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1.
Support Care Cancer ; 31(2): 125, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680658

RESUMO

Sexual quality of life (SQoL) challenges are prevalent and persistent for people with a cancer diagnosis. Using a qualitative design, this study investigated the impact of a cancer diagnosis on SQoL in participants (N = 18) with a current or past cancer diagnosis of various sites and severity. Thematic analysis identified three themes: gender attachment, vulnerability, and growth vs. fixed mindset. The theme of gender attachment related to the impact of understanding SQoL based on heteronormative definitions of masculinity and femininity. The second theme of vulnerability suggested that pre-existing relational or personal challenges can amplify the impact of a cancer diagnosis on SQoL. The third theme of growth vs. fixed mindset explored how cognitive flexibility and optimism can support SQoL, while a rigid and pessimistic mindset can exacerbate SQoL challenges. The findings of this study build on the traditional medical understanding of SQoL and can inform SQoL support in cancer care settings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Qualidade de Vida , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Masculinidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Aging Stud ; 63: 101050, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462914

RESUMO

The study of aging masculinity benefits from theories of intersecting inequality and attention to context, and also from methodological care. Theory can help to avoid reification of naturalized distinctions by age and by sex; and methodological rigor can avoid imputations of old masculinity to activities that other people do just as much. We revisit published research to outline theory and methods that minimize risk of reification and false distinction. We review theories of intersecting inequalities (age and gender) as well as institutional context; and we focus on methods that require either explicit mention of gender by those studied or direct comparison of old men to others. We offer several examples of how we can distinguish aging masculinities by using these methods, from interview research to the study of popular culture. Comparisons of white, middle-aged men in Finland to men in the U.S., and contrast of the U.S. men to U.S. women, reveal patterns in their constructions of manhood in later life, in realms of health, anti-aging, and caregiving. We point to the importance of both intersectionality and attention to contexts, such as welfare states, which shape aging manhood.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Masculinidade , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Finlândia , Enquadramento Interseccional
3.
J Aging Stud ; 63: 101053, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462915

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been a rise in portrayals of greying protagonists in popular fiction, often featuring older people in humorous and heart-warming stories. An emerging genre within this literature is the "geezer and grump lit", a genre where older people are active protagonists, and while often portrayed as grumpy "'usually turn out to have a heart of gold'" (Swinnen, 2019). A notable example of a book in this genre is the internationally bestselling novel A Man Called Ove (2012) by the Swedish author Fredrik Backman. Telling the story of the 59-year-old Ove who sets out to take his own life, the novel can be understood not only as a cultural representation of ageing, but more specifically a cultural representation of ageing masculinity. But how is this popular novel read and responded to by old men themselves? This article builds on a focus group study with Swedish men aged 65-92 who read and discussed A Man Called Ove. The aim of this article is thus to explore how men read the novel and how these readings function as ways of constructing, negotiating and challenging ageing masculinity and the old man as a gendered and aged position. Findings of the study show how discussion of the novel generated a variety of "imaginary positions" through which the participants made sense of what it means to be an old man in contemporary Sweden, including positions such as the active aspiring ageing man, the passive lonely old man, the embodied and vulnerable old man, and the dutiful old man. Future research should explore how other literary genres may provide ways of understanding how old men's gendered and aged subjectivities are constructed.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Homens , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Solidão , Grupos Focais
4.
J Aging Stud ; 63: 101032, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462928

RESUMO

This roundtable discussion is a creative contribution to this special issue on 'aging masculinities' based on questions posed by editor Stephen Katz to three leading senior scholars in the critical gerontological field in the United States. W. Andrew Achenbaum is a renowned historian who has devoted his career to writing about the relevance of past politics, cultures, and knowledges of aging to comprehending our current dilemmas. Thomas R. Cole is an acclaimed historical scholar and mentor to generations of Humanities researchers across the globe. His work also includes film, literature, ethics, and spirituality. Brian de Vries is a social gerontologist whose bold research on LGBTQ aging is a powerful voice in critiquing the multiple forms of discrimination, violence and hardships, and denied rights and life-chances imposed by hetero-patriarchal regimes in later life. That these men have shaped and been shaped by their work and advocacy is the key theme that inspires our conversation.


