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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e022720, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533798

RESUMO

Slaughter condemnations are important sources of information on cattle health. The incidence of bovine parasitic diseases is still very high in Brazil. These diseases, in addition to causing harm to the animals health, are neglected zoonotic diseases in several parts of world. The study analysed not only the Carcass losses, but also the economic damage resulting from slaughter condemnations due to parasitic causes. Cattle slaughter data from the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA), over the period of 2012 to 2015 and data from the Secretary of Livestock and Irrigation of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (SEAPI-RS) were analyzed between 2014 and 2018.The number of organs and carcasses condemned was multiplied by the respective values (in Brazilian Real) obtained from slaughterhouses and subsequently converted into dollars. Brazilian analysis in SIF (Federal Inspection System) establishments showed that more than 1.2 million organs (3,884,505 kg) and 20,000 carcasses (4,547,718 kg) were condemned only due to parasitic causes during post-mortem inspection. In Rio Grande do Sul, in state inspection establishments, more than 1.7 million organs (8,210,559 kg) and 5,000 carcasses (1,243,200 kg) were condemned. These data are alarming and support the need for public policies to control these parasitic diseases.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/complicações , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/economia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 332: 108779, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673761

RESUMO

Microbial contamination associated with beef slaughter and boning has been investigated using traditional culture dependent approaches. However, conventional counting methods have disadvantages of detecting only cultivable bacterial groups that may be a small subset of the true microbial population. This study investigated the microbiology in the boning room of an integrated (abattoir A) and a fragmented (abattoir B) Australian beef export abattoirs using culture independent 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing coupled with total viable count (TVC). Transmission of microbial populations during processing of carcases onto beef trim was monitored and compared between the two abattoirs. The results showed that the abattoirs produced beef trim with a mean TVC of 2.64-2.70 log10 CFU/cm2. Initial counts of microbes on the chilled carcases entering the boning room were <1.5 log10 CFU/cm2 and the environmental surfaces had ≤2.0 log10 CFU/cm2 throughout the boning room. Profiling of 16S gene sequences demonstrated that the contamination of boned products (beef trim) may be a result of contamination accumulating from environmental surfaces that are regularly in contact with beef trim. The 16S data also showed that the bacterial communities on the carcases and trim shared similar community composition with microbiota on environmental surfaces at varying proportions depending on the day of processing. Bacteroidales, Clostridiales, Enterobacteriales, Lactobacillales and Pseudomonadales were predominantly present in the bacterial communities in both abattoirs. However, the changes in relative abundance of these bacteria through the boning process varied between the abattoirs. The findings from this study suggested that the transfer of bacterial contaminants in the beef cattle boning room can be dynamic, and a 16 s rRNA gene sequencing-based approach can improve our understanding of the sources of contamination in the boning environment.


Assuntos
Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Microbiota , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Animais , Austrália , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232326, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacteria that have acquired antimicrobial resistance, in particular ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, are an important healthcare concern. Therefore, transmission routes and risk factors are of interest, especially for the carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli. Since there is an enhanced risk for pig slaughterhouse employees to carry ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, associated with animal contact as potential risk factor, the present study investigated the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in poultry slaughterhouse employees. Due to the higher level of resistant Enterobacteriaceae in primary poultry production than in pig production, a higher risk of intestinal colonization of poultry slaughterhouse employees was expected. RESULTS: ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were detected in 5.1% (5 of 99) of the fecal samples of slaughterhouse workers. The species of these isolates was confirmed as E. coli. PCR assays revealed the presence of the genes blaCTX-M-15 (n = 2) and blaSHV-12 (n = 3) in these isolates, partly in combination with the ß-lactamase gene blaTEM-135. Participants were divided into two groups according to their occupational exposure and results indicated an increased probability of colonization with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae for the group of 'higher exposure' (OR 3.7, exact 95% CI 0.6-23.5; p = 0.4). For intestinal colonization with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, a prevalence of 10% (3/30) was observed in the group of 'higher exposure' versus 2.9% (2/69) in the group of 'lower exposure'. Employees in working steps such as 'hanging' poultry in the process of slaughter and 'evisceration' seemed to have a higher risk for intestinal colonization with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae compared to the group of 'lower exposure'. CONCLUSION: This study is the first of its kind to collect data on the occupational exposure of slaughterhouse workers to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Europe. The results suggested that colonization with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae is associated with occupational exposure in poultry slaughterhouses. However, the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates in only 5.1% (5/99) of the tested employees in poultry slaughterhouses suggests a lower transmission risk than in pig slaughterhouses.


