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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 334: 108828, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866940

RESUMO

Raw milk is a continued threat to public health due to possible contamination with zoonotic pathogens. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing diarrheal disease. Although there has been some evidence, the role and potential risk of raw milk of dairy animals in the transmission dynamics of E. bieneusi is not clear. Therefore, we aimed to determine the occurrence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in raw milk of dairy animals in several farms of the Central Anatolia Region. We also investigated if there is a relation between the presence of E. bieneusi and mastitis. Genomic DNAs from a total of 450 raw milk including 200, 200 and 50 samples from cattle, sheep and water buffalo respectively were analyzed using nested PCR, targeting the internal transcribed spacer of E. bieneusi. Totally milk samples of 9 (4.5%) dairy cattle, 36 (18.0%) sheep, and 1 (2.0%) water buffalo were PCR-positive. A significant relationship was determined between mastitis and the presence of E. bieneusi. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of eight genotypes: two known (ERUSS1, BEB6) and six novel genotypes (named as TREb1 to TREb6). The genotype ERUSS1 and BEB6 were the most common genotypes, found in all cattle and sheep farms. Phylogenetic analysis clustered all the identified genotypes in Group 2. This study provides novel findings that contribute to the transmission dynamics and molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi. Our study also highlighted the potential risk of raw milk for public health with respect to microsporidia infections.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Enterocytozoon/genética , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Leite/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Búfalos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fazendas , Feminino , Genótipo , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Mastite/veterinária , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Microsporidiose/transmissão , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Turquia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21656, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing the effectiveness and safety of Chinese medicine for the mastitis in COVID-19 patients is the main purpose of this systematic review protocol. METHODS: The following electronic databases will be searched from inception to April 2020: MEDLINE, Ovid, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), VIP Database and Wanfang Database. In addition, Clinical trial registries, like the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR), the Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR) and ClinicalTrials.gov, will be searched for ongoing trials with unpublished data. No language restrictions will be applied. The primary outcome will be the time of disappearance of main symptoms (including fever, asthenia, cough disappearance rate, and temperature recovery time), and serum cytokine levels. The secondary outcome will be the accompanying symptoms (such as myalgia, expectoration, stuffiness, runny nose, pharyngalgia, anhelation, chest distress, dyspnea, crackles, headache, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea) disappear rate, negative COVID-19 results rate on 2 consecutive occasions (not on the same day), CT image improvement, average hospitalization time, occurrence rate of common type to severe form, clinical cure rate, and mortality. Two independent reviewers will conduct the study selection, data extraction and assessment. RevMan V.5.3 will be used for the assessment of risk of bias and data synthesis. RESULTS: The results will provide a high-quality synthesis of current evidence for researchers in this subject area. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of the study will provide an evidence to judge whether Chinese medicine is effective and safe for mastitis in COVID-19 patients. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020189924.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Mastite , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Pandemias , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mastite/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
3.
Int Breastfeed J ; 15(1): 26, 2020 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactational breast abscesses are uncommon in the puerperium but when they do develop, delays in specialist referral may occur especially in resource low settings. There is a dearth of studies regarding lactational breast abscesses in Cameroon. We aimed to estimate the incidence of lactational breast abscess and describe its management by percutaneous aspiration at the Douala General Hospital, Cameroon. METHODS: We conducted an observational prospective study of 25 breastfeeding women at the Douala General Hospital from January 1, 2015, to October 31, 2015. Participants were consenting breastfeeding women who completed a baseline questionnaire after diagnosis of lactational breast abscesses and underwent percutaneous needle aspiration under local anaesthesia. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The estimated incidence of lactational breast abscesses was 0.74% (28/3792). The age range of babies at the onset of breast abscess was 4 to 35 weeks; mean 28.3 ± 10.85 weeks. Forty-four per cent of participants underwent three lactational abscess aspirations and in 24 to 28% of them, it took 8 to 9 days for the abscess to resolve. In 72% of participants, treatment was with needle aspiration plus flucloxacillin. Seventy-six per cent of participants continued breastfeeding after abscess treatment. CONCLUSION: The estimated incidence of lactational breast abscess at the Douala General Hospital is 0.74%. Percutaneous needle aspiration under local anaesthesia is an effective treatment for superficial lactational breast abscesses in most cases with or without ultrasound guidance and should be recommended worldwide as first line treatment. Further research is needed to understand the outcome of local infiltration of antibiotics on the abscess cavity.


