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1.
Anaesthesia ; 75 Suppl 1: e39-e45, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903579

RESUMO

Shared decision-making is central to the pre-operative consent process and accurate communication of risk is dependent on a clear understanding of numerical information by both the patient and clinician. The risk of an adverse event or complication is often described using verbal probability expressions but how these are interpreted by clinicians and patients in the pre-operative setting has not been studied. We asked patients and clinicians to assign a numerical translation (as a percentage) for seven verbal probability expressions in relation to the probability of a major peri-operative complication occurring. In total, data from 290 patients and 57 clinicians were analysed. There was a wide range in percentages assigned by patients to all verbal probability expressions. Patients assigned a wider range of percentage values to each of the verbal probability expressions and these were all significantly higher than those assigned by clinicians: median (IQR [range]) negligible risk 5% (1-15 [0-100]) vs. 0% (0-0 [0-5]); minimal risk 5% (2-10) [0-100]) vs. 1% (0-1 [0-10]); low risk 10% (3-10 [0-100]) vs. 1% (0-2) [0-10]); standard risk 20% (10-40) [0-100]) vs. 1% (1-5) [0-30]); moderate risk 33% (20-50) [0-100]) vs. 5% (3-10) [0-80]); high risk 70% (30-90 [0-100]) vs. 15% (10-40) [1-75]); and very high risk 90% (50-95 [0-100]) vs. 40% (20-50 [5-100]), respectively (p < 0.005 for all comparisons). There is considerable variation in the numerical translation of verbal probability expressions by both patients and clinicians. This suggests that verbal probability expressions should not be used in isolation as part of doctor-patient discussions regarding peri-operative risk.


Assuntos
Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Probabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
3.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e261, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826764

RESUMO

Based on the notion that time, space, and number are part of a generalized magnitude system, we assume that the dual-systems approach to temporal cognition also applies to numerical cognition. Referring to theoretical models of the development of numerical concepts, we propose that children's early skills in processing numbers can be described analogously to temporal updating and temporal reasoning.


Assuntos
Cognição , Resolução de Problemas , Criança , Humanos , Matemática , Análise de Sistemas
4.
Pediatr Endocrinol Rev ; 17(2): 117-124, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We analyzed primary school performance of girls with Turner syndrome (TS) in two distinct countries to ascertain if the cognitive phenotype of TS causes selective learning difficulties. METHODS: The cohort comprised of 44 Czech and 50 Egyptian girls with TS who attended public schools. School reports from grades 1 to 9 were obtained retrospectively from Czech participants with TS. Only recent school reports were obtained from Egyptian participants. Two controls per participant were requested - biological sisters and/or female classmates. The results were converted into a 5-point scale (1-excellent; 5-unsatisfactory). RESULTS: Analysis of longitudinal Czech data displayed a strong time component in both subjects and controls. Showing better points in lower grades with its gradual worsening as the education complexity increased. In contrast, there was a strong statistically significant difference between groups in Mathematics (p=0.0041, p=0.0205 after Bonferroni correction) and this difference increased over time. The points for Mathematics did not differ in grades 1+2 (0.05 difference in mean grade between the two groups), however, they differed by 0.28 in grades 6+7 and by 0.32 in grades 8+9. While slightly different in character (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal), the Egyptian cohort data confirmed our findings, showing no difference in general school performance but having similar trends in Mathematics (grades 1+2: 0.11, grades 6+7: 0.54, grades 8+9: 0.68; p=0.0058, p=0.029 after Bonferroni correction). CONCLUSION: Excluding results in Mathematics, which showed pronounced worsening in relation to age in comparison with unaffected controls, girls with TS performed similarly to their controls.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Turner , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Matemática , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Exp Psychol ; 66(5): 368-376, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696794

RESUMO

The goal of the present study was to test whether and how emotions influence arithmetic performance. Participants had to verify arithmetic problems. True problems were either easier or harder problems. False problems were parity-match or parity-mismatch problems. The odd/even status of proposed and correct answers was the same in parity-match problems (e.g., 19 × 7 = 131) and different in parity-mismatch problems (e.g., 17 × 9 = 152). Before each problem, participants saw a positive (e.g., smiling baby), negative (e.g., mutilations), or neutral pictures (e.g., neutral face) selected from International Affective Picture System (IAPS). They had to decide whether each picture includes a person or not before verifying each arithmetic problem. Results showed different effects of emotion on true- and false problem verification. Participants' performance on true problems showed decreased problem-difficulty after processing negative pictures and increased difficulty effects after processing positive pictures. On false problems, we found smaller parity-violation effects after negative pictures (i.e., decreased performance on parity-mismatch problems), together with larger parity-violation effects after positive pictures (i.e., decreased performance on parity-match problems). These findings suggest that emotions influence arithmetic performance via which strategy is used and how each strategy is executed on each problem. They have important implications for understanding the role of emotions on arithmetic performance, and more generally on how emotions influence cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Matemática/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(10): 634-640, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580726