Assuntos
Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Intestinos/microbiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/biossíntese , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Projetos Piloto
4.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 211-216, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592460

RESUMO

Hydatid cyst, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, and Fasciola spp. are common parasites among ruminants. The current study was conducted to assess the prevalence of these parasites in cattle and sheep slaughtered in Sabzevar abattoir, from April 2014 to March 2016. Total of 1653 cattle and 26720 sheep were inspected for helminthic infections of liver and lung in different seasons. The prevalence rates were found to be 684 (2.55%) and 235 (14.21%) in sheep and cattle, respectively. The infection rate of liver in cattle was estimated to be 5.86%, 0.84% and 5.68% for hydatid cysts, Fasciola spp. and D. dendriticum, respectively and lung infection with hydatid cyst in cattle was 1.81%. Moreover, the liver infection rate of sheep was estimated to be 0.87%, 0.06% and 2.13% with hydatid cysts, Fasciola spp. and D. dendriticum, respectively and lung infection with hydatid cyst was 0.35%. The rate of infection with D. dendriticum was higher in the both animals than the other parasites. The results of this study indicated that the prevalence of the aforementioned parasites was high, which caused high economic losses. Therefore, sanitary and preventive measures should be taken.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Doenças dos Bovinos , Dicrocelíase , Equinococose , Fasciolíase , Doenças dos Ovinos , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Dicrocelíase/epidemiologia , Dicrocelíase/veterinária , Dicrocoelium , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Fasciola , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536338

RESUMO

Q fever is a notifiable zoonotic disease in Australia, caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii. This study has reviewed 2,838 Q fever notifications reported in Queensland between 2003 and 2017 presenting descriptive analyses, with counts, rates, and proportions. For this study period, Queensland accounted for 43% of the Australian national Q fever notifications. Enhanced surveillance follow-up of Q fever cases through Queensland Public Health Units was implemented in 2012, which improved the data collected for occupational risk exposures and animal contacts. For 2013-2017, forty-nine percent (377/774) of cases with an identifiable occupational group would be considered high risk for Q fever. The most common identifiable occupational group was agricultural/farming (31%). For the same period, at-risk environmental exposures were identified in 82% (961/1,170) of notifications; at-risk animal-related exposures were identified in 52% (612/1,170) of notifications; abattoir exposure was identified in 7% of notifications. This study has shown that the improved follow-up of Q fever cases since 2012 has been effective in the identification of possible exposure pathways for Q fever transmission. This improved surveillance has highlighted the need for further education and heightened awareness of Q fever risk for all people living in Queensland, not just those in previously-considered high risk occupations.


Assuntos
Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Medidas em Epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Queensland/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
6.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(4): 394-399, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557652

RESUMO

The aims of the present study were to examine the occurrence of Staphylococcus spp. in the tonsils of slaughtered pigs in a regional slaughterhouse in Greece, the antibiotic resistance of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates, and the enteroxigenicity of the S. aureus isolates. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated in 70 (48·61%) out of the total 144 tonsil samples. The predominant species was S. aureus in coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS), while the predominant species were Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus in the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Staphylococcus spp. isolates presented high antibiotic resistance frequencies to tetracycline (97·1%) or clindamycin (80·0%) and low antibiotic resistance frequencies to fusidic acid (14·3%). No methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified, and all Staphylococcus spp. isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Among the 26 S. aureus isolates, 21 (80·76%) possessed staphylococcal enterotoxin genes with seven different enterotoxin gene profiles. The predominant enterotoxin profile was seg, sei and sej with seven S. aureus isolates. The occurrence of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus spp. in pig tonsils indicate public health risk to pork consumers and handlers in developing antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Tonsila Palatina/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clindamicina/farmacologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 326: 108641, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371295