Assuntos
Abscesso/epidemiologia , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Aleitamento Materno , Mastite/epidemiologia , Abscesso/terapia , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Camarões/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mastite/terapia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4717-4731, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171518

RESUMO

Mastitis is an important constraint to milk production in pastoralist camel (Camelus dromedarius) herds in Kenya. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, risk factors, and bacterial panorama of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in pastoralist camel herds in Isiolo County, Kenya. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility in udder pathogens was studied. A cross-sectional sample of 206 camels from 20 milking herds was screened using the California Mastitis Test (CMT), and quarter milk was subjected to bacterial culturing. Isolates were confirmed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the broth microdilution method. Interviews focusing on herd management were conducted with camel owners. Subclinical mastitis, defined as a CMT score ≥ 3 (scale 1 to 5) and absence of clinical symptoms in the udder, were present in all visited herds. On the individual level, 46% of the camels had at least 1 quarter affected with SCM, and on the quarter level the prevalence was 26%. Intramammary infections (IMI) were common; out of 798 quarter milk samples, 33% yielded conclusive bacterial growth. The sensitivity and specificity of CMT for correctly identifying quarters with IMI were 82% and 92%, respectively. The most prevalent pathogen was Streptococcus agalactiae (72% of IMI-positive quarters), followed by non-aureus staphylococci (19%) and Staphylococcus aureus (13%). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that only a low proportion (4.9%) of Strep. agalactiae isolates was sensitive to tetracycline. For Staph. aureus, 59.1% of isolates exhibited sensitivity to penicillin. Skin lesions on the teats or udder were a risk factor for SCM. Increased age, parity, and stage of lactation were associated with increased risk of both SCM and IMI. Older camels with a blind teat or a previous history of mastitis were more likely to be infected with Strep. agalactiae. Hygiene routines for milking were largely absent in the observed herds, and knowledge of adequate milk handling was limited. The poor udder health is likely to depend on multiple factors, most prominently the within-herd maintenance of contagious udder pathogens, in combination with difficult sanitary conditions and lack of awareness among camel keepers. This study showed that in pastoralist camel herds around Isiolo town, SCM and IMI specifically caused by Strep. agalactiae are common udder health problems and are associated with increasing age, parity, and stage of lactation, and skin lesions on the teats and udder. Resistance to tetracycline in Strep. agalactiae was common. Control strategies specifically targeting SCM and adapted to pastorally managed camel herds need to be developed to reduce disease, combat antimicrobial resistance, and improve the livelihoods of pastoralists.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Camelus/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Mastite/veterinária , Leite/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus/classificação , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Geografia , Higiene , Quênia/epidemiologia , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Streptococcus agalactiae/classificação , Tetraciclina/farmacologia
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17383, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689745

RESUMO

The risk of postnatal HIV transmission exists throughout the breastfeeding period. HIV shedding in breast milk beyond six months has not been studied extensively. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence and determinants of HIV shedding in breast milk during continued breastfeedingA cross-sectional study was nested in the PROMISE-PEP trial in Lusaka, Zambia to analyze breast milk samples collected from both breasts at week 38 post-partum (mid-way during continued breastfeeding). We measured concurrent HIV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) as proxies for cell-associated HIV (CAV) and cell-free HIV (CFV) shedding in breast milk respectively. Participants' socio-demographic date, concurrent blood test results, sub clinical mastitis test results and contraceptive use data were available. Logistic regression models were used to identify determinants of HIV shedding in breast milk (detecting either CAV or CFV).The prevalence of HIV shedding in breast milk at 9 months post-partum was 79.4% (95%CI: 74.0 - 84.0). CAV only, CFV only and both CAV and CFV were detectable in 13.7%, 17.3% and 48.4% mothers, respectively. The odds of shedding HIV in breast milk decreased significantly with current use of combined oral contraceptives (AOR: 0.37; 95%CI: 0.17 - 0.83) and increased significantly with low CD4 count (AOR: 3.47; 95%CI: 1.23 - 9.80), unsuppressed plasma viral load (AOR: 6.27; 95%CI: 2.47 - 15.96) and severe sub-clinical mastitis (AOR: 12.56; 95%CI: 2.48 - 63.58).This study estimated that about 80% of HIV infected mothers not on ART shed HIV in breast milk during continued breastfeeding. Major factors driving this shedding were low CD4 count, unsuppressed plasma viral load and severe sub-clinical mastitis. The inverse relationship between breast milk HIV and use of combined oral contraceptives needs further clarification. Continued shedding of CAV may contribute to residual postnatal transmission of HIV in mothers on successful ART.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Leite Humano/virologia , Adulto , Antirretrovirais , Aleitamento Materno , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Modelos Logísticos , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mães , Prevalência , RNA Viral , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
6.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54(10): 1424-1431, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361921

