and legalized forms of identity created confusion across multiple institutions. When discussing single mothers, hospital staff often spoke of "question marks" that flagged tensions between legibility and liability, disappearance and documentation. Managing question marks ramified surveillance and categorization. Ultimately, however, attempts to administratively resolve single mothers' ambiguity created gaps and inconsistencies that allowed vulnerable patients to disappear from view.


Assuntos
Documentação , Saúde Materna , Pais Solteiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Antropologia Médica , Anticoncepção , Relações Extramatrimoniais/etnologia , Relações Extramatrimoniais/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Materna/etnologia , Saúde Materna/legislação & jurisprudência , Marrocos/etnologia , Mães , Gravidez
13.
Nutr J ; 18(1): 21, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthier dietary patterns are generally more costly than less healthy patterns, but dietary costs may be more important for dietary quality in lower educated and ethnic minority groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary costs and dietary quality and interactions with ethnicity and socioeconomic position (SEP). METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 4717 Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish and Moroccan origin participants of the multi-ethnic HELIUS study (the Netherlands), who completed an ethnic-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The primary outcome measure was dietary quality according to adherence to the Dutch Healthy Diet index 2015 (DHD15-index, range 0-130). Individual dietary costs (the monetary value attached to consumed diets in Euros) were estimated by merging a food price variable with the FFQ nutrient composition database. Regression analyses were used to examine main and interaction effects. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, energy intake, physical activity, ethnicity and educational level. RESULTS: Having higher dietary costs was associated with higher dietary quality. Analyses stratified by educational level showed that associations were stronger in higher educated (Btertile3 = 8.06, 95%CI = 5.63; 10.48) than in lower educated participants (Btertile3 = 5.09, 95%CI = 2.74; 7.44). Stratification by ethnic origin showed strongest associations in Turkish participants (Btertile2 = 9.31, 95%CI = 5.96; 12.65) and weakest associations in Moroccan participants (Btertile3 = 4.29, 95%CI = 0.58; 8.01). Regardless of their level of education, Turkish and Moroccan individuals consumed higher quality diets at the lowest cost than Dutch participants. CONCLUSIONS: The importance of dietary costs for dietary quality differs between socioeconomic and ethnic subgroups. Increasing individual food budgets or decreasing food prices may be effective for the promotion of healthy diets, but differential effects across socioeconomic and ethnic subgroups may be expected.


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/economia , Grupos Étnicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Marrocos/etnologia , Países Baixos , Suriname/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/etnologia
14.
J Affect Disord ; 247: 134-155, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the state of the art relevant for clinical practice on symptom manifestation of depression or depression-related idioms of distress, the treatment effectiveness and obstacles and facilitators for therapeutic success in Turkish and Moroccan immigrant populations with depression in Europe. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane databases (1970- 31 July 2017). Peer-reviewed studies, with adult populations, and an instrument assessing depressive symptoms met inclusion criteria and were evaluated following quality guidelines. RESULTS: We included 13 studies on symptom manifestation, 6 on treatment effectiveness, and 17 on obstacles and facilitators, published between 2000 and 2017, from Germany, the Netherlands, Austria and Sweden (n Turkish individuals = 11,533; n Moroccan individuals = 5278; n native individuals = 303,212). Both ethnic groups more often reported combined mood and somatic symptoms (and anxiety in the case of Turkish groups) than natives, and had higher levels of symptoms. There was no report on effectiveness of pharmacotherapy and there was weak evidence of the effectiveness of examined psychological treatments for depression in Turkish groups. No treatment has been examined in Moroccan groups. Salient obstacles to therapeutic success were socioeconomic problems, higher level of psychological symptoms at baseline, and negative attitudes towards psychotherapy. Possible facilitators were interventions attuned to social, cultural and individual needs. Results were most representative of first generation, low SES Turkish immigrant patients, and Moroccan-Dutch members of the general populations. CONCLUSION: Turkish and Moroccan immigrants with depression presented a comorbid symptom profile with more intertwined depressive and somatic complaints. There were indications that the available therapies are insufficient for Turkish groups, but the current evidence is scarce and heterogeneous, and RCTs suffer from methodological limitations.