RESUMO

Thermotolerant Campylobacter is the leading bacterial cause of foodborne illness in humans worldwide. The objectives of this study were to estimate prevalence and to identify and characterize potential sources of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination in broilers on farms and at the slaughterhouse; to evaluate the clonal relationship among thermotolerant Campylobacter isolates from different stages of the broiler meat supply chain, and to analyze the presence of virulence genes in different sources of thermotolerant Campylobacter. A total of 1210 samples were collected from three broiler meat supply chains in Santa Fe, Argentina. At the farms, the sampling collection included broilers one week prior to slaughter, wild-living birds, domestic dogs, wild rodents, farm workers' boots, litter, feed, drinking water, flies, and darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus). At the slaughtering line, the samples taken were from the evisceration zone (broiler cecum, working surfaces, evisceration knives and workers' hands), from the chiller zone (surfaces and direct supply water) and from the packing zone (work surfaces, workers' hands and broiler carcasses). The samples taken along each supply chain were in the same batch. The isolates obtained were identified to the species level (C. jejuni and C. coli) by multiplex PCR and were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to compare different profiles according to the source. Finally, the presence of 11 virulence genes was examined (cadF, cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, ciaB, flaA, flhA, iam, wlaN, virB11, racR). From 254 isolates, 128 (50.4%) were Campylobacter jejuni and 126 (49.6%) Campylobacter coli. C. jejuni was the species most prevalent in farm and C. coli the species most prevalent at the slaughterhouse. We detected thermotolerant Campylobacter in samples of wild birds, darkling beetles, farm workers' boots, flies and litter. At the slaughterhouse, the prevalence varied along the process line. By analyzing PFGE results, C. jejuni showed 21 profiles with three predominant genotypes, while C. coli showed 14 profiles with four predominant genotypes. A high genotype diversity was found; however, relationships between isolates from different stages of the broiler meat chain, between broiler and potential sources of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination and between strains in the farm and in the slaughterhouse were detected. Furthermore, there was evidence of cross-contamination at the slaughterhouse. FlaA, flhA genes were detected in all strains, and the third most prevalent virulence gene was cadF. Only those strains obtained from flies, wild-living birds and broiler carcass samples harbored 10 of 11 pathogenic genes. The prevalence of some pathogenic genes between C. jejuni and C. coli was different. This evidence should contribute the scientific basis to implement risk management measures in public health.


Assuntos
Campylobacter coli/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Argentina , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter coli/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter coli/patogenicidade , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter jejuni/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Besouros/microbiologia , Dípteros/microbiologia , Cães , Água Potável/microbiologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Flagelina/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Prevalência , Roedores/microbiologia , Termotolerância , Virulência/genética
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008164, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392223

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a neglected zoonotic disease of remarkable importance worldwide. The focus of this systematic review was to investigate occupational brucellosis and to identify the main infection risks for each group exposed to the pathogen. Seven databases were used to identify papers related to occupational brucellosis: CABI, Cochrane, Pubmed, Scielo, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science. The search resulted in 6123 studies, of which 63 were selected using the quality assessment tools guided from National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Case Report Guidelines (CARE). Five different job-related groups were considered greatly exposed to the disease: rural workers, abattoir workers, veterinarians and veterinary assistants, laboratory workers and hunters. The main risk factors and exposure sources involved in the occupational infection observed from the analysis of the articles were direct contact with animal fluids, failure to comply with the use of personal protective equipment, accidental exposure to live attenuated anti-brucellosis vaccines and non-compliance with biosafety standards. Brucella species frequently isolated from job-related infection were Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, Brucella suis and Brucella canis. In addition, a meta-analysis was performed using the case-control studies and demonstrated that animal breeders, laboratory workers and abattoir workers have 3.47 [95% confidence interval (CI); 1.47-8.19] times more chance to become infected with Brucella spp. than others individuals that have no contact with the possible sources of infection. This systematic review improved the understanding of the epidemiology of brucellosis as an occupational disease. Rural workers, abattoir workers, veterinarians, laboratory workers and hunters were the groups more exposed to occupational Brucella spp. infection. Moreover, it was observed that the lack of knowledge about brucellosis among frequently exposed professionals, in addition to some behaviors, such as negligence in the use of individual and collective protective measures, increases the probability of infection.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Brucella/genética , Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucella/fisiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Humanos , Pessoal de Laboratório/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/microbiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Médicos Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(1): 77­86, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198998

