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1.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 56(4): 599-607, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749898

RESUMO

The health outcomes of men are significantly worse, when compared with their female counterparts, for the top 15 leading causes of death nationwide. At this time, men are not actively engaged in the health care system, creating a challenge for those managing patients in the clinical setting. The premature morbidity and mortality of men financially burdens the health care system and places a financial strain in secondary and tertiary preventive care that is simply not sustainable. Obesity is a catalyst that fuels disease and is directly responsible for the pathogenesis for the disease claiming the lives of men nationwide.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Masculinidade , Saúde do Homem , Obesidade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estigma Social , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769687

RESUMO

An under-researched aspect of transgender sex workers in China pertains to their desires and expressions of femininity. Male-to-Female (MTF) transgender sex workers are a high-risk population prone to depression and stress regarding body image, intimate relationships marked by violence, and social stigma, rendering them vulnerable to hate crimes and discrimination. Ethnographic data from in-depth interviews with 49 MTF transgender sex workers indicate that sex, gender and feminine desire are mutable in the construction of self and subjectivity. This study uses the conceptual framework of gender performativity, that is, gender is performative and distinct from physical bodies and binary classifications. It is not only an individual's normative gender expressions which are based on the sex assigned at birth, but it also reinforces the normative gender performances of the gender binary. This article argues that the 49 MTF transgender sex workers are embodiments of gendered performances, displaying femininity to ameliorate hate crimes and discrimination as well as reinforce the masculinity and sexuality of their clients and intimate sex partners. Embracing their femininity constitutes a self-help program, enabling them to build self-confidence and develop a positive self-image in the face of overwhelming social disapproval.


Assuntos
Profissionais do Sexo , Pessoas Transgênero , Transexualidade , Feminino , Feminilidade , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Masculinidade
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4613-4622, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730648

RESUMO

Mental health problems have great international health relevance. From a multifactorial nature, the health conditions considered here as suffering are influenced by social elements such as the construction of masculinity, notwithstanding the evident increasing criticisms and struggles against male sexism. Given this setting, the paper addresses male mental distress and its care, based on a literature review, according to BVS research, and considering the 2010-2020 period. Twenty-two papers were selected from the research. The results of the study were organized into these categories: Characteristics/Particularities of men's mental distress; Access/Way of seeking help by men in distress and approach/Care of men in mental distress. We can conclude that there is a need for more visibility for the relationship between masculinity and suffering and their care specificities, considering the existence of an apparent silent crisis, the right of men (as people) to care, and the possible contribution, albeit indirect and modest, of addressing men's distress to the fight against machismo.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Sexismo , Humanos , Masculino , Homens , Saúde do Homem , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Autocuidado
4.
Am J Mens Health ; 15(5): 15579883211049033, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636686

RESUMO

Non-Hispanic (NH) Black, American Indian/Alaska Native (Indigenous), and NH-White men have the highest colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates among all other racial/ethnic groups. Contributing factors are multifaceted, yet no studies have examined the psychometric properties of a comprehensive survey examining potential masculinity barriers to CRC screening behaviors among these populations. This study assessed the psychometric properties of our Masculinity Barriers to Medical Care (MBMC) Scale among NH-Black, Indigenous, and NH-White men who completed our web-based MBMC, Psychosocial Factors, and CRC Screening Uptake & Intention Survey. We conducted exploratory factor analysis on a sample of 254 men and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) on a separate sample of 637 men nationally representative by age and state of residence. After psychometric assessment, the MBMC scale was reduced from 24 to 18 items and from six to four subscales. NH-Black men's mean scores were lowest on three of four subscales (Being Strong, Negative and Positive Attitudes) and highest on the Acknowledging Emotions subscale. Compared with both Indigenous and NH-White men, NH-Black men had significantly lower Negative Attitudes subscale scores and significantly higher scores on the Acknowledging Emotions subscale. Compared with both Indigenous and NH-Black men, NH-White men had significantly higher Being Strong and Positive Attitudes subscales scores. This study expands on previous research indicating that, among racialized populations of men, endorsement of traditional masculine ideologies influences engagement in preventive health behaviors. Our scale can be tailored to assess attitudes to screening for other cancers and diseases that disproportionately burden medically underserved populations.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Homens , Afro-Americanos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria
5.
Am J Mens Health ; 15(5): 15579883211044323, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528467