RESUMO

Objective of this review paper is the appraisal of predisposing factors for bacterial mastitis in ewes. Factors that predispose ewes to mastitis can be classified into non-animal-related factors (environmental and climatological factors, housing, nutrition, milking practices) and animal-related factors (anatomic, genetic, litter size-ethological factors, number and stage of lactation period, health problems). There are clear management-environment-animal interactions in mastitis development in ewes, which underline its multifactorial nature. Research and studies regarding risk factors are important, in order to develop strategies for their elimination, control or correction. Control measures for bacterial mastitis, which attempt to eliminate predisposing factors for infection, can thus be developed and implemented.


Assuntos
Mastite/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Lactação , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia
7.
N Z Vet J ; 67(4): 163-171, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885064

RESUMO

Aims: To examine a range of udder and teat traits in Romney ewes and to describe the frequency with which different scores occur, and to investigate associations between lamb survival to weaning and ewe udder and teat scores. Methods: Mixed-age, mature Romney ewes (n = 1,009) were enrolled from a commercial sheep flock located in the Wellington region of New Zealand in January 2017. A range of udder and teat traits were scored in all ewes, using visual assessment and palpation, at pre-mating (February), pre-lambing (October), docking (November) and weaning (January 2018). During the lambing period each newborn lamb was matched to its dam, with lamb mortalities recorded until weaning. Associations between udder and teat scores and lamb survival to weaning were examined using multivariable models for each udder-scoring time. Results: Records from 981 ewes and 1,822 live-born lambs were included in analyses, with 252 (13.8%) lambs recorded dead between birth and weaning. Lambs born to ewes with pre-mating udder scores of lump or hard had 4.9 (95% CI = 2.6-9.6, p = 0.003) and 3.0 (95% CI = 1.5-6.1, p < 0.001) increased odds of failure to survive to weaning, respectively, compared with lambs whose dams had normal udder scores. Lambs born to ewes with mastitis at docking or weaning had 3.0 (95% CI = 1.5-5.9, p = 0.001) and 3.9 (95% CI = 1.3-11.6, p = 0.013) increased odds of failure to survive to weaning, respectively, compared with lambs whose dams did not have mastitis. Offspring of dams with asymmetrical udders at docking or weaning had 3.3 (95% CI = 2.2-4.9, p < 0.001) and 2.5 (95% CI = 1.5-4.0, p < 0.001) increased odds of failure to survive, respectively, compared with lambs whose dams had symmetrical udders. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance: Pre-mating udder palpation scores of hard or lump were associated with increased odds of lambs not surviving to weaning compared with normal scores, and could be used to identify ewes that are likely to be unsuitable for retaining in the breeding flock. Farmers could also use clinical mastitis scores and udder symmetry scores at docking or weaning to identify ewes whose lambs had greater odds of failure to survive to weaning. However these scores do not provide an indication of future performance, therefore further investigation into the impact of the present season's score on future seasons' lamb survival is required.


Assuntos
Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiopatologia , Mastite/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/fisiopatologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Animais Lactentes , Feminino , Masculino , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Análise Multivariada , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Sobrevida , Desmame
8.
N Z Vet J ; 67(4): 172-179, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885095

