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1.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116455, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36242975

RESUMO

The in-situ resource utilisation (ISRU), in terms of native rocky materials and astronaut wastes, is crucial in contests of soil-based space-farming. Nevertheless, extra-terrestrial soils are very different from Earth soils, lacking any form of organic carbon and associated macro and micronutrients. In this research, we aimed to study and modify two commercially available Lunar and Martian regolith simulants (LHS-1 from Exolith Lab and MMS-1 from Martian Garden) to make them an adequate medium for plant growth. Lettuce was chosen as reference crop to guide the discussion on the results obtained. To reach this main objective, we added to simulants a commercially available monogastric-based organic manure chosen as a substitute of a possible organic amendment produced onboard. The simulant/manure mixture rates were 100:0, 90:10, 70:30, 50:50; w:w. As expected, an approximately linear increase of total and bioavailable contents of macro (N, S, P, Ca, K, Mg) and micro (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn) nutrients with increasing manure addition to simulants was observed. On the other hand, the very high pH of manure (pH, 9.02) along with its salinity (EC, 6.7 dS m-1) and sodicity (Na, 5.3 g kg-1), did not correct the already high pH of simulants (very high for LHS-1), but rather raised their soluble salt content and sodium amount on the exchange complex. In addition, an increase of toxic soluble aluminium and heavy elements (Pb, Ni, Cr, V) was observed, mainly in the strongly alkaline lunar simulant/manure mixtures. The addition of an organic source also produced a generalised improvement of water retention and hydraulic conductivity of both regolith simulants, in proportion to the percentage of manure addiction. For both situations, the best mixture ratio was 70:30. In terms of water retained, the LHS-1 mixtures benefited more than the MMS-1 ones by manure addition since water was held more in the "dry" (between -100 and -600 cm of matric potential head) than in the "humid" (between -25 and -100 cm of matric potential head) region of water retention. This would make LHS-1 mixtures more useful for cultivation of lettuce, at least in terms of physico-hydraulic properties. Nevertheless, the overall characterisation of the mixtures unveiled that MMS-1-based substrates can ensure better agronomic performances than LHS-1 ones, mainly due to lower pHs and higher nutrient availability; this divergent fertility was particularly evident at 90:10 simulant/manure rate and tend to be mitigated by increasing the levels of manure.


Assuntos
Esterco , Marte , Solo/química , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Alface , Água
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6609, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329013

RESUMO

Dust storms on Mars play a role in transporting water from its lower to upper atmosphere, seasonally enhancing hydrogen escape. However, it remains unclear how water is diurnally transported during a dust storm and how its elements, hydrogen and oxygen, are subsequently influenced in the upper atmosphere. Here, we use multi-spacecraft and space telescope observations obtained during a major dust storm in Mars Year 33 to show that hydrogen abundance in the upper atmosphere gradually increases because of water supply above an altitude of 60 km, while oxygen abundance temporarily decreases via water ice absorption, catalytic loss, or downward transportation. Additionally, atmospheric waves modulate dust and water transportations, causing alternate oscillations of hydrogen and oxygen abundances in the upper atmosphere. If dust- and wave-driven couplings of the Martian lower and upper atmospheres are common in dust storms, with increasing escape of hydrogen, oxygen will less efficiently escape from the upper atmosphere, leading to a more oxidized atmosphere. These findings provide insights regarding Mars' water loss history and its redox state, which are crucial for understanding the Martian habitable environment.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Marte , Hidrogênio , Oxigênio , Atmosfera , Água , Poeira/análise
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276547, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331923

