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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238701, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the role of gender expression (femininity, masculinity, or androgyny) in relation to sex differences in depression. This study tested if gender expression was associated with depression and burden of depressive symptoms in a 70-year-old population. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based sample of 70-year-olds from The Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Study (n = 1203) was examined in 2014-16. Data were collected using psychiatric examinations and structured questionnaires, including the Positive-Negative Sex-Role Inventory to assess gender expression. Depression was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, and symptom burden was assessed with Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). RESULTS: Gender expression was related to MADRS score and depression diagnosis. In fully adjusted models, feminine traits with low social desirability (FEM-) were associated with a higher MADRS score (R2 0.16; B 0.16; CI 0.1-0.2), while androgyny (t ratio) (R2 0.12; B 0.42; CI 0.1-0.7) and masculine traits with high social desirability (MAS+) (R2 0.13; B -0.06; CI -0.1--0.01) were associated with a lower MADRS score. Also, feminine traits with low social desirability (FEM-) were positively associated with depression (OR 1.04; CI 1.01-1.1). No associations between depression and masculinity or androgyny were observed in adjusted models. There were no interactions between sex and gender expression in relation to depression or MADRS score, indicating that the effects of gender expression were similar in men and women. CONCLUSIONS: We found that gender expression was associated to both depression and burden of depressive symptoms. More specifically, we found that femininity was associated to higher levels of depression, irrespective of biological sex. In addition, masculinity and androgyny were associated with lower levels of depression. These results highlight the importance of taking gender expression into consideration when studying sex differences in depression among older populations in future studies.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Caracteres Sexuais , Idoso , Feminino , Feminilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Personalidade , Fatores Sexuais
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751301

RESUMO

Due to the heterosexist ideals associated with gender norms, gay men often experience negative attitudes towards their own sexuality-internalized homophobia. As a result, gay men often feel compelled to compensate for their perceived lack of masculinity. The study aimed to investigate the relationship and predictive power of masculinity on gay men's experiences of internalized homophobia. A sample of 489 self-identified Australian gay men 18-72 years old participated in an online survey on masculinity and homosexuality. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and sequential multiple regressions were used to test the study's aims. Sequential multiple regressions revealed that conformity to masculine norms and threats to masculinity contingency were stronger predictors of internalized homophobia over and above demographic and other factors. Given the already known psychological risks associated with social isolation, internalized homophobia, and the poor mental health outcomes associated with sexual minority groups, it is suggested that gay men who are experiencing high degrees of internalized homophobia should not be distancing themselves from other gay men but, conversely, seek a strong relationship with the LGBTI community.


Assuntos
Homofobia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237707, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gender role non-conforming behaviors are a significant risk factor for school-related violence. The objective of this study is to describe the types, prevalence and correlates of social violence among Thai secondary school students, with a focus on gender role non-conformity. METHODS: This article uses secondary data from a national study of 2070 secondary school students aged 13-20 years representing Bangkok and all four regions of Thailand. Students were asked about their gender/sexual identity, self-perception of their masculinity or femininity, and experiences of social violence. Correlates of social violence were examined using multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Prevalence of social violence victimization was high (57%). Most students considered themselves to be as masculine or as feminine as other members of their sex (82.6%), while 9.1% thought that they were less masculine/less feminine, and 8.3% thought they were more masculine/more feminine. Students who considered themselves less masculine or less feminine than others of their sex (AOR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.25) were more likely to experience social violence, compared to students who considered themselves equally masculine/feminine. Students who self-identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) (AOR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.86) were also more likely to experience social violence, compared to students who did not identify as LGBT. However, students who considered themselves more masculine or feminine than other students of their sex (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.88) were less likely to experience social violence. DISCUSSION: Students who identified as LGBT, or considered themselves to be less masculine or less feminine than other students of their sex, had higher odds of social violence victimization. Anti-bullying campaigns need to emphasize that perpetrating social violence is not tolerated, and gender-based violence needs to be included in comprehensive sexuality education curricula.