RESUMO

Aims: To investigate associations between lamb growth to weaning and dam udder and teat scores measured at pre-mating, pre-lambing, docking and weaning. Methods: Mature Romney ewes (n = 1,009) were enrolled from a commercial sheep flock located near Masterton, in the Wellington region of New Zealand in 2017. A range of udder and teat traits were scored in all ewes, using visual assessment and palpation, at pre-mating, pre-lambing, docking and weaning. During the lambing period, each newborn lamb was matched to its dam and lamb sex, birthweight and birth-rank were recorded. A rearing rank was allocated to each live-lamb at weaning, when all lambs were weighed (n = 1,570), allowing calculation of daily growth rates (g/day). Associations between udder and teat scores and lamb growth rates to weaning were examined using multivariable models for each udder-scoring time. Results: Growth rates of lambs whose dams had udder palpation scores of hard, or both teats recorded as abnormal, pre-mating were lower than lambs whose dams had normal scores (229.9 (95% CI = 213.2-246.6) vs. 254.5 (95% CI = 245.6-263.5) g/day; p = 0.011) and (227.4 (95% CI = 208.3-246.6) vs. 247.9 (95% CI = 235.7-260.2) g/day; p = 0.024), respectively. Growth rates of lambs whose dams had clinical mastitis at docking or weaning were lower than those without mastitis (215.8 (95% CI = 199.9-231.7) vs. 235.4 (95% CI = 225.4-255.0) g/day; p = 0.007) and (220.0 (95% CI = 205.2-234.8) vs. 254.7 (95% CI = 248.9-260.5) g/day; p < 0.001), respectively. Growth rates of lambs whose dams had asymmetrical udders at docking or weaning were lower than lambs whose dams had symmetrical udders (204.6 (95% CI = 189.7-219.5) vs. 240.2 (95% CI = 225.4-255.0) g/day; p < 0.001) and (223.3 (95% CI = 213.9-232.7) vs. 242.2 (95% CI = 229.4-255.0) g/day; p = 0.014), respectively. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Pre-mating udder palpation and teat palpation scores can be used to identify ewes whose lambs are predicted to have lower growth to weaning. Assuming a mean lamb age at weaning of 84.4 days, lambs born to ewes with a pre-mating score of hard would be expected to have a mean weaning weight that was 2.1 kg less than those whose dams had normal scores. Udder palpation, udder symmetry and clinical mastitis scores during lactation were also associated with lamb growth rates. Abbreviation: CALW: Conceptus-adjusted liveweight.


Assuntos
Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiopatologia , Mastite/complicações , Mastite/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/fisiopatologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Análise Multivariada , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(5): 4332-4340, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879821

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were (1) to report the rates of new intramammary infection (IMI) and spontaneous IMI cure over the dry period in 3 dairy goat herds; (2) to evaluate the factors predicting infection dynamics over the dry period; and (3) to define milk quality parameter thresholds that predict infection dynamics over the dry period. Two consecutive udder-half milk samples were collected 10 to 14 d apart before dry-off from 288 goats in 3 herds, and 2 consecutive udder-half samples were collected 7 to 14 d apart in the following lactation, with the first sample being collected ≤10 d in milk, from 200 of the same goats. In 2 of the herds, udder-half milk samples were also collected at the same time points (n = 312 halves; 157 goats) for measurement of milk quality parameters. Standard aerobic culture of milk samples was performed for the detection of mastitis pathogens. To rule out the presence of Mycoplasma spp. IMI, milk samples were also cultured on modified Hayflick medium. Non-Mycoplasma isolates were speciated using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Staphylococcal isolates, when not identified by MALDI-TOF, were speciated using partial gene sequence analysis of rpoB or tuf. When >1 sample from an udder half yielded the same species, available isolates from the first and last positive samples for that species were strain-typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Incidence of new IMI and cure rate were computed. Generalized linear mixed regression models were built to evaluate the associations between new IMI and pre-dry somatic cell score (SCS), between IMI persistence and half-level SCS, and between IMI persistence and pre-dry IMI species. Thresholds for pre-dry SCS and lactose concentration were computed to predict IMI persistence. Overall, 12.6% (48/380) of halves had a persistent IMI. Cumulative incidence of new IMI over the dry period was 13.2%, and cure rate was 52.0%. Pre-dry SCS was not associated with odds of new IMI or IMI persistence. Pre-dry IMI species was not associated with odds of persistence. Lactose concentration was not associated with odds of persistence. Regardless of culture data, the optimal pre-dry SCS threshold to detect IMI that would persist into the next lactation was 8.7, with sensitivity and specificity of 50 and 73.8%, respectively. Further studies on the effect of control measures on species-specific incidence and cure rates during the dry period are warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Mastite/veterinária , Leite , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Animais , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/fisiopatologia , Cabras , Incidência , Lactação , Lactose , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Leite/citologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia
10.
Indian J Tuberc ; 66(1): 6-11, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797285

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) of breast is an uncommon entity even in endemic regions. Moreover, it is seldom reported. It often presents in young lactating females as a painless breast lump and confused with breast malignancy or pyogenic abscess. A high index of suspicion is required. Fine needle aspiration cytology is important to direct the patient to further tests pertaining to TB. New diagnostic modalities based on detection of nucleic acids have improved the accuracy and cut down the time to diagnosis. Anti-tubercular chemotherapy remains the standard of care. Surgical intervention is seldom required. The fact that the disease being rare, having symptom overlap with commonly prevalent breast malignancy and potentially curable, it becomes important to analyze the presentation, available investigative modalities for early goal directed treatment.