RESUMO

The processes that initiate and sustain sediment transport which contribute to the modification of aeolian deposits in Mars' low-density atmosphere are still not fully understood despite recent atmospheric modelling. However, detailed microscale wind flow modelling, using Computational Fluid Dynamics at a resolution of <2 m, provides insights into the near-surface processes that cannot be modeled using larger-scale atmospheric modeling. Such Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations cannot by themselves account for regional-scale atmospheric circulations or flow modifications induced by regional km-scale topography, although realistic fine-scale mesoscale atmospheric modeling can. Using the output parameters from mesoscale simulations to inform the input conditions for the Computational Fluid Dynamics microscale simulations provides a practical approach to simulate near-surface wind flow and its relationship to very small-scale topographic features on Mars, particularly in areas which lack in situ rover data. This paper sets out a series of integrated techniques to enable a multi-scale modelling approach for surface airflow to derive surface airflow dynamics at a (dune) landform scale using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment derived topographic data. The work therefore provides a more informed and realistic Computational Fluid Dynamics microscale modelling method, which will provide more detailed insight into the surface wind forcing of aeolian transport patterns on martian surfaces such as dunes.


Assuntos
Marte , Vento , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Atmosfera , Simulação por Computador
4.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 35: 150-157, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336360

RESUMO

The spaceflight environment, including microgravity and radiation, may have considerable effects on the health and performance of astronauts, especially for long-duration and Martian missions. Conventional on-ground and in-space experimental approaches have been employed to investigate the comprehensive biological effects of the spaceflight environment. As a class of recently emerging bioengineered in vitro models, tissue chips are characterized by a small footprint, potential automation, and the recapitulation of tissue-level physiology, thus promising to help provide molecular and cellular insights into space medicine. Here, we briefly review the technical advantages of tissue chips and discuss specific on-chip physiological recapitulations. Several tissue chips have been launched into space, and more are poised to come through multi-agency collaborations, implying an increasingly important role of tissue chips in space medicine.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial , Marte , Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso , Humanos , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Astronautas
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7156, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418350

RESUMO

Sand mobilized by wind forms decimeter-scale impact ripples and decameter-scale or larger dunes on Earth and Mars. In addition to those two bedform scales, orbital and in situ images revealed a third distinct class of larger meter-scale ripples on Mars. Since their discovery, two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain the formation of large martian ripples-that they originate from the growth in wavelength and height of decimeter-scale ripples or that they arise from the same hydrodynamic instability as windblown dunes or subaqueous bedforms instead. Here we provide evidence that large martian ripples form from the same hydrodynamic instability as windblown dunes and subaqueous ripples. Using an artificial neural network, we characterize the morphometrics of over a million isolated barchan dunes on Mars and analyze how their size and shape vary across Mars' surface. We find that the size of Mars' smallest dunes decreases with increasing atmospheric density with a power-law exponent predicted by hydrodynamic theory, similarly to meter-size ripples, tightly bounding a forbidden range in bedform sizes. Our results provide key evidence for a unifying model for the formation of subaqueous and windblown bedforms on planetary surfaces, offering a new quantitative tool to decipher Mars' atmospheric evolution.


Assuntos
Marte , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Planeta Terra , Hidrodinâmica , Redes Neurais de Computação
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(42): e2204474119, 2022 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215469

RESUMO

Constraining the thermal and compositional state of the mantle is crucial for deciphering the formation and evolution of Mars. Mineral physics predicts that Mars' deep mantle is demarcated by a seismic discontinuity arising from the pressure-induced phase transformation of the mineral olivine to its higher-pressure polymorphs, making the depth of this boundary sensitive to both mantle temperature and composition. Here, we report on the seismic detection of a midmantle discontinuity using the data collected by NASA's InSight Mission to Mars that matches the expected depth and sharpness of the postolivine transition. In five teleseismic events, we observed triplicated P and S waves and constrained the depth of this discontinuity to be 1,006 [Formula: see text] 40 km by modeling the triplicated waveforms. From this depth range, we infer a mantle potential temperature of 1,605 [Formula: see text] 100 K, a result consistent with a crust that is 10 to 15 times more enriched in heat-producing elements than the underlying mantle. Our waveform fits to the data indicate a broad gradient across the boundary, implying that the Martian mantle is more enriched in iron compared to Earth. Through modeling of thermochemical evolution of Mars, we observe that only two out of the five proposed composition models are compatible with the observed boundary depth. Our geodynamic simulations suggest that the Martian mantle was relatively cold 4.5 Gyr ago (1,720 to 1,860 K) and are consistent with a present-day surface heat flow of 21 to 24 mW/m2.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Marte , Planeta Terra , Ferro , Minerais
7.
Astrobiology ; 22(10): 1199-1209, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194868