RESUMO

Fasciolosis is considered as an ongoing neglected zoonotic disease in tropical regions of the world, relating to notable financial and public health issues. The current systematic review and meta-analysis was planned to determine the status of fasciolosis among domestic ruminants, including cattle, buffalo, goat, and sheep at the industrial slaughterhouses in Iran, between the years 2000 and 2016. Eight databases, four English and four Persian, were searched. Our findings demonstrated that 2.6% of all inspected livers of slaughtered ruminants were infected with Fasciola spp. during 2000­2016. The mean prevalence of fasciolosis for cattle, buffalo, goat, and sheep was 21%, 4.2%, 2%, and 2.4%, respectively. Additionally, most studies were performed on cattle 25 (39.6%), sheep 24 (38 %), and goat 12 (19%), respectively, and just 2 (3.1%) studies were performed on buffalo. The prevalence of animal fasciolosis has significantly decreased among domestic ruminants in Iran except for cattle. In addition, the prevalence of this disease in Northern and Western regions of the country has remained at hypo-endemic level. The results present updated gathered information on the epidemiology of fasciolosis in domestic ruminants in Iran, and will expand the screening strategies to improve health and reduce economic impacts among farm animals.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Doenças dos Bovinos , Fasciola , Fasciolíase , Doenças dos Ovinos , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Cabras , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
10.
J Vet Sci ; 21(1): e2, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940681

RESUMO

The emergence of livestock-associated (LA)-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in livestock animal has become a significant zoonotic concern. In the present study, we investigated nationwide prevalence of LA-MRSA across pork production chain including pig farms, slaughterhouses, and retail markets. A total of 40 MRSA strains were isolated during the investigation and the overall prevalence of MRSA was 3.4% (n = 37), 0.6% (n = 2), and 0.4% (n = 1) in pig farms, slaughterhouses, and retail markets, respectively. Multilocus sequence typing analyses revealed that the 2 most significant clonal lineages in pork production chain in Korea were ST398 (n = 25) and ST541 (n = 6). All of the 40 MRSA isolates were further characterized to investigate key genotypic and phenotypic correlates associated with the emergence and spread of clonal complex 398 (CC398; ST398, and ST541) LA-MRSA. Although the prevalence of swine-associated MRSA was still relatively low and mostly restricted to pig farms, multidrug-resistant CC398 LA-MRSA isolates with new spa types (t18102 and t18103) were identified as a major clonal lineage. The CC398 LA-MRSA strains tended to exhibit increased levels of multiple drug resistance (MDR) phenotype compared with non-CC398 MRSA strains. Of note, in comparison with non-CC398 MRSA isolates, CC398 LA-MRSA isolates exhibited significantly enhanced tetracycline (TET) and zinc resistance. These findings suggested that co-selection pressure associated with MDR phenotype, especially TET resistance, and zinc resistance may have played a significant role in the emergence and persistence of CC398 LA-MRSA in pig farms in Korea.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência a Meticilina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Meticilina/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Cloretos/farmacologia , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Compostos de Zinco/farmacologia
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(2): 823-828, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617050

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation between condemnations in slaughterhouses situated in Minas Gerais State and notifications to the Brazilian Official Veterinary Service of cattle that were positive for intradermal tuberculin tests. Data were obtained from three slaughterhouses under different surveillance conditions and from the Brazilian Agriculture and Livestock Health Agency for 2011 to 2017. During this period, there was an increase in the number of condemnations of females aged over 36 months, despite the number of females testing with intradermal tests and being reported as positive decreasing. Therefore, there is a discrepancy between the analyzed variables. Since there is a belief that slaughter condemnations can be used as tools for epidemiological surveys in beef and dairy farms, it is advisable for there to be a greater integration of the Brazilian Health Inspection Services in slaughterhouses and Brazilian Agriculture and Livestock defense department. This will ensure safe animal products.