Assuntos
Mastite/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Abscesso/diagnóstico , Distribuição por Idade , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Aleitamento Materno , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Cultura , DNA Bacteriano , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Lactação , Mamografia , Mastite/tratamento farmacológico , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Fisiológico , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia Mamária
11.
Ir Med J ; 112(1): 855, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719896

RESUMO

This aim of this paper is to describe the trends in the burden of severe lactational mastitis among women in Ireland through an analysis of postnatal mastitis hospital admission rates from 2006 to 2015. Data on all postnatal hospitalisations with principal diagnosis of mastitis were extracted from the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry system. Trends in annual admission rates per 10,000 live births were analysed using non-parametric trend tests. The overall admission rate for lactational mastitis was 24.4/10,000 live births. There was a significant increase in admission rates from 22.7/10,000 in 2006, to 30.9/10,000 in 2015 (Mann Kendall Trend: t=0.64; Sen's slope=1.46, p=0.01). Ireland has a high hospital admission rate for lactational mastitis, despite very low breastfeeding rates. These two factors may be linked, with low breastfeeding prevalence possibly contributing to low levels of expertise in the management of mastitis, leading to higher complication rates. This is an important area for future research.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactação , Mastite/epidemiologia , Abscesso/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Mamárias/epidemiologia , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2019 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905959

RESUMO

Background: Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland. We examined the effects of SCM on human milk (HM) composition, infant growth, and HM intake in a mother-infant cohort from seven European countries. Methods: HM samples were obtained from 305 mothers at 2, 17, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days postpartum. SCM status was assessed using HM Sodium (Na): Potassium (K) ratio >0.6. Levels of different macro- and micronutrients were analyzed in HM. Results: SCM prevalence in the first month of lactation was 35.4%. Mean gestational age at delivery was lower and birth by C-section higher in SCM mothers (p ≤ 0.001). HM concentrations of lactose, DHA, linolenic acid, calcium, and phosphorous (p < 0.05 for all) was lower, while total protein, alpha-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, albumin, arachidonic acid to DHA ratio, n-6 to n-3 ratio and minerals (iron, selenium, manganese, zinc, and copper) were higher (p < 0.001 for all) in mothers with SCM. There were no differences in infant growth and HM intake between non-SCM and SCM groups. Conclusion: We document, for the first time, in a large European standardized and longitudinal study, a high prevalence of SCM in early lactation and demonstrate that SCM is associated with significant changes in the macro- and micronutrient composition of HM. Future studies exploring the relation of SCM with breastfeeding behaviors and developmental outcomes are warranted.


Assuntos
Mastite/epidemiologia , Leite Humano/química , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mastite/patologia , Minerais/química , Oligoelementos/química
13.
Matern Child Nutr ; 15(3): e12756, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472802