RESUMO

In the age of the Anthropocene, questions of ecological sustainability, animal ethics, and human health are intimately entangled. From a gender perspective, compared to women, men's diets tend to be less healthy and sustainable. This is linked to worse health outcomes for men. Therefore, alternative, more ethical ways of eating that have the potential to improve men's health and well-being and simultaneously contribute to better public health and sustainability outcomes should be encouraged. Veganism addresses issues of food, health, climate change, and animal justice simultaneously.This article explores vegan men's food practices in relation to health and well-being, drawing on qualitative interviews with 61 vegan men. The interview material was analyzed using the method of thematic analysis. Our findings suggest that becoming vegan encourages positive changes in men's health behavior. This includes paying more attention to nutrition and taking better care of one's health. Vegan men report experiencing better physical and mental well-being upon going vegan. Based on these findings, we argue that vegan men's food and health practices contribute to the emergence of healthier masculinities, as vegan men help to challenge links between risky health behavior and masculinity.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Veganos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Homens , Saúde do Homem , Saúde Mental
6.
Am J Mens Health ; 15(5): 15579883211049021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587766

RESUMO

Research suggests that adherence to traditional and hegemonic masculinities can be detrimental to men's mental health. In particular, anxiety can result from the incongruence between idealised and lived experiences. Emerging research suggests that holding spiritual beliefs may protect against such anxiety. This Australian study investigated whether two aspects of spiritualism (Spiritual Openness and Spiritual Support) could moderate the relationship between four stereotypical masculine behaviours (Success Dedication, Restrictive Emotionality, Inhibited Affection and Exaggerated Self-Reliance and Control) and anxiety. A cross-sectional, correlational design, with a heterogeneous, Western community sample included 331 male participants aged 18-67 (M = 24.57, SD = 10.37). In partial support of the hypotheses, two significant moderation models were found. Both Spiritual Support and Spiritual Openness moderated the relationship between Exaggerated Self-Reliance and Control and anxiety. There were no significant moderations for Success Dedication, Restrictive Emotionality, and Inhibited Affection. Masculinity and spiritualism did not have significant direct effects on anxiety. These findings suggest that when working with men and their mental health, it may be important to consider the congruence between their behaviors and belief systems, as spirituality was only protective against anxiety where these beliefs were congruent with masculine self-reliance and control. It appears that the potential benefit of spirituality in reducing masculine anxiety is dependent on the man being more open to external supports, and having a lower need for control.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Religião , Ansiedade , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Am J Mens Health ; 15(5): 15579883211040918, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587838

RESUMO

The study explored the psychosocial experiences of rural black South African men undergoing renal dialysis in a tertiary hospital. Twenty men aged between 20 and 59 years (Meanage = 40.65 yrs; SD = 12.52) participated in the study. Participants were recruited purposefully. Data were collected over a period of 4 months through in-depth face-to-face interviews and analyzed using the Interpretative Phenomenological Analytical method. The following three key themes were extracted from the interviews: (a) the emotional pain and fear of death following a diagnosis of ESRD; (b) living on dialysis interferes with the management and handling of "manly" responsibilities and duties and, (c) dialysis as a challenging yet life-saving measure. The findings further suggest that renal dialysis has an impact on men's sense of masculinity and has the potential to complicate the management of renal failure. The paper concludes by recommending that cultural and community factors be taken into account when considering interventions to manage the health of men living with renal conditions.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Homens , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 688-702, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517242