RESUMO

The effect of a Mars-like UV flux and γ-radiation on the detectability of biomarkers in dried cells of Chroococcidiopsis sp. CCMEE 029 was investigated using a fluorescence sandwich microarray immunoassay. The production of anti-Chroococcidiopsis antibodies allowed the immunoidentification of a reduced, though still detectable, signal in dried cells mixed with phyllosilicatic and sulfatic Mars regolith simulants after exposure to 6.8 × 105 kJ/m2 of a Mars-like UV flux. No signal was detected in dried cells that were not mixed with minerals after 1.4 × 105 kJ/m2. For γ-radiation (60Co), no detectable variations of the fluorescence signal occurred in dried cells exposed to 113 kGy compared to non-irradiated dried cells. Our results suggest that immunoassay-based techniques could be used to detect life tracers eventually present in the martian subsurface in freshly excavated materials only if shielded from solar UV. The high structural integrity of biomarkers irradiated with γ-radiation that mimics a dose accumulated in 13 Myr at 2 m depth from the martian surface has implications for the potential detectability of similar organic molecules/compounds by future life-detection missions such as the ExoMars Rosalind Franklin rover.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Marte , Biomarcadores , Cianobactérias/efeitos da radiação , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Minerais , Radiação Ionizante
8.
Astrobiology ; 22(10): 1239-1254, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194869

RESUMO

The current strategy for detecting evidence of ancient life on Mars-a primary goal of NASA's ongoing Mars 2020 mission-is based largely on knowledge of Precambrian life and of its preservation in Earth's early rock record. The fossil record of primitive microorganisms consists mainly of stromatolites and other microbially influenced sedimentary structures, which occasionally preserve microfossils or other geochemical traces of life. Raman spectroscopy is an invaluable tool for identifying such signs of life and is routinely performed on Precambrian microfossils to help establish their organic composition, degree of thermal maturity, and biogenicity. The Mars 2020 rover, Perseverance, is equipped with a deep-ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectrometer as part of the SHERLOC (Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals) instrument, which will be used in part to characterize the preservation of organic matter in the ancient sedimentary rocks of Jezero crater and therein search for possible biosignatures. To determine the deep-UV Raman spectra characteristic of ancient microbial fossils, this study analyzes individual microfossils from 14 Precambrian cherts using deep-UV (244 nm) Raman spectroscopy. Spectra obtained were measured and calibrated relative to a graphitic standard and categorized according to the morphology and depositional environment of the fossil analyzed and its Raman-indicated thermal maturity. All acquired spectra of the fossil kerogens include a considerably Raman-enhanced and prominent first-order Raman G-band (∼1600 cm-1), whereas its commonly associated D-band (∼1350 cm-1) is restricted to specimens of lower thermal maturity (below greenschist facies) that thus have the less altered biosignature indicative of relatively well-preserved organic matter. If comparably preserved, similar characteristics would be expected to be exhibited by microfossils or ancient organic matter in rock samples collected and cached on Mars in preparation for future sample return to Earth.


Assuntos
Marte , Análise Espectral Raman , Planeta Terra , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Fósseis , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos
9.
Astrobiology ; 22(11): 1351-1362, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264546