Assuntos
Depressão/etnologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Psicoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Áustria , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/etnologia , Países Baixos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Suécia , Resultado do Tratamento , Turquia/etnologia
15.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 116(4): 495-518, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614727

RESUMO

We hypothesized that individuals in cultures typified by lower levels of relational mobility would tend to show more attention to the surrounding social and physical context (i.e., holistic vs. analytic thinking) compared with individuals in higher mobility cultural contexts. Six studies provided support for this idea. Studies 1a and 1b showed that differences in relational mobility in cultures as diverse as the U.S., Spain, Israel, Nigeria, and Morocco predicted patterns of dispositional bias as well as holistic (vs. analytic) attention. Study 2 demonstrated that, for Americans and Japanese, relational mobility offered better predictive validity of these cognitive tendencies than related cultural constructs; moreover, Studies 1b and 2 showed that relational mobility mediated cross-cultural differences in perception and attribution. Studies 3a and 3b showed that lower relational mobility induces a weaker sense of internal locus of control and a stronger sense of external locus of control, which led to more holistic (vs. analytic) cognition. Last, Study 4 replicated these results in an experimental setting and demonstrated the causal effect of relational mobility on analytic/holistic cognition. Overall, we suggest that relational mobility may be an important socioecological factor that can help explain robust cognitive differences observed across cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção , Cognição , Comparação Transcultural , Controle Interno-Externo , Relações Interpessoais , Pensamento , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/etnologia , Japão/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/etnologia , Nigéria/etnologia , Percepção Social , Espanha/etnologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia
16.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(1): 15-22, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may occur among a substantial proportion of normal weight individuals, particularly among some ethnic minorities. It is unknown how many of these individuals would be missed by commonly applied eligibility criteria for cardiovascular risk screening. Thus, we aim to determine cardiovascular risk and eligibility for cardiovascular risk screening among normal weight individuals of different ethnic backgrounds. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the HELIUS study (Amsterdam, The Netherlands), we determined cardiovascular risk among 6910 normal weight individuals of Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Ghanaian, Moroccan and Turkish background. High cardiovascular risk was approximated by high metabolic risk based on blood pressure, HDL, triglycerides and fasting glucose. Eligibility criteria for screening were derived from Dutch CVD prevention guidelines and include age ≥ 50 y, family history of CVD, or current smoking. Ethnic group comparisons were made using logistic regression. Age-adjusted proportions of high metabolic risk ranged from 12.6% to 38.4% (men) and from 2.7% to 11.5% (women). This prevalence was higher among most ethnic minorities than the Dutch, especially among women. For most ethnic groups, 79.9%-86.7% of individuals with high metabolic risk were eligible for cardiovascular risk screening. Exceptions were Ghanaian women (58.8%), Moroccan men (70.9%) and Moroccan women (45.0%), although age-adjusted proportions did not differ between groups. CONCLUSION: Even among normal weight individuals, high cardiovascular metabolic risk is more common among ethnic minorities than among the majority population. Regardless of ethnicity, most normal weight individuals with increased risk are eligible for cardiovascular risk screening.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Peso Corporal/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Gana/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/etnologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Suriname/etnologia , Turquia/etnologia
17.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 194: 197-204, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of smoking varies across ethnic groups in developed countries, but little is known about ethnic variations in specific aspects of nicotine dependence (ND). We conducted item-response analyses in current smokers to compare ND factors across five ethnic groups. METHODS: Data were obtained from a population-based, multi-ethnic cohort study conducted in the Netherlands. The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was assessed in 1147 Dutch, 991 South-Asian Surinamese, 1408 African Surinamese, 1396 Turkish, and 584 Moroccan smokers (N = 5526). We tested whether the factorial structure of the FTND was invariant across ethnic groups using a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. FTND item and total scores and factor means were compared across groups. RESULTS: The two-factor model representing "morning smoking" and "smoking patterns" provided an adequate fit. The items "Cigarettes smoked daily" and "Time until first cigarette" showed differential item functioning (DIF) as a function of ethnicity. Three out of four ethnic minority groups scored significantly higher on both factors compared to the Dutch origin group (all p < 0.001) before and after taking DIF into account, while the African Surinamese scored higher only on "morning smoking" when DIF was accounted for. DISCUSSION: The factor structure of the FTND is not measurement invariant across ethnic groups in this population-based sample. Accounting for DIF affecting the nicotine dependence factor scores, although South-Asian Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan groups showed higher levels of dependence than the Dutch origin group, genetic as well as environmental factors may account for the observed differences.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Fumantes/psicologia , Tabagismo/etnologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , População Urbana/tendências , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/etnologia , Países Baixos/etnologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/etnologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Suriname/etnologia , Tabagismo/diagnóstico , Turquia/etnologia
18.
Health Promot Int ; 34(5): 970-980, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060149