RESUMO

AIM: Anxiety disorders are amongst the most commonly diagnosed mental illnesses amongst men; however male-specific anxiety research is lacking. This review explores men's anxiety symptoms and disorders including help-seeking, coping and the role of masculinity. METHOD: Four electronic database searches identified 8,333 citations, with 25 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Nineteen studies employed quantitative methods, five studies reported qualitative research, and one utilised mixed methods. RESULTS: Unique profiles of anxiety, including psychosomatic symptoms, were identified and persisted over extended periods of time. Men commonly reported self-reliance over formal help-seeking, and typically managed anxiety symptoms through problem-based coping. Masculinity was related to anxiety in complex ways; adherence to norms of toughness could be protective against anxiety onset, while adherence to emotional restrictiveness and heterosexual presentation norms were positively associated with anxiety. The experience of, and help-seeking for anxiety transgressed many men's adherence to masculinity norms resulting in significant social and self-stigmas. LIMITATIONS: The anxiety measurement scales utilised were inconsistent across included studies and there was limited scope of research into panic disorders, phobias and agoraphobia. CONCLUSION: Findings demonstrate the enduring nature of anxiety for men and a potential under-reporting of symptoms, especially amongst younger men. To better tailor clinical care and public health resources to the needs of men with anxiety disorders, targeted research examining men's lived experiences of (and coping strategies for) anxiety is essential.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Homens , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Homem , Estigma Social
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574445

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is extensive research about the consequences that toxic relationships with dominant masculinities have on different areas of women's lives, including how they can influence future relationships they establish. Some of these women reproduce toxic relationships with dominant masculinities in their following relationships, and some women start to establish sexual-affective relationships with non-dominant masculinity models. However, less is known about the specific consequences in non-dominant masculinities who establish relationships with women who have not overcome the false memory of excitement regarding their toxic relationships. METHODOLOGY: In order to shed light on the consequences for non-dominant masculinities, eight communicative interviews were conducted with four women and four men. RESULTS: The main findings indicate that those female participants who have kept an exciting memory of toxic relationships, when in an equal relationship, have attitudes of disdain towards non-dominant masculinities. They may ridicule them, not value their personal or intellectual abilities, talk down to them, and even negatively value their sexual aptitudes. DISCUSSION: The application of the previous literature to our results leads to establishing the work on memories of relationships that have led to socialization in violent relationships as a preventive approach. CONCLUSION: The previously mentioned attitudes could generate health problems for non-dominant masculinities engaged in these relationships.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Comportamento Sexual , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574534

RESUMO

Women and girls experience gender violence from a young age. Scientific research has presented evidence of the negative impact of toxic relationships and toxic stress on physical and psychological health. However, less is known on how this evidence can have a preventive effect. Knowing these impacts can be important for women and girls to decide the type of affective-sexual relationships they want to have, and even transform their attraction towards different types of masculinity. This study presents results from the MEMO4LOVE project. Researchers use mixed-methods approaches, including a questionnaire (n = 141) to study adolescents' peer groups' interactions that promoted healthy or toxic affective-sexual relationships, and five communicative focus groups with boys and girls to analyze how these interactions can be transformed by sharing scientific knowledge on the effects of violent relationships with adolescents. The results showed the impact of sharing with adolescents the evidence of the adverse effects of toxic relationships with violent masculinities on health. The peer group's transformation occurred: non-violent boys gained self-confidence, and girls redirected or reinforced their attraction to non-violent boys. These results suggest the potential positive effects of knowing the impacts of toxic relationships on girls' health.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero , Masculinidade , Adolescente , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Violência
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574731

RESUMO

Traditional masculinity includes norms that encourage many of the aggressive behaviors whereas traditional femininity emphasizes aggression very little. In addition, the lack of emotional regulation as well as a poor impulse control have been related to aggression and, in particular, with reactive and proactive aggression. The objective of this study is to examine the role of gender stereotypes (masculinity/femininity) in reactive and proactive aggression, through regulatory emotional self-efficacy and emotion regulation. A total of 390 adolescents participated in a longitudinal study in Valencia, Spain. Structural equations modeling (SEM) was employed to explore a two-wave longitudinal model. The results show that femininity relates to reactive aggression through regulatory emotional self-efficacy and emotion regulation. This way, both emotional self-efficacy and emotional regulation mediate the relation between femininity and reactive aggression. Furthermore, reactive and proactive aggression relate positively and directly to masculinity and negatively to femininity. Therefore, violence prevention programs with adolescents should incorporate information to break down gender stereotypes and promote strategies to manage emotions. Such efforts may be helpful to reduce aggressive behaviors and violence.