RESUMO

Women in math, science, and engineering (MSE) often face stereotype threat: they fear that their performance in MSE will confirm an existing negative stereotype-that women are bad at math-which in turn may impair their learning and performance in math. This research investigated if sexist nonverbal behavior of a male instructor could activate stereotype threat among women in a virtual classroom. In addition, the research examined if learners' avatar representation in virtual reality altered this nonverbal process. Specifically, a 2 (avatar gender: female vs. male) × 2 (instructor behavior: dominant sexist vs. nondominant or nonsexist) between-subjects experiment was used. Data from 76 female college students demonstrated that participants learned less and performed worse when interacting with a sexist male instructor compared with a nonsexist instructor in a virtual classroom. Participants learned and performed equally well when represented by female and male avatars. Our findings extend previous research in physical learning settings, suggesting that dominant-sexist behaviors may give rise to stereotype threat and undermine women's learning outcomes in virtual classrooms. Implications for gender achievement gaps and stereotype threat are discussed.


Assuntos
Matemática , Sexismo/psicologia , Estereotipagem , Realidade Virtual , Mulheres , Gráficos por Computador , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Mulheres/educação , Mulheres/psicologia
7.
Ann Sci ; 76(2): 113-156, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573437

RESUMO

Thomas Urquhart (1611-1660), celebrated for his English translation of Rabelais' Gargantua et Pantagruel, has earned some notoriety for his eccentric, putatively incomprehensible early book on trigonometry The Trissotetras (1645). The Trissotetras was too impractical to succeed in its own day as a textbook, since it lacked both trigonometric tables and sample calculations. But its current bad reputation is based on literary authors' amplifications of the verdict prefaced to its 19th century reprinting by one mathematician, William Wallace, who lacked the background to appreciate the book's historical context. Considering that context (including seventeenth century 'copious' prose, and medieval logic and 'art of memory'), the bad reputation is undeserved: the book is mathematically clear, clever (e.g. in superimposing 16 problems into one diagram), and complete. The Trissotetras may thus be viewed as simply one more of Urquhart's polymathic projects and involvements - which included education, rise of the middle class, religious and class conflicts, development of science and mathematics, search for patronage, universal language construction, and development of English prose - which serve to make him a lively and instructive intellectual Everyman for his time.


Assuntos
Matemática/instrumentação , Livros de Texto como Assunto/história , História do Século XVII
8.
Nature ; 573(7774): 310, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534249
9.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 59, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the preschool years, children's development of skills like language and communication, executive functions, and socioemotional comprehension undergo dramatic development. Still, our knowledge of how these skills are enhanced is limited. The preschool contexts constitute a well-suited arena for investigating these skills and hold the potential for giving children an equal opportunity preparing for the school years to come. The present study compared two pedagogical methods in the Swedish preschool context as to their effect on language and communication, executive functions, socioemotional comprehension, and early math. The study targeted children in the age span four-to-six-year-old, with an additional focus on these children's backgrounds in terms of socioeconomic status, age, gender, number of languages, time spent at preschool, and preschool start. An additional goal of the study was to add to prior research by aiming at disentangling the relationship between the investigated variables. METHOD: The study constitutes a randomized controlled trial including 18 preschools and 29 preschool units, with a total of 431 children, and 98 teachers. The interventions lasted for 6 weeks, preceded by pre-testing and followed by post-testing of the children. Randomization was conducted on the level of preschool unit, to either of the two interventions or to control. The interventions consisted of a socioemotional and material learning paradigm (SEMLA) and a digitally implemented attention and math training paradigm (DIL). The preschools were further evaluated with ECERS-3. The main analysis was a series of univariate mixed regression models, where the nested structure of individuals, preschool units and preschools were modeled using random variables. RESULTS: The result of the intervention shows that neither of the two intervention paradigms had measurable effects on the targeted skills. However, there were results as to the follow-up questions, such as executive functions predicting all other variables (language and communication, socioemotional comprehension, and math). Background variables were related to each other in patterns congruent with earlier findings, such as socioeconomic status predicting outcome measures across the board. The results are discussed in relation to intervention fidelity, length of intervention, preschool quality, and the impact of background variables on children's developmental trajectories and life prospects.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Compreensão , Função Executiva , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Ensino , Atenção , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática/educação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Suécia
10.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 479-485, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488776