Assuntos
Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Feminino , Testes Intradérmicos/veterinária , Masculino , Prevalência , Teste Tuberculínico/veterinária , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia
12.
J Appl Anim Welf Sci ; 23(1): 108-115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773911

RESUMO

World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recommends member countries to comply with global standards of animal welfare. The present study was conducted to reveal the compliance of animal welfare standards in slaughterhouses in Tehran province (Iran). The following three major parameters were evaluated through direct observation, study of plant records, and interviewing slaughterhouse staff across all 14 operative animal slaughterhouses in Tehran province: (1) employing trained and committed workers; (2) appropriate environment and proper design parameter; and (3) proper construction, equipment, and tools. Only 30% of modern slaughterhouses employed trained personnel for handling livestock in an appropriate way, which reaches zero for traditional slaughterhouses. Regarding electrical stunning application for sheep, animal welfare quality was significantly greater in modern slaughterhouses than in the traditional ones (P < 0.05). Out of nine slaughterhouses with unloading platforms and animal lairage, 55% and 35.7% were found to comply with standards, respectively. Concerning lairage parameters and entrance hall, modern plants stood higher compared to traditional slaughterhouses (P > 0.05). It is recommended training courses for involved veterinarians and slaughterhouse staff along with upgrading slaughterhouse construction.


Assuntos
Matadouros/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Bovinos , Irã (Geográfico) , Ovinos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 334-339, 2020.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412827

RESUMO

Aim of this paper is to describe the management of an outbreak of COVID-19 in a slaughtering and meat processing plant in Bari Province (Southern Italy). At the end of the outbreak investigation, 18.4% of the employees were positive to the molecular test for SARS-CoV-2. Higher prevalence has been reported in the bovine slaughtering house and swine meat processing plant.In addition to lack of physical distancing and correct use of personal protective equipment, the spread of the virus has been eased by low level of literacy, indoor microclimate, intensive working time, and aerosol-generating procedures in specific areas of the processing plant where more positive cases have been detected. The analysis of this cluster may suggest specific actions to prevent similar outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Matadouros/organização & administração , Surtos de Doenças , Manipulação de Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Carne , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Pandemias , /isolamento & purificação , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Aerossóis , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Animais , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Busca de Comunicante , Bases de Dados Factuais , Escolaridade , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Ovinos , Suínos
14.
Ecohealth ; 16(4): 759-771, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720941

RESUMO

Despite the global zoonotic disease burden, the underlying exposures that drive zoonotic disease emergence are not understood. Here, we aimed to assess exposures to potential sources of zoonotic disease and investigate the demographics, attitudes, and behavior of individuals with sustained occupational animal contact in Vietnam. We recruited 581 animal workers (animal-raising farmers, slaughterers, animal health workers, and rat traders) and their families in southern and central Vietnam into a cohort. Cohort members were followed for 3 years and interviewed annually regarding (1) demography and attitudes regarding zoonotic disease, (2) medical history, (3) specific exposures to potential zoonotic infection sources, and (4) socioeconomic status. Interview information over the 3 years was combined and analyzed as cross-sectional data. Of the 297 cohort members interviewed, the majority (79.8%; 237/297) reported raising livestock; almost all (99.6%; 236/237) reported being routinely exposed to domestic animals, and more than a quarter (28.7%; 68/237) were exposed to exotic animals. Overall, 70% (208/297) reported slaughtering exotic animals; almost all (99.5%; 207/208) reported consuming such animals. The consumption of raw blood and meat was common (24.6%; 73/297 and 37%; 110/297, respectively). Over half (58.6%; 174/297) reported recent occupational animal-induced injuries that caused bleeding; the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) was limited. Our work demonstrates that individuals working with animals in Vietnam are exposed to a wide range of species, and there are limited procedures for reducing potential zoonotic disease exposures. We advocate better education, improved animal security, and enforced legislation of PPE for those with occupational animal exposure in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Produtos da Carne/virologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Anim Sci J ; 90(11): 1475-1483, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515907