Assuntos
Bullying , Identidade de Gênero , Sexualidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime , Feminino , Feminilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem , Estudantes , Tailândia , Violência , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel interventions are needed to reach young people and adult men with HIV services given the low HIV testing rates in these population sub-groups. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a peer-led oral HIV self-testing (HIVST) intervention in Kasensero, a hyperendemic fishing community (HIV prevalence: 37-41%) in Rakai, Uganda. METHODS: This study was conducted among young people (15-24 years) and adult men (25+ years) between May and August 2019. The study entailed distribution of HIVST kits by trained "peer-leaders," who were selected from existing social networks and trained in HIVST distribution processes. Peer-leaders received up to 10 kits to distribute to eligible social network members (i.e. aged 15-24 years if young people or 25+ years if adult man, not tested in the past 3 months, and HIV-negative or of unknown HIV status at enrolment). The intervention was evaluated against the feasibility benchmark of 70% of peer-leaders distributing up to 70% of the kits that they received; and the acceptability benchmark of >80% of the respondents self-testing for HIV. RESULTS: Of 298 enrolled into the study at baseline, 56.4% (n = 168) were young people (15-24 years) and 43.6% (n = 130) were adult males (25+ years). Peer-leaders received 298 kits and distributed 296 (99.3%) kits to their social network members. Of the 282 interviewed at follow-up, 98.2% (n = 277) reported that they used the HIVST kits. HIV prevalence was 7.4% (n = 21). Of the 57.1% (n = 12) first-time HIV-positives, 100% sought confirmatory HIV testing and nine of the ten (90%) respondents who were confirmed as HIV-positive were linked to HIV care within 1 week of HIV diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that a social network-based, peer-led HIVST intervention in a hyperendemic fishing community is highly feasible and acceptable, and achieves high linkage to HIV care among newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Infuência dos Pares , Autocuidado/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Endêmicas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Seguimentos , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Masculinidade , Programas de Rastreamento/instrumentação , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Mucosa Bucal/imunologia , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/instrumentação , Autocuidado/métodos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e205495, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579192

RESUMO

Importance: Facial paralysis has a significant effect on affect display, with the most notable deficit being patients' the inability to smile in the same way as those without paralysis. These impairments may result in undesirable judgements of personal qualities, thus leading to a significant social penalty in those who have the condition. Objective: To quantify the association of facial paralysis with the way smiling patients are perceived by others with respect to personality traits, attractiveness, and femininity or masculinity and to evaluate the potential association of facial palsy-related patient-reported outcome measures with how patients are perceived by others. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cross-sectional study used 20 images of smiling patients with facial paralysis evaluated between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016. Using photograph editing software, the photographs were edited to create a simulated nonparalysis smiling facial appearance. A total of 40 photographs were split into 4 groups of 10 photographs, each with 5 altered and 5 unaltered photographs. The surveys were designed such that altered and unaltered photographs of the same patient were not placed in the same survey to avoid recall bias. Anonymous raters used a 7-point Likert scale to rate their perception of each patient's personality traits (ie, aggressiveness, likeability, and trustworthiness), attractiveness, and femininity or masculinity based on photographs in their assigned survey. Raters were blinded to study intent. Scores from the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation questionnaire were included to assess self-perception. Data were analyzed from November 11, 2019, to February 20, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Ratings of personality traits, attractiveness, and femininity or masculinity. Social function domain scores and overall scores were analyzed from the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation questionnaire. Results: This study included photographs of 20 patients with facial paralysis (mean [range] age, 54 [28-69] years; 15 [75%] women). A total of 122 respondents completed the survey (71 [61%] women). Most respondents were between the ages of 25 and 34 years (79 participants [65%]). Overall, smiling photos of patients with facial paralysis were perceived as significantly less likeable (difference, -0.29; 95% CI, -0.43 to -0.14), trustworthy (difference, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.39 to -0.11), attractive (difference, -0.47; 95% CI, -0.62 to -0.32), and feminine or masculine (difference, -0.21; 95% CI, -0.38 to -0.03) compared with their simulated preparalysis photographs. When analyzed by sex, smiling women with facial paralysis experienced lower ratings for likeability (difference, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.16), trustworthiness (difference, -0.24; 95% CI, -0.43 to -0.06), attractiveness (difference, -0.74; 95% CI, -0.94 to -0.55), and femininity (difference, -0.35; 95% CI, -0.58 to -0.13). However, smiling men with facial paralysis only received significantly lower ratings for likeability (difference, -0.24; 95% CI, -0.47 to -0.01) and trustworthiness (difference, -0.30; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.07). As patients' self-reported social function and total Facial Clinimetric Evaluation scores increased, there was an increase in perceived trustworthiness (rs[480] = 0.11; P = .02) and attractiveness (rs[478] = 0.10; P = .04) scores by raters. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, photographs of patients with facial paralysis received lower ratings for several personality and physical traits compared with digitally edited images with no facial paralysis. These findings suggest a social penalty associated with facial paralysis.