Assuntos
Agressão , Masculinidade , Adolescente , Emoções , Feminino , Feminilidade , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
12.
Am J Mens Health ; 15(4): 15579883211035241, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414836

RESUMO

Compared to other occupational groups, farmers in Ireland experience a disproportionate burden of health problems, which impact farmers' livelihoods and farming sustainability. Internationally, farmers' poor health outcomes are associated with intersecting economic, environmental, socio-cultural, and occupation-specific factors linked to changes in agricultural governance. This qualitative study explored the challenges and stressors facing farmers in Ireland and how changes in farming governance have impacted farmers' identities, masculinities and health. Eleven focus groups (n = 26 female, n = 35 male, age-range 20s-70s) were conducted with both male farmers (n = 3 focus groups; n = 13) and key informants (n = 8 focus groups; n = 48, 22 male, 26 female). Utilizing Thematic Content Analysis, transcripts were coded independently by the first and second author using open and comparative coding techniques, with emerging themes grouped into primary and subthemes. Theme memos and conceptual maps tracked evolving relationships between themes. The analysis identified three broad themes. "Wrestling with challenges to autonomy and control within farming" examines the impact of tighter regulatory frameworks associated with changes to farming governance and unpacks other challenges associated with scale and succession. "Farming masculinities and health" explores how farming masculinities were closely aligned with farming practices and health practices and were framed relationally. "Isolation and the demise of rural communities" considers the impact of reduced social interaction on loneliness among farmers, particularly among more "at risk" single and older farmers. Findings provide unique insights into contemporary challenges and stressors facing farmers and have important implications for informing the design and roll-out of a national farmers' health training program.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fazendeiros , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Masculinidade , Estresse Ocupacional , Adulto , Idoso , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
Accid Anal Prev ; 161: 106347, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403907

RESUMO

Driver anger and its expression are among the most studied topics in traffic safety literature. However, the function of gender roles, i.e., masculinity and femininity, in driving anger experience and expression has remained mainly unexplored. The present study investigates the association between driving anger and gender roles on the expression of anger among young drivers. Three hundred seventy-nine young drivers filled a questionnaire including the Driving Anger Scale, Bem Sex Roles Inventory, Driving Anger Expression Inventory, and demographic information. Moderated regression analyses showed that masculine gender role and anger provoked by other road users' discourtesy were positively and femininity negatively related to verbal aggression while driving. Anger related to police presence, slow driving, and masculine gender role were positively related to gesture-based and vehicle-based expression of driver aggression. Hostility and feminine gender role were negatively related to the gesture-based expression of driver aggression, while anger related to witnessing illegal driving and feminine gender role were negatively related to the vehicle-based expression of aggression. The interaction effects between masculinity and hostility, masculinity and slow driving, and femininity and illegal driving were also found on the gesture-based expression of driver aggression. The effects of interaction between masculinity and slow driving and femininity and illegal driving were also found on the vehicle-based expression of driver aggression. Slow driving and femininity had a positive relationship to the adaptive expression of anger in driving. The results suggest that masculinity and femininity moderate the relationship between driving anger and the expression of driving anger among young drivers.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Feminilidade , Acidentes de Trânsito , Agressão , Ira , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade
14.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 16(1): 1970303, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435543

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose was to investigate experiences of men who were living with chronic pain in relation to masculine identity and their experiences of treatment at a Chronic Pain Clinic in South Africa. METHODS: A purposive sample of 14 male patients from an outpatient Chronic Pain Clinic participated in the study in 2019. Qualitative inquiry followed a life-world dialogical interview approach. Respondent validation interviews further engaged participant perspectives. Team data analysis, thematic network diagrams and tabulations were used for analysis of the interview data. . RESULTS: The respondents described multiple challenges of the journey to chronic pain, living with chronic pain, experiences of treatment contexts, ways of coping and the experience of living with chronic pain in relation to masculinity. Three typologies were identified: (1) aligning with hegemonic ideals, (2) a yielding masculinity or (3) an adjusted masculine identity. The findings revealed how masculine identity was positioned by the perceptions of others, interpersonally and within the individual. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare practitioners and public health can be responsive to the gendered context of living with difficult and long-term pain conditions. Treatment should be supportive and inclusive..