RESUMO

Infant growth faltering occurs in breastfed infants <6 months of age. The possibility that maternal health status contributes to this growth faltering is underexplored. We investigated whether (a) subclinical mastitis (SCM), an asymptomatic inflammation of the breast, (b) maternal intestinal nematode and protozoan infections, indicators of faecal-oral contamination, or (c) poor breastfeeding practices increased the odds of stunting (length-for-age z-score < -2SD), underweight (weight-for-age z-score < -2SD), or low head circumference (head circumference-for-age z-score < -2SD) in breastfed infants in rural indigenous communities in Guatemala. Mother-infant dyads (n = 105) were subdivided into those with and without SCM (milk Na:K ratio > 0.6). Maternal and infant anthropometry were measured at the time of breast milk collection. Maternal stool samples were examined for the presence of intestinal nematodes and protozoa. Questionnaires were used to characterize breastfeeding practices (exclusivity and frequency) and support, hygiene (latrine use and household faucet), and infant diarrhoea. SCM occurred in 14% of women and was associated with increased odds of infant stunting (odds ratio [OR] = 4.3; confidence interval [CI] [1.1, 15.8]), underweight (OR = 9.2; CI [1.8, 48.0]), and low head circumference (OR = 15.9; CI [2.6, 96.9]). Maternal pathogenic protozoa and nematodes were uncommon (<4%), but nonpathogenic protozoa were common (e.g., Entamoeba coli [39%]). Entamoeba coli increased the likelihood (OR = 3.3; CI [1.02, 10.6]) of low head circumference, whereas higher breastfeeding frequency lowered its odds (OR = 0.74, CI [0.56, 0.97]). Prevention of SCM may improve early infant growth, but public health measures that increase breastfeeding frequency and reduce faecal-oral contamination may be required to minimize low head circumference.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Crescimento , Higiene , Mastite , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções Assintomáticas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Enteropatias Parasitárias/complicações , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Mastite/complicações , Mastite/epidemiologia , Magreza , Adulto Jovem
14.
Vet Microbiol ; 228: 119-128, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593356

RESUMO

Objective was to recognise areas potentially of high risk for increased frequency of subclinical mastitis in ewes. Milk samples were collected, for bacteriological and cytological examination, from 2198 clinically healthy ewes in 111 farms in all administrative regions of Greece. Data on farms were located in the field using hand-held Global Positioning System Garmin units. Collected data were analysed by an Ecological Niche Model under the framework of a geographic information system. Two separate analyses were performed: one for subclinical mastitis independently of causal agent (prevalence in population sampled: 0.260) and one for subclinical mastitis caused specifically by slime-producing staphylococci (prevalence in population sampled: 0.153). A model was constructed in which sheep farms were divided into two clusters, according to prevalence of subclinical mastitis: farms in the upper three quartiles of prevalence were used as occurrence points for the Ecological niche modelling procedure ('infected farms'); farms in the lower quartile of prevalence within each category were (pseudo)negative points. Significant differences in environmental parametres prevailing in locations of farms into the study, were identified for up to 13 parametres between locations of farms according to management system applied in farms. When farms in each management system were considered separately, differences became evident between farms in each management system, as well as between the two infections. The factor with the highest relative contribution in the analyses was the distance from other sheep farms; other factors also of importance in the predictive models were the altitude, the maximum temperature of warmest month and the total precipitation of driest month. Verification of the model revealed that ≥ 0.760 of infected farms' were located in areas predicted as high risk for prevalence of subclinical mastitis or slime staphylococcal subclinical mastitis. The paper describes for the first time potential association of mastitis with environmental factors and presents predictive models for mastitis in ewes taking into account environmental parametres.


Assuntos
Mastite/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Ecossistema , Fazendas , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Grécia/epidemiologia , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
15.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2884, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30574152