Assuntos
Paralisia Facial/psicologia , Percepção , Sorriso/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Beleza , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Feminilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Personalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Confiança
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 276, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The underestimation of depression among men may result from atypical depression symptoms and male help-seeking behaviour. However, higher suicide rates among men than among women indicate a need for gender-specific services for men with depression. In order to develop gender-specific services, it is essential to examine professionals' attitudes towards men's depressive symptoms and treatment needs as well as barriers to and facilitators of treatment. This study examined gender-specific treatment needs in male patients and treatment approaches to male patients from a professional perspective. METHODS: Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 33 mental health professionals (MHPs) from five German psychiatric institutions. The study assessed the characteristics and attributes of male patients with depression risk factors for the development of depression among men, their condition at the beginning of treatment, male patients' depressive symptoms, the needs and expectations of male patients, the importance of social networks in a mental health context, and MHPs' treatment aims and treatment methods. Transcripts were analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The professionals' reference group of male patients were men who were characterised in accordance with traditional masculinity. Attributes reported as in line with this type of men were late initiations of inpatient treatment after crisis, suicidal ideation or attempted suicide, and high expectations towards treatment duration, success rate in recovery and therapeutic sessions. In contrast, male patients who deviate from these patterns were partially described with reference to female stereotypes. Professionals referred to psychosocial models in their explanations of the causes of depression and provided sociological explanations for the development of masculine ideals among men. The consequences of these for treatment were discussed against the background of normative expectations regarding the male gender. From the professionals' point of view, psychoeducation and the acceptance of depression (as a widespread mental illness) were the most important goals in mental health treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In order to improve mental health among men, gender-specific services should be offered. Awareness of the role of gender and its implications on mental health treatment should be an integral part of MHPs' education and their daily implementation of mental health treatment practices.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Homens/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Saúde do Homem/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes/psicologia , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549290

RESUMO

Men often have poorer health outcomes than women. In the United States, Black men in particular tend to have worse health than not only Black women but other racial/ethnic groups of men. One factor that contributes to health is the role of masculinity. Previous research notes that men who cling to hegemonic notions of masculine identity tend to engage in negative health behaviors. However, hegemonic masculinity is not the realm in which Black men exist. Criminalized, surveilled, and subject to structural racism and racial discrimination, Black masculinities exist on their own spectrum separate from that of White men. One characteristic associated with Black masculinity is that of faith, and faith is a growing field of study with respect to health. This paper examines the relationship between Black masculinity as framed by faith in shaping the food and eating habits of Black men. Food and eating are central to health and well-being yet remain understudied with respect to Black masculinity through the lens of faith. This study offers a qualitative account of Black men's experiences through the use of in-depth interview data. The key finding of this study is that fasting operates as a mechanism of health promotion for Black men. This paper utilizes the term Black men as an all-encompassing term of members of the African diaspora as opposed to African American in order to recognize the diversity of the participants in this study.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Racismo , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Enferm. actual Costa Rica (Online) ; (38): 282-291, Jan.-Jun. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1090102