RESUMO

A key part of the search for extraterrestrial life is the detection of organic molecules since these molecules form the basis of all living things on Earth. Instrument suites such as SHERLOC (Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals) onboard the NASA Perseverance rover and the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer onboard the future ExoMars Rosalind Franklin rover are designed to detect organic molecules at the martian surface. However, size, mass, and power limitations mean that these instrument suites cannot yet match the instrumental capabilities available in Earth-based laboratories. Until Mars Sample Return, the only martian samples available for study on Earth are martian meteorites. This is a collection of largely basaltic igneous rocks that have been exposed to varying degrees of terrestrial contamination. The low organic molecule abundance within igneous rocks and the expectation of terrestrial contamination make the identification of martian organics within these meteorites highly challenging. The Lafayette martian meteorite exhibits little evidence of terrestrial weathering, potentially making it a good candidate for the detection of martian organics despite uncertainties surrounding its fall history. In this study, we used ultrapure solvents to extract organic matter from triplicate samples of Lafayette and analyzed these extracts via hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS). Two hundred twenty-four metabolites (organic molecules) were detected in Lafayette at concentrations more than twice those present in the procedural blanks. In addition, a large number of plant-derived metabolites were putatively identified, the presence of which supports the unconfirmed report that Lafayette fell in a semirural location in Indiana. Remarkably, the putative identification of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (or vomitoxin), alongside the report that the collector was possibly a student at Purdue University, can be used to identify the most likely fall year as 1919.


Assuntos
Marte , Meteoroides , Humanos , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Planeta Terra , Universidades
10.
Astrobiology ; 22(11): 1337-1350, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282180

RESUMO

Increasingly, national space agencies are expanding their goals to include Mars exploration with sample return. To better protect Earth and its biosphere from potential extraterrestrial sources of contamination, as set forth in the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, international efforts to develop planetary protection measures strive to understand the danger of cross-contamination processes in Mars sample return missions. We aim to better understand the impact of the martian surface on microbial dormancy and survivability. Radiation resistance of microbes is a key parameter in considering survivability of microbes over geologic times on the frigid, arid surface of Mars that is bombarded by solar and galactic cosmic radiation. We tested the influence of desiccation and freezing on the ionizing radiation survival of six model microorganisms: vegetative cells of two bacteria (Deinococcus radiodurans, Escherichia coli) and a strain of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); and vegetative cells and endospores of three Bacillus bacteria (B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. thuringiensis). Desiccation and freezing greatly increased radiation survival of vegetative polyploid microorganisms when applied separately, and when combined, desiccation and freezing increased radiation survival even more so. Thus, the radiation survival threshold of polyploid D. radiodurans cells can be extended from the already high value of 25 kGy in liquid culture to an astonishing 140 kGy when the cells are both desiccated and frozen. However, such synergistic radioprotective effects of desiccation and freezing were not observed in monogenomic or digenomic Bacillus cells and endospores, which are generally sterilized by 12 kGy. This difference is associated with a critical requirement for survivability under radiation, that is, repair of genome damage caused by radiation. Deinococcus radiodurans and S. cerevisiae accumulate similarly high levels of the Mn antioxidants that are required for extreme radiation resistance, as do endospores, though they greatly exceed spores in radioresistance because they contain multiple identical genome copies, which in D. radiodurans are joined by persistent Holliday junctions. We estimate ionizing radiation survival limits of polyploid DNA-based life-forms to be hundreds of millions of years of background radiation while buried in the martian subsurface. Our findings imply that forward contamination of Mars will essentially be permanent, and backward contamination is a possibility if life ever existed on Mars.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Marte , Humanos , Dessecação , Congelamento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Esporos Bacterianos/efeitos da radiação , Radiação Ionizante , Poliploidia
12.
Science ; 377(6613): 1366-1367, 2022 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36137044

RESUMO

Researchers plan to study organic-rich rocks in terrestrial labs, looking for past life.