Assuntos
Geriatria , Masculino , Humanos , Envelhecimento , Masculinidade , Geriatras , Filmes Cinematográficos
5.
J Aging Stud ; 63: 101033, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462929

RESUMO

This paper examined how the use of literary works in bibliotherapy groups for older men promotes discourse on aging and masculinity. Two groups of men from two different CCRCs in Israel participated in the study. Each group underwent 10 bibliotherapy sessions. Following reading aloud of literary works on aging, the participants were invited to share their reflections upon their life, inspired by the creations. An abductive analysis pointed to the central role of the literary elements in encouraging self-expressions among the participants. A qualitative content analysis revealed three themes, which indicate that the literary elements: (a) Encourage the expression of loss; (b) Allow participants to express aspects of positive aging; and (c) Promote insights regarding the acceptance of the aging process. In addition, an analysis focusing on aspects of form revealed four responses to literary elements: (a) Direct metaphors in line with the literary works' interpretations; (b) Creating new meaning for the original metaphors; (c) Expressing conflicting emotions through oxymorons; and (d) Relying on the authors' biographies as an extra-textual context for reflections. The study reflects an inter-disciplinary approach to promote expressions of aging masculinity, and to understand them in bibliotherapeutic groups of older affluent men.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Aposentadoria , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Metáfora
6.
J Aging Stud ; 63: 101034, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462930

RESUMO

Despite having a significant impact on how we perceive ageing, cultural representations of old age, particularly depictions of old men, have received little attention. This is especially true regarding the cinemas of small nations and Eastern European film. Some authors claim that this gap in knowledge unintentionally repeats a widespread cultural assumption of associating masculinity with young and middle age men (Saxton & Cole, 2012, pp. 97-98). Old age has a complex relationship with the hegemonic variant of masculinity, which, as defined by R. W. Connell and James W. Messerschmidt, opposes itself to femininities and oppresses alternative forms of masculinities (Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005, p. 832). As hegemonic masculinity presupposes that one is physically and/or socioeconomically in their prime, old age appears to be inversely correlated with it, offering an opportunity to rethink masculinities. At the same time, as the films analysed in this article will show, becoming marginalised in old age, often due to hegemonic masculinity, does not necessarily lead one to abandon its principles. Caring masculinity has recently been discussed as a non-hierarchical alternative to hegemonic masculinity (Hanlon, 2012; Elliott, 2016; Ruby & Scholz, 2018; Chatzidakis et al., 2020; Hyvönen, 2021). So far, caring is socially constructed as feminine (see also Reskin, 1988). Despite the growing labour market participation of females, the gender care gap is not closing at the same speed and remains the chief source of the 'patriarchal dividend' (Connell, 1995). Men's changing relation to care, at least regarding one's own children, has been the focus of policy reform, but less so men's relation to care more broadly. Theories that aim to explain the gender inequality in care work usually do not engage with critical studies of men and masculinity along with the concept of hegemonic masculinity (Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005). Care's intersectionality with ageing and masculinities especially merits further study. This article will frame caring masculinity as well as the social context regarding care and old age in Estonia. Following this, the representation of these topics will be analysed in two Estonian films: A Friend of Mine (Kivastik, 2011) and Tangerines (Urushadze, 2013), in which such concerns are central.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Filmes Cinematográficos , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Amigos , Estônia , Homens
7.
J Aging Stud ; 63: 101035, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462931