RESUMO

Resumen En las últimas décadas se ha desarrollado una mayor conciencia acerca de cuán relevante es la paternidad activa en el desarrollo integral de los/as hijos/as y en la equidad de género. Sin embargo, a pesar de la amplia discusión e implementación de algunas estrategias, se observa una escasa participación en la crianza y cuidados de parte de los padres, situación por la que el presente ensayo tiene el propósito de reflexionar críticamente en torno al cuidado de la niñez desde la desigualdad de género, la masculinidad imperante y las estrategias para el fomento de la paternidad activa. Este escrito reflexiona sobre la paternidad activa desde la mirada de una sociedad adultocéntrica y su influencia en la incorporación de valores, actitudes y conductas durante la niñez. Además, analiza la construcción del cuidado del infante en el ámbito privado, tarea que es subvalorada por la comunidad y que recae principalmente en la mujer con las consecuencias de inequidad de género y problemas de salud que conlleva. Finalmente, se evidencia los esfuerzos realizados en Chile en la implementación para el fomento de una paternidad activa, así como los desafíos pendientes. Para avanzar a la paternidad activa se requiere de una mayor intervención con las familias y los distintos sectores de la sociedad, implementando estrategias desde un enfoque de equidad de género en cuanto a la distribución del cuidado en la niñez. Asimismo, se requiere de avances politicos importantes para dar sustento a una nueva formar de cuidar.


Abstract In recent decades, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of active fatherhood in the integral development of children and in gender inequality. Despite the extensive discussion and implementation of some strategies, there is a low participation in parenting and care of parents. For this reason, the present essay has the purpose of critically reflecting on the care of children from gender inequality, prevailing masculinity and strategies for the promotion of active parenthood. This paper reflects on active fatherhood from the perspective of an adult-centric society and its influence on the incorporation of values, attitudes and behaviors during childhood. In addition, it analyzes the construction of child care in the private sphere, a task that is undervalued by the community and that falls mainly on women with the consequences of gender inequity and health problems that it entails. Finally, the efforts made in Chile in the implementation for the promotion of active fatherhood and the pending challenges are visualized. To move towards active fatherhood requires a greater intervention with families and different sectors of society, implementing strategies from a gender equity perspective regarding the distribution of child care. It also requires important political advances to support a new way of caring.


Resumo Nas últimas décadas, tem havido uma crescente conscientização sobre a importância da paternidade ativa no desenvolvimento integral das crianças e na desigualdade de gênero. Apesar da extensa discussão e implementação de algumas estratégias, há uma baixa participação na parentalidade e no cuidado dos pais. Por este motivo, o presente ensaio tem como objetivo refletir criticamente em torno do cuidado das crianças da desigualdade de gênero, masculinidade prevalente e estratégias para a promoção da paternidade ativa. Este artigo reflete sobre a paternidade ativa a partir da perspectiva de uma sociedade adultocêntrica e sua influência na incorporação de valores, atitudes e comportamentos durante a infância. Além disso, analisa a construção da creche na esfera privada, uma tarefa que é subvalorizada pela comunidade e que recai principalmente sobre as mulheres com as conseqüências da desigualdade de gênero e dos problemas de saúde que ela acarreta. Finalmente, os esforços feitos no Chile na implementação para a promoção da paternidade ativa e os desafios pendentes são visualizados. Avançar para a paternidade ativa requer uma maior intervenção com as famílias e diferentes setores da sociedade, implementando estratégias a partir de uma perspectiva de equidade de gênero em relação à distribuição do cuidado infantil. Também requer avanços políticos importantes para apoiar uma nova maneira de cuidar.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Paternidade , Cuidado da Criança , Educação Infantil , Ensaio , Masculinidade
9.
Evol Psychol ; 18(2): 1474704920917930, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378429

RESUMO

Although women engage in both physical and nonphysical aggression, little is known about how aggression type influences perceptions of their morphology, personality, and social behavior. Evolutionary theory predicts that women avoid physical aggression due to risk of injury, which could compromise reproductive success. Engaging in physical aggression might therefore decrease women's perceived mate value. However, physical aggression could be advantageous for some women, such as those who are larger in size and less vulnerable to injury. This presents the possibility that physically aggressive women might be perceived as larger and not necessarily lower in mate value. These hypotheses have not been tested. Across three studies, I used narratives to test the effect of aggression type (physical, verbal, indirect, nonaggressive) on perceptions of women's height, weight, masculinity, attractiveness, and social status. In Studies 1 and 2, participants perceived a physically aggressive woman to be both larger and more masculine than nonphysically aggressive women. In Study 3, participants perceived both a physically aggressive woman and a nonaggressive woman to be larger than an indirectly aggressive woman; the effect of aggression type on perceptions of a hypothetical man's height was not significant. I also found some evidence that aggression type influenced perceptions of attractiveness and social status, but these were small and inconsistent effects that warrant further study. Taken together, the results suggest that physical and indirect aggressive behavior may be associated with certain morphological and behavioral profiles in women.