Assuntos
Exobiologia , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Marte
13.
Astrobiology ; 22(11): 1293-1309, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074082

RESUMO

We measured the N concentrations and isotopic compositions of 44 samples of terrestrial potassic and micro- and meso-porous minerals and a small number of whole-rocks to determine the extent to which N is incorporated and stored during weathering and low-temperature hydrothermal alteration in Mars surface/near-surface environments. The selection of these minerals and other materials was partly guided by the study of altered volcanic glass from Antarctica and Iceland, in which the incorporation of N as NH4+ in phyllosilicates is indicated by correlated concentrations of N and the LILEs (i.e., K, Ba, Rb, Cs), with scatter likely related to the presence of exchanged, occluded/trapped, or encapsulated organic/inorganic N occurring within structural cavities (e.g., in zeolites). The phyllosilicates, zeolites, and sulfates analyzed in this study contain between 0 and 99,120 ppm N and have δ15Nair values of -34‰ to +65‰. Most of these minerals, and the few siliceous hydrothermal deposits that were analyzed, have δ15N consistent with the incorporation of biologically processed N during low-temperature hydrothermal or weathering processes. Secondary ion mass spectrometry on altered hyaloclastites demonstrates the residency of N in smectites and zeolites, and silica. We suggest that geological materials known on Earth to incorporate and store N and known to be abundant at, or near, the surface of Mars should be considered targets for upcoming Mars sample return with the intent to identify any signs of ancient or modern life.


Assuntos
Marte , Zeolitas , Exobiologia/métodos , Nitrogênio , Porosidade , Minerais/análise , Planeta Terra , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno
14.
Astrobiology ; 22(11): 1310-1329, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112369

RESUMO

At a Mars analog site in Utah, we tested two science operation methods for data acquisition and decision-making protocols: a scenario where the tactical day is preplanned, but major adjustments may still be made before plan delivery; and a scenario in which the sol path must largely be planned before a given tactical planning day and very few adjustments to the plan may be made. The goal was to provide field-tested insight into operations planning for rover missions where science operations must facilitate the efficient choice of sampling locations at a site relevant to searching for habitability and biosignatures. Results of the test indicate that preplanning sol paths did not result in a sol cost savings nor did it improve science return or optimal biologically relevant sample collection. In addition because facies variations in an environment can be subtle and evident only at scales below orbital resolution, acquiring systematic observations is crucial. We also noted that while spectral data provided insight into the chemical components as a whole at this site, they did not provide a guide to targets for which the traverse should be altered. Finally, strategic science planning must include a special effort to account for terrain.


Assuntos
Exobiologia , Marte , Exobiologia/métodos , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Objetivos , Planejamento Estratégico
15.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 34: 53-67, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940690

RESUMO

The detection and analysis of extraterrestrial life are important issues of space science. Mars is among the most important planets to explore for extraterrestrial life, owing both to its physical properties and to its ancient and present environments as revealed by previous exploration missions. In this paper, we present a comparative study of methods for detecting extraterrestrial life and life-related substances. To this end, we have classified and summarized the characteristics targeted for the detection of extraterrestrial life in solar system exploration mission and the methods used to evaluate them. A summary table is presented. We conclude that at this moment (i) there is no realistic single detection method capable of concluding the discovery of extraterrestrial life, (ii) no single method has an advantage over the others in all respects, and (iii) there is no single method capable of distinguishing extraterrestrial life from terrestrial life. Therefore, a combination of complementary methods is essential. We emphasize the importance of endeavoring to detect extraterrestrial life without overlooking possible alien life forms, even at the cost of tolerating false positives. Summaries of both the targets and the detection methods should be updated continuously, and comparative studies of both should be pursued. Although this study assumes Mars to be a model site for the primary environment for life searches, both the targets and detection methods described herein will also be useful for searching for extraterrestrial life in any celestial environment and for the initial inspection of returned samples.


Assuntos
Marte , Voo Espacial , Exobiologia , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Planetas , Sistema Solar
16.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 34: 87-103, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940692