RESUMO

Combining theoretical perspectives and analytical methods from the social sciences and literary studies, this interdisciplinary paper discusses key findings of online focus groups conducted with Austrian men aged 65+ as well as 'media logbooks' they kept. Within the frameworks of the EU Gender-Net Project MascAge (Analyzing Social Constructions of Aging Masculinities and their Cultural Representations in Contemporary European Literatures and Cinemas), older men of diverse backgrounds met online to reflect on their aging and its intersections with gender. Analyzing these conversations, the paper showcases older men's personal experiences of aging as well as their societal implications. We put forward the hypothesis that the understanding of aging, and aging masculinities in particular, of Austrian men 65+ primarily revolves around the idea of power. Most importantly, they conceive of the aging process as a 'power game' in which one frequently loses, ideally maintains, and - in exceptional cases only - gains power. The paper outlines how both personal experiences and engagement with media representations of aging relate to cultural ideals of old men as figures of authority. In doing so, the paper critically examines these stereotypical notions of aging masculinities as well as older men's potential to subvert them through a narrative process.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Homens , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Áustria , Envelhecimento , Grupos Focais
8.
J Aging Stud ; 63: 101058, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462933

RESUMO

This article explores the interactions between social constructions and cultural representations of rural ageing masculinities in Ireland. Constructions of Irish masculinities have historically been linked to rural, farming identities emphasising physicality, self-reliance, patrilineal inheritance and traditional (Catholic) family values. Central to such constructions in many classic works of Irish literature, drama and film has been the powerful role of the father and the imperative of the land. While there is a burgeoning literature on masculinities in Irish literary, cultural and sociological studies, there are however few studies on the intersection of age and masculinities, or across disciplines. This article seeks to address this critical gap in relation to rural masculinities through close readings of significant texts from Irish literature and film, as well as through focus group discussions of men aged 65+ living in Ireland about their views on such images. Taking an intersectional and interdisciplinary approach, it thus offers an overview of cultural constructions of ageing rural masculinities and explores how such representations inform models of ageing in contemporary Ireland.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Masculinidade , Masculino , Humanos , Filmes Cinematográficos , Sociologia , Grupos Focais
9.
Asclepio ; 74(2)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-212900

RESUMO

Desde una perspectiva histórico crítica, este trabajo analiza diversos artículos de la Revista de Criminología, Psiquiatría y Medicina Legal publicados entre 1914 y 1927 que se han ocupado de clasificar y establecer un diagnóstico médico legal infantil en la Argentina. A su vez, se articula la perspectiva histórica con un enfoque de género, en tanto se plantean las especificidades presentes para niños varones en tales clasificaciones e intervenciones por parte de los saberes psi de la época. La producción de conocimiento sobre los criminales varones, se piensa como respuesta a múltiples problemas sociales como la delincuencia juvenil, la deambulación en las calles y las posibilidades de una rehabilitación/reeducación temprana. Se recuperan las ideas naturalistas y evolucionistas que funcionaron como una matriz de análisis e intervención en el proceso de difusión de los saberes expertos en la Argentina en el periodo delimitado por este artículo.(AU)


From a critical historical perspective, this paper analyses various articles from the Revista de Criminología, Psiquiatría y Medicina Legal published between 1914 and 1927 that have been concerned with classifying and establishing a medical-legal diagnosis of children in Argentina. At the same time, the historical perspective is articulated with a gender approach, insofar as the specificities present for male children in such classifications and interventions by the psi knowledge of the time are raised. The production of knowledge about male criminals is seen as a response to multiple social problems such as juvenile delinquency, wandering in the streets and the possibilities of early rehabilitation/re-education. This paper also addresses the naturalistic and evolutionary ideas that functioned as a common ground for the analysis and intervention in the process of dissemination of expert knowledge in Argentina.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Medicina Legal , Criminologia , Psiquiatria Infantil , Psicologia/história , Masculinidade , História da Medicina , Ciência/história
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554906