RESUMO

Immigration to western countries is a relevant phenomenon that has been linked to health inequalities. One form of inequality is ethnocentrism in health programmes. Therefore, social innovations and a new transcultural approach have been developed to culturally adapt health education interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a double transcultural health intervention, the Leader Adolescents in Transcultural Health Education (LATES) Project, which is led by high school immigrant adolescents over elementary students of multicultural contexts in southeastern Spain. This double quasi-experimental study had experimental and control groups composed of secondary students (12 health cultural brokers with 36 controls) and elementary students (26 participant students and 26 controls). The LATES Project was delivered to two high schools and two elementary schools in Almeria (Spain). A mixed evaluation method was used. Six attitudinal scales were used pre- and post-intervention to collect the data. The quantitative evaluation was completed using qualitative techniques through in-depth interviews and focal groups. Four sociocultural gradients were identified pre-intervention: a positive rural gradient, a negative gender gradient except in traditional 'female' dimensions, a negative age gradient and a dual migrant gradient that combined the health migrant effect in some behaviours and westernization in others. Specifically, the Moroccan population demonstrated better attitudes towards eating and physical activity behaviours. After the intervention, the experimental groups showed more improvement than the controls. However, the attitudinal scale increment is modest compared with the knowledge and motivation improvements. This intervention, which used a transcultural approach, has benefited young Spaniards to a greater extent than immigrants, probably due to the worse initial health conditions of the Spanish.


Assuntos
Cultura , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Marrocos/etnologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Romênia/etnologia , Espanha , Estudantes
19.
Child Dev ; 90(1): e37-e55, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832965

RESUMO

This study examined whether executive functions (EFs) moderate the association between independent and interdependent self-construals and social adjustment in 488 Moroccan, Romanian, and Italian preadolescents (ages 11-13) in Italy. Participants were assessed using self-report questionnaires and standardized EF tasks. Better working memory was related to increased social competence across all groups. High levels of inhibitory control were found to enhance the positive relation between interdependence and prosocial behavior for native Italian youth, and between interdependence and social competence for Moroccan preadolescents. High levels of cognitive flexibility boosted the interdependence-social competence link for the immigrant groups, whereas among native Italian preadolescents, the interdependence-social competence link was significant at low levels of flexibility. Implications for developmental theory and practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Ajustamento Social , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Criança , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/etnologia , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Marrocos/etnologia , Romênia/etnologia , Autorrelato , Habilidades Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr ; 66(4): 240-246, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk for diabetes. Ethnicity may modify such risk, but no studies have been conducted in our environment. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes one year after delivery in women with GDM and in a multiethnic background and to identify the associated factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a prospective, observational cohort of women with GDM who attended annual postpartum follow-up visits at Hospital del Mar from January 2004 to March 2016. RESULTS: Three hundred and five women attended postpartum follow-up visits. Of these, 47.2% were Caucasian, 22% from South-Central Asia, 12% from Latin America, and 10% from Morocco and East Asia. Incidence rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes in these patients were 5.2 and 36.6%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, non-Caucasian origin (OR=3.15, 95% CI [1.85-5.39]), recurrent gestational diabetes (OR=2.26, 95% CI [1.11-4.59]), and pre-pregnancy body mass index (OR=1.09, 95% CI [1.04-1.15]) were independent predictors of impaired glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS: In a multiethnic Spanish population of women with GDM, incidence of impaired glucose tolerance in the first year after delivery was 41.8%, with a three-fold increased risk for women of non-Caucasian ethnicity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Intolerância à Glucose/etnologia , Adulto , Ásia/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Marrocos/etnologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
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