RESUMO

Space agencies are preparing to send humans to the Moon (16% Earth's gravity) and Mars (38% Earth's gravity), however, there is limited evidence regarding the effects of hypogravity on the skeletal system. A novel rodent partial weight-bearing (PWB) model may provide insight into how human bone responds to hypogravity. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review investigating the effect of PWB on the structure and function of rodent bone. Five online databases were searched with the following inclusion criteria: population (rodents), intervention (PWB for ≥1-week), control (full weight-bearing), outcomes (bone structure/function), and study design (animal intervention). Of the 2,993 studies identified, eight were included. The main findings were that partial weight-bearing exposure for 21-28 days at 20%, 40%, and 70% of full loading causes: (1) loss of bone mineral density, (2) loss of trabecular bone volume, thickness, number, and increased separation, (3) loss of cortical area and thickness, and 4) reduced bone stiffness and strength. These findings predominately relate the tibia/femur of young/mature female mice, however, their deconditioning response appeared similar, but not identical, to male rats. A dose-response trend was frequently observed between the magnitude of deconditioning and PWB level. The deconditioning patterns in PWB resembled those in rodents and humans exposed to microgravity and microgravity analogs. The present findings suggest that countermeasures against bone deconditioning may be required for humans exploring the Lunar and Martian surfaces.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Marte , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Feminino , Humanos , Hipogravidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos , Roedores , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272209, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35976812

RESUMO

A fundamental challenge in human missions to Mars is producing consumable foods efficiently with the in situ resources such as soil, water, nutrients and solar radiation available on Mars. The low nutrient content of martian soil and high salinity of water render them unfit for direct use for propagating food crops on Mars. It is therefore essential to develop strategies to enhance nutrient content in Mars soil and to desalinate briny water for long-term missions on Mars. We report simple and efficient strategies for treating basaltic regolith simulant soil and briny water simulant for suitable resources for growing plants. We show that alfalfa plants grow well in a nutrient-limited basaltic regolith simulant soil and that the alfalfa biomass can be used as a biofertilizer to sustain growth and production of turnip, radish and lettuce in the basaltic regolith simulant soil. Moreover, we show that marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 effectively desalinates the briny water simulant, and that desalination can be further enhanced by filtration through basalt-type volcanic rocks. Our findings indicate that it is possible to grow food crops with alfalfa treated basaltic regolith martian soil as a substratum watered with biodesalinated water.


Assuntos
Marte , Solo , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Humanos , Silicatos , Água
19.
Astrobiology ; 22(9): 1029-1031, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939264

RESUMO

In original experiments, Bak et al. (Wind-Driven Saltation: An Overlooked Challenge for Life on Mars. Astrobiology 2019;19(4):497-505) suggest a new mechanism for the destruction of spores on Mars: abrasion by wind-driven saltation. Bak et al. found that the tumbling of spores on grain surfaces (simulating saltation) was, by far, most lethal at the outset of their experiments. They suggest that it may be sharp edges of the freshly crushed basalt particles used in their experiments that destroy the spores and that these edges abrade away over the course of each experiment. But prior Mars analogue experiments, observations of particles from terrestrial deserts, and imaging from Mars landers suggest that most martian dust has been rounded by billions of years of aeolian processes. If so, saltation on Mars is more likely well simulated by the later stages of the Bak et al. experiments, reducing implied lethality by orders of magnitude. Experiments could test this by beginning with particles that had been already abraded. Even assuming the highest lethality found in their experiments, saltation "hop" distances on Mars suggest that abrasion would not prevent ∼1% of released spores from remaining viable while traveling hundreds or even thousands of kilometers.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Marte , Bacillus subtilis , Exobiologia , Esporos Bacterianos
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4817, 2022 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35974008

RESUMO

NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft revealed the crust of the Moon is highly porous, with ~4% porosity at 20 km deep. The deep lying porosity discovered by GRAIL has been difficult to explain, with most current models only able to explain high porosity near the lunar surface (first few kilometers) or inside complex craters. Using hydrocode routines we simulated fracturing and generation of porosity by large impacts in lunar, martian, and Earth crust. Our simulations indicate impacts that produce 100-1000 km scale basins alone are capable of producing all observed porosity within the lunar crust. Simulations under the higher surface gravity of Mars and Earth suggest basin forming impacts can be a primary source of porosity and fracturing of ancient planetary crusts. Thus, we show that impacts could have supported widespread crustal fluid circulation, with important implications for subsurface habitable environments on early Earth and Mars.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Marte , Planeta Terra , Lua , Porosidade
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