RESUMO

In line with the gay glass ceiling effect, sexual minorities are often target of discrimination within work-related contexts, thus potentially undermining their wellbeing at work. For gay men, discrimination may partially be attributed to gay men's stereotypical feminine perception, which does not fit with the stereotypically masculine traits required for leadership positions. Yet, when considering lesbian women, the masculine stereotypical view associated with them may come to represent an advantage in work-related contexts, especially when compared to heterosexual women. In Study 1, N = 303 heterosexual participants rated a lesbian vs. a heterosexual woman as a job candidate on stereotypical gender (masculine vs. feminine) traits as well as leadership effectiveness. Results showed that being lesbian was associated with higher levels of masculinity (but not femininity), which in turn was related to high leadership effectiveness. In Study 2, N = 268 lesbian and heterosexual women rated themselves on the same measures. Results showed that both groups associated masculine traits with enhanced leadership effectiveness. These studies provide a better comprehension regarding how lesbian women may be perceived in work-related contexts and shed light on the role played by gender stereotypical perceptions in shaping both heterosexual and lesbian perceptions of leadership effectiveness.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Feminina , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Masculinidade , Liderança , Feminilidade
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497841

RESUMO

It is hypothesized that levels of femininity and masculinity may be relevant to specific types of engagement in action. For this reason, the aim of this study was to search for relationships between psychological dimensions of femininity and masculinity and different forms of motivation, as well as their specific parts, among women and male athletes practicing team sports games. We researched 49 women aged 19 to 32 years representing sports such as football, handball, hockey, volleyball, and basketball and 56 men aged 18 to 31 years practicing football, hockey, volleyball, basketball, and handball. The respondents completed the Inventory to Assess Psychological Gender (IPP) and the Polish adaptation of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS). It was determined that the psychological dimension of femininity was (in the male group) positively related to the dimension of amotivation, i.e., the lack of perception of a relationship between one's action and the outcome. In turn, the psychological dimension of masculinity was positively related to the motivation to know, motivation to accomplish, and motivation to experience stimulation, as well as the overall level of intrinsic motivation and the overall dimension of extrinsic motivation. Furthermore, the masculinity dimension is, in male athletes, related to the level of the introjection motive, i.e., the process of integrating accepted patterns.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Futebol , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Feminilidade , Masculinidade , Motivação
12.
Hum Nat ; 33(4): 380-399, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495427

RESUMO

We tested the good genes ovulatory shift hypothesis through speed-dating, an ecologically valid paradigm with real life consequences. Fifteen speed-dating sessions of 262 single Asian Americans were held. We analyzed 850 speed-dates involving 132 men and 100 normally ovulating women, finding ovulatory shifts in the desirability of men with more masculine facial measurements (smaller eye-mouth-eye angle, larger lower face to full face height ratio, and smaller facial width to lower face height ratio) in the predicted direction. However, there was no support for ovulatory shifts in preferences for men's self-reported height. In addition, the expected shifts were not found for women's second date offers to men. Therefore, with natural stimuli and in a competitive dating scenario, we partially replicated previously documented ovulatory shifts in women's preferences for men.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Masculinidade , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Ovulação , Face
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361151

RESUMO

Recently, younger men in Korean society tend not to view drinking as a proud feature of men who work. The relationship between gender role attitudes and high-risk drinking is expected to change accordingly. An online survey was conducted in January-February 2022, and the frequency of drinking, the amount of drinking, and traditional gender role attitudes, such as "men should be independent and women should take care of the children", were measured. Participants were 786 men aged between 19 and 69 years. When comparing men in their 20s and 30s with those in their 40s to 60s, the younger men reported drinking relatively high amounts of alcohol in one place, and older men had a relatively high frequency of drinking. High-risk drinking was significantly higher in the older group. Gender role attitudes were more traditional in the older group and were a predictor of high-risk drinking in older men, but there was no significant relationship between the two variables in the younger age group. The results indicate that different generations have different perceptions of how men should drink. In addition to more detailed qualitative research on drinking motivation by generation, research on whether similar changes are occurring in other countries is needed.