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Adaptação Psicológica , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Clínicas de Dor , Pesquisa Qualitativa
15.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 457-463, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264771

RESUMO

There is a growing research interest in cyber dating abuse (CDA). CDA includes abusive online behavior toward a current or former intimate partner, such as aggression, control, harassment, and humiliation. Despite the potential overlap and reciprocal relationship of CDA and intimate partner violence, there remains considerable paucity in research exploring predictors of this abusive online behavior. In the current study, we adopt the General Aggression Model framework and explore the role of gender, hegemonic masculinity, vulnerable narcissism, and sexual aggression myths to predict perpetration of CDA. Participants (N = 415, 51 percent women; Mage = 32.68 years) were recruited via social media advertisements and completed an anonymous, confidential online questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised the Conformity to Masculine Roles Norms Inventory, the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, the Acceptance of Modern Myths About Sexual Aggression Scale, and a modified Cyber Aggression in Relationships Scale. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that hegemonic masculinity, vulnerable narcissism, and sexual aggression myths were all significant positive predictors of perpetrating CDA. As gender was a significant predictor until the inclusion of these variables, a multiple mediation analysis was performed, indicating that both hegemonic masculinity and sexual aggression myths fully mediated the relationship between gender and perpetrating CDA. These results add to the growing body of research exploring how CDA emerges as a behavior and highlight possible implications for management and intervention.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Individualidade , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Masculinidade , Narcisismo , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Corte/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207802

RESUMO

This paper explores how the intersection of masculinity and religion shapes workplace well-being by focusing on Christianity and the social construction of masculinity among factory workers in a city in China. While existing work on public and occupational health has respectively acknowledged masculinity's influences on health and the religious and spiritual dimensions of well-being, there have been limited efforts to examine how variegated, and especially religious, masculinities influence people's well-being in the workplace. Drawing on ethnography and in-depth interviews with 52 factory workers and 8 church leaders and factory managers, we found that: (1) Variegated masculinities were integrated into the factory labor regime to produce docile and productive bodies of workers. In particular, the militarized and masculine cultures in China's factories largely deprived workers of their dignity and undermined their well-being. These toxic masculinities were associated with workers' depression and suicidal behavior. (2) Christianity not only provided social and spiritual support for vulnerable factory workers, but also enabled them to construct a morally superior Christian manhood that phytologically empowered them and enhanced their resilience to exploitation. This paper highlights not only the gender mechanism of well-being, but also the ways religion mediates the social-psychological construction of masculinity.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Saúde do Trabalhador , China , Cristianismo , Humanos , Masculino , Local de Trabalho
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300078

RESUMO

Women police officers report elevated symptoms of mental disorders when compared to men police officers. Researchers have indicated that the occupational experience of policing differs greatly among men and women. Indeed, police culture is characterized by hegemonic masculinity, which appears to negatively impact both men and women. The current study examined the contrast between the experiences of men and women police officers. Police officers (n = 17; 9 women) in Saskatchewan participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic network analysis identified themes related to the experience of policing for both men and women police officers. There were six organizing themes identified in relation to the global theme of Gendered Experiences: (1) Discrimination; (2) Sexual Harassment; (3) Motherhood and Parental Leave; (4) Identity; (5) Stereotypically Feminine Attributes; and (6) Hegemonic Masculinity. Pervasive gender norms appear detrimental for both men and women police officers, as well as the communities they serve. The current results, coupled with the emerging disposition for progress expressed by police services, offer opportunities to develop tailored and focused interventions and policies to support police officers.