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of pathological lesions in pigs from small-scale farms and to determine associations between pathological lesions and hematological parameters, and carcass and meat quality in slaughtered pigs. The study was conducted on 625 pigs (~115 kg) originating from 20 small-scale farms. Any signs of pneumonia, pleurisy, pericarditis, and liver milk spots were recorded as present or absent. Complete blood count was investigated. The following carcass quality parameters were measured: live, hot and cold carcass weights, cooling loss, dressing percentage, backfat thickness, and meatiness. Meat pH and temperature were measured 45 min postmortem. Of the 625 examined pigs, 41.8% had pneumonia, 23.5% pleurisy, 2.7% pericarditis, and 29.9% liver milk spots. The presence of pathological lesions in slaughtered pigs adversely affected hematological parameters, reduced live, hot and cold carcass weights, and meatiness and had deleterious effects on meat quality (higher pH45min and higher prevalence of dark, firm and dry meat). In conclusion, this study showed a high prevalence of pathological lesions in slaughtered pigs, indicating serious health problems in smallholder pig production systems. The presence of single and, especially, multiple pathological lesions in slaughtered pigs negatively affected hematological parameters, and carcass and meat quality.


Assuntos
Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Pericardite/epidemiologia , Pericardite/veterinária , Pleurisia/epidemiologia , Pleurisia/veterinária , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/veterinária , Carne de Porco , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatopatias/patologia , Pericardite/patologia , Pneumonia/patologia , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia
16.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 202, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella has been considered as one of the most important foodborne pathogens that threatened breeding industry and public health. To investigate the prevalence and characterization of Salmonella isolated from duck farms and a slaughterhouse in Shandong province, a total of 49 Salmonella strains were isolated from 2342 samples from four duck farms and one duck slaughterhouse in Jinan and Tai'an, Shandong province, China. RESULTS: Among the isolates, S. Enteritidis (20/49, 40.8%) and S. Anatum (10/49, 20.4%) were the most prevalent, and high resistance rates were detected for erythromycin (49/49, 100.0%) and nalidixic acid (47/49, 95.9%). Class I integrons were detected in 17 isolates (34.7%17/49), which contained gene cassettes aadA7 + aac3-Id(15/17) and aadA5 + dfrA17 (2/17). Eleven different kinds of resistance genes were detected while blaTEM(36/49, 73.5%) was the most prevalent, followed by sul2(14/49, 28.6%). Thirteen virulence genes were tested, and all of the strains carried invA, hilA and sipA. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) results showed that seven sequence types (STs) were identified; ST11 was the most prevalent ST (20/49, 40.8%), followed by ST2441 (10/49, 20.4%). There was a strong correlation between STs and serovars. The results of pulsed field gel electrophoresis(PFGE) showed that 39 PFGE patterns were generated from 49 Salmonella strains. PFGE patterns were mostly diverse and revealed high similarity between the isolates from the same sampling sites. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of Salmonella infections among duck farms revealed that ducks could also be potential reservoirs for Salmonella. The high resistance rates against commonly used antimicrobials suggested a need for more reasonable use of antimicrobials, as well as for investigating substitutes for antimicrobials.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , China , Patos , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Integrons , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/genética
17.
J Food Prot ; 82(9): 1615-1624, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441688