RESUMO

A novel vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) induced pathogenic antibody production in 5-10% of BVD-vaccinated cows. Transfer of these antibodies via colostrum caused Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) in calves, with a lethality rate of 90%. The exact immunological mechanisms behind the onset of BNP are not fully understood to date. To gain further insight into these mechanisms, we analyzed the immune proteome from alloreactive antibody producers (BNP cows) and non-responders. After in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood derived lymphocytes (PBL), we detected distinctly deviant expression levels of several master regulators of immune responses in BNP cells, pointing to a changed immune phenotype with severe dysregulation of immune response in BNP cows. Interestingly, we also found this response pattern in 22% of non-BVD-vaccinated cows, indicating a genetic predisposition of this immune deviant (ID) phenotype in cattle. We additionally analyzed the functional correlation of the ID phenotype with 10 health parameters and 6 diseases in a retrospective study over 38 months. The significantly increased prevalence of mastitis among ID cows emphasizes the clinical relevance of this deviant immune response and its potential impact on the ability to fight infections.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/prevenção & controle , Mastite/imunologia , Pancitopenia/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/virologia , Bovinos , Colostro/imunologia , Colostro/metabolismo , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/imunologia , Feminino , Incidência , Isoanticorpos/imunologia , Isoanticorpos/metabolismo , Isoantígenos/imunologia , Linfócitos , Mastite/epidemiologia , Pancitopenia/mortalidade , Pancitopenia/veterinária , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 18(1): 461, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women who enter pregnancy overweight or obese tend to have poorer breastfeeding outcomes compared to non-overweight women. Women's experiences of specific breastfeeding-related problems and reasons for use of formula have not been systematically investigated according to pre-pregnancy BMI. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported breastfeeding problems in non-overweight and overweight women and identify the main reasons for use of infant formula during the first month postpartum. METHODS: The present study involved a cross-sectional secondary analysis of data collected as part of a hospital-based longitudinal study of women that commenced in pregnancy (~ 16 weeks). At ~ 4 months postpartum Australian women (N = 477) self-reported breastfeeding problems and reasons for use of infant formula during the first month postpartum. Pre-pregnancy BMI was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and measured height. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to compare pre-pregnancy weight status groups ("non-overweight" [BMI < 25 km/m2] and "overweight" [BMI ≥25 km/m2]) on self-reported breastfeeding problems and reasons for use of infant formula. Analyses were adjusted for covariates that differed between groups (P < .1). RESULTS: Frequency of self-reported breastfeeding problems was similar across weight status groups. "Not enough milk" was the predominant reason for giving infant formula. Overweight women were more likely than non-overweight women to agree that infant formula was as good as breastmilk. CONCLUSIONS: Overall it does not appear that overweight women are more likely to experience a range of specific breastfeeding problems in the first months compared to non-overweight women. However, the severity and duration of the problems needs to be examined. Breastfeeding interventions need to addresses concerns around milk supply as these are common and are likely to be of universal benefit however overweight women in particular may benefit from guidance regarding the benefits of breastfeeding for both themselves and their infants.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Fórmulas Infantis , Transtornos da Lactação/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anquiloglossia/epidemiologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Austrália , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Mastite/epidemiologia
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(11): 2029-2036, Nov. 2018. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976405

RESUMO

The present study determined the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus virulence genes in 2,253 milk samples of cows (n=1000) and goats (n=1253) raised in three different geographical regions of the state Pernambuco, Brazil. The presence of genes of virulence factors associated to adhesion to host cells (fnbA, fnbB, clfA and clfB), toxinosis (sea, seb, sec, sed, seg, seh, sei, tsst, hla and hlb), and capsular polysaccharide (cap5 and cap8) was evaluated by PCR. A total of 123 and 27 S. aureus strains were isolated from cows' and goats' milk, respectively. The sec and tsst genes were detected exclusively in goats' isolates, while the seh gene was only identified in cows' isolates. The number of toxin genes per strain showed that goats' isolates are likely more toxic than bovines' isolates. The cap5 genotype predominated in both host species, especially in strains collected from cows raised in the Agreste region. The cap8 genotype is likely more virulent due to the number of virulence genes per strain. The results of the present study demonstrate that S. aureus may pose a potential threat to human health in Brazil, and, therefore, these results should support actions related to mastitis control programs.(AU)


O presente estudo determinou a frequência de genes de virulência de Staphylococcus aureus em 2253 amostras de leite, sendo de vacas n=1000 e de cabras n=1253, procedentes das três regiões geográficas do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. A presença de genes de fatores de virulência associados à adesão às células hospedeiras (fnbA, fnbB, clfA e clfB), toxinosis (sea, seb, sec, sed, seg, seh, sei, tsst, hla e hlb) e polissacarídeo capsular (cap5 e cap8) foram avaliadas por PCR. Um total de 123 e 27 cepas de S. aureus foram isoladas do leite de vacas e cabras, respectivamente. Os genes sec e tsst foram detectados exclusivamente em isolados de cabras, enquanto o gene seh foi identificado apenas em isolados de vaca. O número de genes de toxina por cepa mostrou que os isolados de cabras são potencialmente mais tóxicos do que os isolados obtidos de bovinos. O genótipo cap5 predominou em ambas as espécies hospedeiras, especialmente em cepas coletadas de vacas criadas na região Agreste. O genótipo cap8 é potencialmente mais virulento devido ao número de genes de virulência por isolado. Os resultados do presente estudo demonstram que S. aureus pode representar uma ameaça potencial para a saúde humana no Brasil e, portanto, estes resultados devem subsidiar ações relacionadas aos programas de controle de mastite.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Bovinos/microbiologia , Cabras/microbiologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Virulência , Indústria de Laticínios , Leite/microbiologia
18.
Vet Microbiol ; 224: 93-99, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269797