Assuntos
Polícia , Assédio Sexual , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Saskatchewan
18.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(7): 2600-2622, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232704

RESUMO

Purpose The aim of the study was to examine associations between speaking fundamental frequency (f os), vowel formant frequencies (F), listener perceptions of speaker gender, and vocal femininity-masculinity. Method An exploratory study was undertaken to examine associations between f os, F 1-F 3, listener perceptions of speaker gender (nominal scale), and vocal femininity-masculinity (visual analog scale). For 379 speakers of Australian English aged 18-60 years, f os mode and F 1-F 3 (12 monophthongs; total of 36 Fs) were analyzed on a standard reading passage. Seventeen listeners rated speaker gender and vocal femininity-masculinity on randomized audio recordings of these speakers. Results Model building using principal component analysis suggested the 36 Fs could be succinctly reduced to seven principal components (PCs). Generalized structural equation modeling (with the seven PCs of F and f os as predictors) suggested that only F 2 and f os predicted listener perceptions of speaker gender (male, female, unable to decide). However, listener perceptions of vocal femininity-masculinity behaved differently and were predicted by F 1, F 3, and the contrast between monophthongs at the extremities of the F 1 acoustic vowel space, in addition to F 2 and f os. Furthermore, listeners' perceptions of speaker gender also influenced ratings of vocal femininity-masculinity substantially. Conclusion Adjusted odds ratios highlighted the substantially larger contribution of F to listener perceptions of speaker gender and vocal femininity-masculinity relative to f os than has previously been reported.


Assuntos
Feminilidade , Masculinidade , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Acústica da Fala
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202511

RESUMO

Introduction and Aims: Past research indicates heavy episodic drinking (HED), trait aggression, male honour and conformity to masculine norms are risk factors for male barroom aggression (MBA) perpetration. However, little is known about the impact of these variables on experiences of MBA victimization. Further, data derived previously, particularly in relation to perpetration have come from relatively low-risk samples comprising university students, limiting the generalizability of findings to other, at-risk male groups. Thus, the present study assessed the impact of the aforementioned variables as well as personality constructs of impulsivity and narcissism on both the perpetration of and victimization from MBA among a high-risk sample sourced from male members of the Australian construction industry. Method: A purposive sample of Australian male construction workers aged 18 to 69 years (n = 476, Mage = 25.90, SDage = 9.44) completed individual interviews at their current place of employment or while training at various trade schools in Geelong and Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Items related to past month HED, past year experiences of verbal and physical MBA (perpetration and victimization), trait aggression's four factors (physical, verbal, anger, hostility), impulsivity, narcissism, male honour and conformity to masculine norms. Results: Participants reported high levels of verbal (24.2%) and physical (21%) MBA perpetration and verbal (33.6%) and physical (31.1%) MBA victimization. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analyses identified HED as the strongest predictor of aggression involvement, while trait physical aggression, trait anger, narcissism and conformity to norms endorsing violence and a need to win were significantly and positively associated with MBA perpetration. Conclusions: The present study reinforces the key relationships between heavy drinking and aspects of personality and MBA, while also highlighting narcissism as a risk factor for barroom aggression perpetration. Indeed, personality profiles and HED appear to exert stronger influences on MBA perpetration than socially constructed masculinity factors, most of which were unrelated to aggression involvement in bars, clubs or pubs.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Vítimas de Crime , Adulto , Agressão , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Vitória
20.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 261-278, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This meta-analytic review aimed to systematically evaluate associations of depression with multiple gender role dimensions (masculinity, femininity, androgyny, and undifferentiated traits) and to determine potential moderators (participant characteristics, study instruments and sociocultural factors) of the relationship. METHODS: Of 4481 initially identified records in three electronic databases, 58 studies published 1978 to 2021 were included for meta-analysis. RESULTS: (1) Association of depression and gender role is moderated by study year and human development indices. (2) Masculinity is a protective factor for depression, while this dominance has declined as life expectancy increases. (3) A negative, weak but significant association between depression and femininity is observed in women, and college students, which starts to emerge with the gradual increase in the national education and income index from 1990 to 2019. (4) Androgynous individuals reported the lowest level of depression as compared with other gender role orientations (masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated trait group). This disparity is becoming more extreme with life expectancy and per capita income index increases. LIMITATIONS: English-language studies were only included in this review. CONCLUSIONS: Androgyny might be the most ideal gender role protecting both women and men from depression.


Assuntos
Depressão , Papel de Gênero , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Feminilidade , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Estudantes
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