Assuntos
Agressão , Tamanho Corporal , Masculinidade , Personalidade , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 682, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to reduce women's exposure to violence and develop culturally appropriate interventions, it is important to gain an understanding of how men who use violence rationalize it. The present study sought to explore the perspectives of men who had used violence on their female partners, specifically their views on intimate partner violence (IPV), gender norms, manhood, their gender attitudes and to understand how these may drive male perpetrated IPV against women in the Central Region of Ghana. METHODS: This was a qualitative study involving purposively sampled adult men who had participated in a household-based survey in selected districts in the Central Region of Ghana and who had self-reported perpetration of IPV in the past 12 months. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 men. RESULTS: Data revealed how a range of social, cultural, and religious factors ̶ stemming from patriarchy ̶ combined to inform the construction of a traditional masculinity. These factors included the notion that decision-making in the home is a man's prerogative, there should be rigid and distinct gender roles, men's perceptions of owning female partners and having the right to have sex with them whenever they desire, and the notion that wife beating is legitimate discipline. Findings suggest that it was through performing, or aspiring to achieve, this form of masculinity that men used varying forms of violence against their female partners. Moreover, data show that the men's use of violence was a tactic for controlling women and emphasizing their authority and power over them. CONCLUSIONS: Developers of interventions to prevent IPV need to recognize that there is a coherent configuration of aspirations, social norms and behaviours that is drawn on by some men to justify their use of IPV. Understanding the perspectives of men who have perpetrated IPV against women and their motivations for perpetration is essential for interventions to prevent IPV. This is discussed as drawing authority from 'tradition' and so engaging traditional and religious leaders, as well as men and women throughout the community, in activities to challenge this is likely to be particularly fruitful.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Homens/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Características Culturais , Características da Família , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Normas Sociais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233764, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453783

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A traditional male role orientation is considered to increase the risk of depression and preventing men from disclosing symptoms of mental illness and seeking professional help. Less is known about the variance of masculinity orientations in men already treated for depression and their role in the treatment process. In this study, patterns of masculinity norms and work role orientations will be identified among men treated for depression. Associations of these patterns with depressive symptoms, stigma and delay in professional help-seeking will be investigated. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, male role orientations (MRNS), work-related attitudes (AVEM), symptoms of mental disorders (PHQ), and attitudes related to stigma of mental illness (DSS) were assessed by standardized methods in a sample of 250 men treated for depression in general medical, psychiatric and psychotherapeutic services. Data were analyzed by means of latent profile analysis (LPA), by multinomial and linear regression models, and by path analysis. RESULTS: The results of LPA revealed three latent classes of men treated for depression. Men assigned to class one reported a less traditional male role orientation, low professional ambitions and low coping capacities; men assigned to class two reported a traditional masculinity orientation, high professional ambitions but low coping capacities; men assigned to class three reported less traditional masculinity tended orientations, medium professional ambitions and high coping capacities. Men assigned to classes one and two to have more stigmatizing attitudes, longer periods of untreated illness and more severe symptoms of mental disorders, in comparison to men assigned to class three. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study reveals that traditional masculinity norms and work-role orientations in men treated for depression are associated with a worse mental health status. Our study results also suggest that a slackening of traditional masculinity norms is associated with improved psychological well-being if it does not coincide with a complete distancing from professional ambitions and a lack of ability to cope with professional stress.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Masculinidade , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272771

RESUMO

Urinary problems are common among aging men, but there is a paucity of research efforts to understand the psychosocial aspects of the illness. This study aims to understand how common and distressing urinary problems are for newly retired men in Hong Kong and to test the associations between mental health, self-stigma of seeking help, fatigue, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and distress due to urinary problems. To assess this, 139 out of 200 members of a retired men's social club (mean age 63.5) were successfully interviewed. Two-fifths of the participants felt distressed due to their urinary problems and one-third of the participants had been troubled by urinary incontinence or nocturia in the past six months. Yet the majority of the participants (55%) did not seek help from any medical profession. The group who were distressed by urinary problems showed significantly poorer mental health, reported more fatigue symptoms, were less satisfied with their sexual relationships and overall self-esteem, and were less able to stop unpleasant thoughts or to get social support than the non-distressed group. Cultural perceptions of masculinity and decreased sexual vigor might have affected participants' willingness to seek help at an early stage. Targeted health education, mutual support groups, and sensitively designed services at the community level are suggested to address these physical and mental health issues.