RESUMO

Hitherto, research work in slime production from staphylococcal strains of mastitis origin has focused in laboratory properties of these organisms. Objective of present work was to study subclinical mastitis in sheep, caused specifically by slime-producing staphylococci: to investigate its frequency and to identify potential factors playing a role therein. Slime production was evaluated in 708 staphylococcal isolates recovered from cases of subclinical mastitis in a field study in 2198 ewes performed in an extensive countrywide field investigation across Greece. Isolates were studied by means of microbiological and molecular methods. Of these strains, 262 were characterised as slime-producing, 227 as weak slime-producing and 219 as non slime-producing. Most frequently detected genes were eno and icaB; Staphylococcus aureus possessed more genes than coagulase-negative strains; greater number of genes was detected in slime-producing than in weak slime-producing or non-slime-producing strains. Subclinical mastitis caused specifically by slime-producing staphylococci was detected in 337 ewes: prevalence in population sampled was 0.153. A multivariable mixed-effects model revealed that milking mode (highest prevalence in hand-milked flocks) and flock management system (highest prevalence in semi-intensive flocks) were the two factors associated with increased prevalence of mastitis in flocks. The results confirmed the significance of slime producing staphylococcal strains of importance in the aetiology of subclinical mastitis of sheep. Hand-milking was identified as the most important factor predisposing to that infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Mastite/veterinária , Leite/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/virologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 251, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candida spp. is the vital pathogen involved in mycotic mastitis of cows. However the epidemiology and infection of Candida species in mycotic mastitis of cow in Ningxia province of China has not been explored. In the present study, the epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence-related genes of non-albicans Candida (NAC) species were investigated. METHODS: A total of 482 milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis in four herds of Yinchuan, Ningxia were collected and used for the isolation and identification of mastic pathogens by phenotypic and molecular characteristics, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial susceptibility to antifungal agents was also determined by a disk diffusion assay. The presence of virulence-related genes was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: A total of 60 isolates from nine different Candida species were identified from 256 (60/256, 23.44%) milk samples. The most frequently identified species in cows with clinical mastitis groups were Candida krusei (n = 14) and Candida parapsilosis (n = 6). Others include Candida lipolytica, Candida lusitaniae, Cryptococcus neoformans. But no Candida albicans was identified in this study. Interestingly, All C. krusei isolates (14/14) were resistant to fluconazole, fluorocytosine, itraconazole and ketoconazole, 2 out of 14 C. krusei were resistant to amphotericin, and 8 out of the 14 were resistant to nystatin. Similarly, all six C. parapsilosis isolates were resistant to fluorocytosine, but susceptible to fluconazole, ketoconazole and nystatin; two of the six were resistant amphotericin and itraconazole. Molecularly, all of the C. parapsilosis isolates carried eight virulence-related genes, FKS1, FKS2, FKS3, SAP1, SAP2, CDR1, ERG11 and MDR1. All of the C. krusei isolates contained three virulence-related genes, ERG11, ABC2 and FKS1. CONCLUSION: These data suggested that Candida species other than C. albicans played a pathogenic role in mycotic mastitis of cows in Yinchuan, Ningxia of China. The high incidence of drug-resistant genes in C. parapsilosis and C. krusei also highlighted a great concern in public and animal health in this region.


Assuntos
Candida/classificação , Candidíase/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Mastite/veterinária , Animais , Antifúngicos , Candida/genética , Candida/patogenicidade , Candidíase/classificação , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Feminino , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Leite/microbiologia , Virulência/genética
20.
J Dairy Res ; 85(3): 317-320, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925444

RESUMO

The objective of the research described in this Research Communication was to describe potential associations of subclinical mastitis with sheep breeds in Greece. A countrywide survey (2198 ewes in 111 farms) was performed. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 0·260. Results did not indicate any difference in the prevalence of subclinical mastitis between farms with pure-bred and farms with cross-bred animals, nor any difference in prevalence between farms with Greek pure-bred animals and farms with imported pure-bred animals. Results indicated that prevalence of subclinical mastitis was smaller in farms with Assaf-breed (0·100) and higher in farms with Frisarta-breed (0·625) (P < 0·02). Prevalence of mastitis was smaller in farms with Greek traditional indigenous breeds (0·221) (P = 0·007). In a model that included sheep breed and management system in farm, breed emerged as a significant factor for prevalence of subclinical mastitis (P = 0·003).


Assuntos
Mastite/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Especificidade da Espécie
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