RESUMO

We describe two outbreaks of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- infection, occurring in 2015 to 2016, linked to pork products, including whole roaster pigs sold raw from a single Washington slaughter and processing facility (establishment A). Food histories from 80 ill persons were compared with food histories reported in the FoodNet 2006 to 2007 survey of healthy persons from all 10 U.S. FoodNet sites who reported these exposures in the week before interview. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole genome sequencing were conducted on selected clinical, food, and environmental isolates. During 2015, a total of 192 ill persons were identified from five states; among ill persons with available information, 30 (17%) of 180 were hospitalized, and none died. More ill persons than healthy survey respondents consumed pork (74 versus 43%, P < 0.001). Seventeen (23%) of 73 ill persons for which a response was available reported attending an event where whole roaster pig was served in the 7 days before illness onset. All 25 clinical isolates tested from the 2015 outbreak and a subsequent 2016 smaller outbreak (n = 15) linked to establishment A demonstrated MDR. Whole genome sequencing of clinical, environmental, and food isolates (n = 69) collected in both investigations revealed one clade of highly related isolates, supporting epidemiologic and traceback data that establishment A as the source of both outbreaks. These investigations highlight that whole roaster pigs, an uncommon food vehicle for MDR Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- outbreaks, will need further attention from food safety researchers and educators for developing science-based consumer guidelines, specifically with a focus on the preparation process.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Carne de Porco , Infecções por Salmonella , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Humanos , Carne de Porco/microbiologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Suínos , Washington/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Food Environ Virol ; 11(4): 410-419, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243738

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus that can cause acute hepatitis in humans. Besides the fecal-oral route, transmission can occur by consumption of undercooked pig liver. Genotype 3 is the most frequent genotype found in Europe. Studies on HEV in slaughter-age pigs have not been conducted in Serbia so far. Pork meat production and consumption in Serbia is on average, higher than in the rest of Europe. With the aim to identify the circulating HEV genotypes, pig livers and swab samples from three pig slaughterhouses located in three different sub-regions of Serbia were collected. A nested RT-PCR was used to amplify the hypervariable HEV ORF-1 region (334 bp). The amplicons yielded in this study were sequenced, and a molecular phylogeny analysis based on the maximum likelihood method, including HEV sequences reported in several other countries, was performed. The average prevalence of HEV genotype 3 in 3-month-old pigs was 34%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the majority of HEV amplification fragments from Serbia were grouped in four clades within sub-genotype 3a and were also genetically related to German, Italian, Slovenian, and American HEV sequences. Sub-genotypes 3b and 3j were also found in a single pig each. This study provides the first analysis of the genetic diversity and circulation dynamics of HEV in pigs at slaughterhouses in Serbia.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Hepatite E/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Carne/virologia , Filogenia , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 450, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is an infectious zoonotic disease and is common especially among pastoral communities in most low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to determine sero-prevalence, and risk factors of Brucella infection among Slaughterhouse workers, in Bahr el Ghazal region, South Sudan. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among Slaughterhouse workers in Bahr el Ghazal region, South Sudan from December 2015 to May 2016. A pre-tested questionnaire was used in data collection. Each randomly selected participant was interviewed and a venous blood sample collected. The blood samples were screened for Brucellosis infection using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed using Competitive Enzyme link Immuno Sorbet Assay (c-ELISA). Data was analyzed using Stata version 13 at 95% level of confidence. RESULTS: A total of 234 Slaughterhouse workers were screen for Brucella infection. Overall, a third, 32.1% (75/234) of the participants were sero-positive for brucellosis. The prevalence of brucellosis was higher, 17.1% (40/234) in Wau state compared to other states. There was high prevalence among males, 28.6% (67/234) compared to females 3.4% (8/234). The mean age of study participants was 34.4 ± 9.6 years. A high proportion, 12.8% (30/234) of participants with confirmed brucellosis infection were 31-40 years of age. Brucellosis prevalence was high among butchers, 14.5% (34/234), and meat handlers, 9.0% (21/234). CONCLUSIONS: Brucellosis is common among animal slaughterhouse workers in Bahr el Ghazal region, South Sudan. There is need for public awareness campaigns and educational programs to help sensitize communities on Brucella infection.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Brucella , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carne , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudão do Sul/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
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