Assuntos
Papel de Gênero , Masculinidade , Masculino , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atitude , Motivação , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277534, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395256

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Uganda, adult men living with HIV are more likely to present late for care; with a CD4 cell count below 350 cells/µl compared to women. Understanding why adult men present late for HIV care is important in improving early linkage to care. Studies across countries in Sub-Saharan Africa emphasize the role of masculinity norms; defined as social expectations about appropriate roles and behavior for men, in men's health behaviours particularly, in HIV care engagement. This study therefore explored how masculinity norms influence men's late presentation for HIV care. METHODS: This was a qualitative study undertaken in Jinja District, Eastern Uganda between October and November 2020. We conducted 20 In-Depth Interviews (IDIs) with men living with HIV who had presented late for care at Family Hope Centre. We also conducted four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with HIV negative men and women in selected communities of Katende and Walukuba. Conventional content analysis approach was used to identify themes across the collected data. RESULTS: A total of 20 men participated in the In-depth Interviews (IDIs), with majority being married 15/20 (75%) and primary level holders 7/15 (46.7%). Nineteen (19) women participated in two FGDs, with a mean age of 29.5 years. Nineteen (19) men also participated in other two FGDs, with a mean age of 28.2 years. Conventional content analysis results indicated that men's late presentation for HIV care in Jinja district is greatly related to their concerns of loss of respect and the need to preserve their reputation and maintain a sense of normality in their families and society as proposed by Wilson's (1969) respectability-reputation theoretical model. Respectability was endorsed by 'the wider society', while reputation was endorsed almost entirely by men and some women. CONCLUSION: Findings show that the explanations for men's late presentation arise from the masculinity norms in Jinja District, Eastern Uganda.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Masculinidade , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Uganda/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homens
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429531

RESUMO

Gender differences and stereotypes have been widely studied. Performative masculinity or "doing gender" is the adoption of traits considered to be "masculine" to achieve acceptance in society. Performative masculinity, as it relates to career development for men in nursing, could be affected by internal attitudes and career choice, and external influences of culture. There are no critical systematic reviews to describe this process. The aim of this study was to synthesize research on how men in nursing experience masculine identity at work. A systematic literature search and qualitative synthesis using meta-ethnography guided this study. The literature search included studies from the electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL, Medline, and Airiti Library, published in English or Chinese from 1994 to 2016. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. The meta-syntheses identified three themes describing how men in nursing experience masculine identity at work: (1) Nursing could be a gendered-neutral occupation suitable to both genders; (2) performative masculinity; and (3) strategies used when providing bodywork and care. Exploring insights about the tensions of performative masculinity among men in nursing, this study may help to address the challenges encountered in nursing education, practice, and career development. Establishing a male nursing model based on evidence from academic and clinical practice for nursing students and professional nurses could help to meet the increasing demand for nurses.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Enfermeiros , Humanos , Masculino , Antropologia Cultural , Educação em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem
17.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115454, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274458

RESUMO

The ability to exercise full sexual and reproductive health and rights is shaped by the contextual environment, meaning that women and pregnant people must navigate patriarchal norms when seeking care. Despite growing evidence that men are able to influence pregnancy outcomes, there remains a paucity of research on how and why men are able to involve themselves in pregnancy and abortion decision-making. This study interrogates the mechanisms that drive men's involvement in pregnancies and abortions in James Town, Ghana. Data from a survey (n = 296) and in-depth interviews (n = 37) were collected between July 2020 and January 2021. The mixed-method analysis critically examined the relationship between men's support for a pregnancy or abortion and their constructions of masculinities. Findings framed sex and reproduction as both a facilitator and a threat to men's masculinity. Reproduction was an essential component of being a man. Men discussed the need to fulfil masculine ideals of being independent, provide financially, and be in an acceptable relationship in order to be 'ready' for fatherhood. However, men similarly operationalised the notion of 'readiness' as the driving force behind their involvement in abortion decision-making. As being a father without being ready could lead to social ostracism and derision, men discussed forcing their abortion desires onto their sexual partners and other pregnant people. Achieving masculine ideals, therefore, was a critical motivation for controlling women and pregnant people's bodies. Understanding the role of masculinities is critical in acknowledging the contextual and environmental factors that women and pregnant people navigate, which contribute to continued reproductive injustices.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Masculinidade , Masculino , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Gana , Homens , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais
18.
Am J Mens Health ; 16(5): 15579883221129349, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36218175