Assuntos
Angústia Psicológica , Transtornos Urinários/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoimagem , Saúde Sexual , Apoio Social
13.
Evol Psychol ; 18(1): 1474704920910403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124644

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that manipulating the pitch of a face (tilting the face upward or downward) affects the perceived femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and dominance of the given face. However, previous research has not considered the influence of direct eye gaze on dominance perceptions or the ambiguity surrounding the proposed social signals sent from a static face. The current research used 94 participants across two studies (women = 63%, age: M = 31). Stimuli varied in head pitch angle, eye gaze, and motion/static appearance. Participants rated the stimuli for levels of masculinity, femininity, attractiveness, and dominance. Both studies confirmed that pitching the face upward at incrementally increasing angles resulted in a linear increase in ratings of masculinity, physical dominance, and social dominance and a linear decrease in ratings of femininity, physical attractiveness, and behavioral allure. Study 2 showed that these effects can be dependent on either the perceived structural change of the face or the actual movement of the face, and these are different for each rating category. The perceived dimorphism, attractiveness, and dominance of a face will change dependent on the angle of pitch it is presented but also whether it is moving or not, where it is moving in space, and what direction it is moving.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Beleza , Feminino , Feminilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Predomínio Social
14.
Buenos Aires; OPS; 2020-03-02. (OPS/ARG/20-0001).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-51904

RESUMO

[Introducción]. Durante el año, el país obtuvo importantes logros en los avances hacia la Salud Universal, basada en una estrategia de atención primaria. Son significativos los pasos dados para fortalecer capacidades en el primer nivel de atención para personas mayores, así como para personas afectados por hipertensión, el uso problemático de sustancias psicoactivas y trastornos mentales. Hubo un impulso importante en la iniciativa para eliminar la transmisión de madre a hijo de VIH, sífilis, Chagas y hepatitis B, y avances transformativos y modernizados en el sistema de información sanitaria para poder medir el acceso a los servicios de salud y su calidad. La certificación de la eliminación de la malaria otorgada por la OMS constituye un hito para Argentina en salud pública. Asimismo, la evaluación externa al país en la aplicación del Reglamento Sanitario Internacional significa un avance importante y un ejemplo para otros países de la región. El Diagnóstico de la Situación sobre Clima y Salud en la Argentina y el desarrollo de un capítulo de salud en el Plan Nacional de Adaptación al Cambio Climático representan otros logros para manejar riesgos alineados con estándares internacionales. Además, Argentina cooperó con el Caribe para fortalecer capacidades en la lucha contra la resistencia antimicrobiana. Los progresos también son significativos en el análisis sobre el gasto de Argentina en salud y en agua y saneamiento, utilizando instrumentos internacionales que ayudan a transparentar estos desembolsos y mejorar en eficiencia e impacto. Otro logro inédito fue el desarrollo y consenso alcanzado para una Agenda Nacional de Investigación en Salud, así como la promoción en el ámbito legislativo del sistema de advertencias sanitarias en el frente de los envases de productos alimenticios para la prevención de la obesidad, una epidemia que afecta de manera alarmante al país


Assuntos
Doenças Negligenciadas , Malária , Doença de Chagas , Resistência a Inseticidas , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Tuberculose , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Mudança Climática , Água Potável , Violência de Gênero , Vigilância em Saúde do Trabalhador , Masculinidade , Gastos em Saúde , Gestão do Conhecimento para a Pesquisa em Saúde , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , Argentina
16.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(4): 744e-753e, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221209

RESUMO

Male rhinoplasty is unique in that it requires precise preoperative planning to achieve a successful result. Better communication and clarity are paramount with male rhinoplasty patients because the patients may be less attentive. It is important for the surgeon to screen the patients for any psychosocial disorders. Through a series of cases, male rhinoplasty techniques are highlighted. Masculine features should be preserved, and the nose should not be feminized or oversculpted. Another key component in any rhinoplasty case is proper skin care, especially during the postoperative period. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: Therapeutic, V.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Rinoplastia/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Comunicação , Estética , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Rinoplastia/efeitos adversos , Rinoplastia/métodos , Higiene da Pele
17.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(4): 818e-828e, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221232