RESUMO

Globally and in South African specifically, men account for 56% and 62% of all tuberculosis (TB) cases, respectively. Men are at increased risk of not accessing TB testing or treatment, and having poor treatment outcomes. Unfortunately, no interventions exist to address these issues. Toward the development of targeted, patient-centered TB care and support interventions, we used semistructured interviews to explored men's social network composition, TB testing behaviors, disclosure and treatment support, clinical experiences, and TB's influence on daily living. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach guided by the Network Individual Resource Model to identify mental and tangible resources influential and preferred during engagement in TB treatment. Men emphasized the desire for peer-to-peer support to navigate TB-related stigma and unhealthy masculinity norms. Men advocated for awareness events to educate communities about their challenges with TB. Men strongly suggested that interventions be delivered in familiar locations where men congregate. Since 2022, no TB treatment support interventions have included the preferred components or delivery modes described by men in our study. To improve men's TB-related health outcomes, the global TB community must identify and address men's unique challenges when designing interventions.


Assuntos
Homens , Tuberculose , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Saúde do Homem , África do Sul , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Am J Mens Health ; 16(5): 15579883221126884, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305641

RESUMO

About one in eight U.S. high school students in Grades 9 to 12 report experiencing teen dating violence (TDV) in the form of physical, sexual, or psychological dating violence in the past year in person, on school grounds, and online. Compared with their urban counterparts, rural teens face nearly double the rate of physical dating abuse and an elevated risk of experiencing multiple forms of violence. Rural young males are exposed to regional masculinities and gender norms that may simultaneously promote female subordination (a prelude to dating violence) while impeding help-seeking intentions. We used an interpretive and dialectical approach grounded in Relational Dialectics Theory to explore how rural young males perceive and describe their own risk of experiencing and perpetrating dating violence and the factors contributing to their help-seeking intentions and behaviors. Data from three focus groups and individual interviews with 27 rural young males (ages 15-24) were collated. We identified two central dialectical themes described as (a) Social Tension Dialectics (subthemes include: Abusive vs. Unhealthy Relationships: A Dialectic of Language; #MeToo vs. #WeToo: A Dialectic of Victimhood; "It's All Country Boys": A Dialectic of Masculinity) and (b) Help-Seeking Dialectics demonstrating the dual roles Religion, School Guidance Counselors, Peer Mentors, and Social Cohesion play in promoting or preventing dating violence. Overall, we found dialectic tensions in rural youth risk perceptions about dating violence. These findings bear implications for advocates and practitioners working with rural youth in planning developmentally and culturally appropriate TDV prevention programs, offering policy and research-relevant insight.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Masculinidade
20.
Vision Res ; 201: 108127, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194981

RESUMO

Sex identification of faces without any cultural or conventional sex cue is primarily based on two independent components: a) shape or facial structure, and b) surface reflectance (skin texture and color). The present work studied the relative contribution of each component by means of two experiments based on 3D face models created with different degrees of masculinity-femininity within a sex continuum. The first experiment utilized totally artificial faces created ex novo by computer. The second employed face models created from photographs of real people. The results of both experiments were consistent. As expected, when both components were present in a face, sex was correctly classified in almost all the cases. More interestingly, the contribution of the "pure" facial structure to the sex perception (with no surface reflectance) was about 80%, whereas 20% of the total information was provided by the surface reflectance. Furthermore, examination of the psychometric curves suggests that the information provided by surface reflectance contributes to a categorical perception of facial sex, since when it is removed the sex is perceived in a more continuous / less categorical way. On the other hand, our stimuli presented a certain "male" bias, repeatedly found in the literature on facial sex perception.


Assuntos
Face , Feminilidade , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Masculinidade , Percepção
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