RESUMO

During the past 10 years, academic publications that address facial feminization surgery have largely examined the technical aspects of the different surgical procedures involved and clinical evaluations of postoperative results. This Special Topic article focuses on aspects that are underdeveloped to date but useful with regard to taking the correct therapeutic approach to transgender patients who are candidates for facial gender confirmation surgery. The authors propose a protocolized sequence, from the clinical evaluation to the postoperative period, based on a sample size of more than 1300 trans feminine patients, offering facial gender confirmation surgery specialists standardized guidelines to handle their patients' needs in a way that is both objective and reproducible.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Face/cirurgia , Disforia de Gênero/cirurgia , Cirurgia de Readequação Sexual/métodos , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Feminino , Feminilidade , Disforia de Gênero/diagnóstico , Disforia de Gênero/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Seleção de Pacientes , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/normas , Período Pós-Operatório , Cirurgia de Readequação Sexual/psicologia , Cirurgia de Readequação Sexual/normas , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229133, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134936

RESUMO

Women's preferences for masculine characteristics in men's faces have been extensively studied. By contrast, little is known about how gay men respond to masculine facial characteristics. One area of disagreement in the emerging literature on this topic is the association between gay men's partnership status and masculinity preference. One study found that partnered gay men showed stronger preferences for masculine faces than did single gay men, while another study found that partnered gay men showed weaker preferences for masculine faces than did single gay men. We re-examined this issue in a sample of 618 gay men, finding no significant difference between partnered and single gay men's masculinity preferences. Together with the mixed previous findings, our null result suggests that the effect of partnership status on gay men's face preferences is not robust.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Face , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Masculinidade , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079366

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of gender and gender stereotype traits (masculinity, femininity) in cyber victimization behaviors (cyber relational victimization, cyber verbal victimization, hacking) through different technologies (mobile phones, gaming consoles, social networking sites). There were 456 8th graders (226 females; M age = 13.66, SD = 0.41) from two midwestern middle schools in the United States included in this study. They completed questionnaires on their endorsement of masculine and feminine traits, and self-reported cyber victimization through different technologies. The findings revealed main effects of types of cyber victimization for boys and of technology for girls. In particular, boys with feminine traits experienced the most victimization by cyber verbal aggression, cyber relational aggression, and hacking when compared to the other groups of boys. Girls with feminine traits experienced the most cyber victimization through social networking sites, gaming consoles, and mobile phones in comparison to the other groups of girls. For girls with feminine traits, they reported more cyber relational victimization and cyber verbal victimization through mobile phones and social networking sites, as well as more hacking via social networking sites. Such findings underscore the importance of considering gender stereotype traits, types of victimization, and technologies when examining cyber victimization.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Agressão , Bullying , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato , Estereotipagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Jogos de Vídeo
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963224

RESUMO

Increasing prevalence of obesity poses challenges for public health. Men have been under-served by weight management programs, highlighting a need for gender-sensitized programs that can be embedded into routine practice or adapted for new settings/populations, to accelerate the process of implementing programs that are successful and cost-effective under research conditions. To address gaps in examples of how to bridge the research to practice gap, we describe the scale-up and scale-out of Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a weight management and healthy living program in relation to two implementation frameworks. The paper presents: the development, evaluation and scale-up of FFIT, mapped onto the PRACTIS guide; outcomes in scale-up deliveries; and the scale-out of FFIT through programs delivered in other contexts (other countries, professional sports, target groups, public health focus). FFIT has been scaled-up through a single-license franchise model in over 40 UK professional football clubs to 2019 (and 30 more from 2020) and scaled-out into football and other sporting contexts in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, England and other European countries. The successful scale-up and scale-out of FFIT demonstrates that, with attention to cultural constructions of masculinity, public health interventions can appeal to men and support them in sustainable lifestyle change.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Terapia Nutricional , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Futebol , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Logradouros Públicos , Reino Unido
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