RESUMO

Several studies highlight that many students feel negative feelings about mathematical learning and that the mathematics anxiety seems to play a central role in mathematical performance. More specifically students with higher level of maths anxiety are less efficient in mathematical tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between specific mathematics anxiety as assessed by AMAS, trait and state anxiety as assessed by STAI-Y, and mathematical skills assessed through the ABCA tests in a sample of 83 adolescent students (78.3% males) without diagnosis of dyscalculia and cognitive disorder attending their first year of secondary school. Results showed that 38% of the students referred high level of maths anxiety. Independent T-test revealed that female students referred a higher level of maths anxiety as well as of trait and state anxiety than male ones, while there were no differences in the mathematics performance. The simultaneous multivariate linear regression analysis showed that maths anxiety was influenced by trait anxiety and in its turn has an impact on the high level mathematics performances (i.e. arithmetic facts). Understanding the relationships between maths anxiety and maths learning and performance may have relevant implications in clinical, educational and didactic practice.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Matemática , Psicologia do Adolescente , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3798, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481673

RESUMO

Females tend to perform worse than males on math and science tests, but they perform better on verbal reading tests. Here, by analysing performance during a cognitive test, we provide evidence that females are better able to sustain their performance during a test across all of these topics, including math and science (study 1). This finding suggests that longer cognitive tests decrease the gender gap in math and science. By analysing a dataset with multiple tests that vary in test length, we find empirical support for this idea (study 2).


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Habilidades para Realização de Testes , Adolescente , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Leitura , Ciência , Estudantes , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 2038-2050, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482515

RESUMO

Teaching mathematics involves helping students develop mathematical skills and empowering students to see themselves as capable of participating in and being knowers and doers of mathematics. Extant research has postulated that mathematics identity is a critical contributor to adolescents' mathematics achievement and subsequent academic success. Guided by motivation and instructional quality theories, this classroom-based study examined a mediating mechanism through which teacher practices associated with mathematics identity through motivational beliefs (i.e., expectancies, task values, and cost value). Participants included 525 sixth-grade students (48.6% male; 64% European American, 34% African American, 2% other race; 58.6% free-or-reduced lunch) in the United States. The findings suggest that competence beliefs and task values, except for cost value, mediated the association between teacher practices and mathematics identity. These mediation pathways also differed by race. The mediating role of mathematics expectancies was stronger for European American adolescents, while the mediating role of mathematics task values was stronger for African American adolescents, though effect sizes were relatively modest. Teachers seeking to develop students' mathematics identity-especially in their minority or stereotyped students-might consider enhancing their sensitivity to students' psychological needs, quality of feedback, and instructional learning supports in their daily interaction with students.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/etnologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Matemática/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Estereotipagem , Estados Unidos
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3675, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417075

RESUMO

Math and reading involve distributed brain networks and have both shared (e.g. encoding of visual stimuli) and dissociated (e.g. quantity processing) cognitive components. Yet, to date, the shared vs. dissociated gray and white matter substrates of the math and reading networks are unknown. Here, we define these networks and evaluate the structural properties of their fascicles using functional MRI, diffusion MRI, and quantitative MRI. Our results reveal that there are distinct gray matter regions which are preferentially engaged in either math (adding) or reading, and that the superior longitudinal and arcuate fascicles are shared across the math and reading networks. Strikingly, within these fascicles, reading- and math-related tracts are segregated into parallel sub-bundles and show structural differences related to myelination. These findings open a new avenue of research that examines the contribution of sub-bundles within fascicles to specific behaviors.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Matemática , Leitura , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Substância Cinzenta/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Substância Branca/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Sports Sci ; 37(23): 2660-2666, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448693

RESUMO

This study identified clusters of adolescents who share similar cardiorespiratory fitness levels and analysed the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, inhibition, and math fluency in each of the clusters. The subjects were 490 high-school students aged 10-16 years. The mean age was 13.82 years (SD = 1.12). Latent class analysis identified three clusters with high, medium, and low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. The high-fitness cluster achieved higher scores in inhibition and math fluency than the low-fitness cluster. Path analysis revealed that the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on inhibition was non-existent in the three clusters. The effect of inhibition on math fluency was positive and significant in all three cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Cardiorespiratory fitness had a direct, positive, and significant effect on math fluency only in the high-fitness cluster. Therefore, a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness is a significant determining factor in the explanation of math fluency. These results indicate that inhibition does not mediate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and math fluency. However, the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness affect math fluency, which has important implications for the educational environment and the teaching/learning process.


Assuntos
Logro , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , Matemática , Adolescente , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia
15.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res ; 21(5): 1028-1040, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total stability of dental implant can be obtained from resonance frequency analysis (RFA) device, but without primary and secondary stability values. PURPOSE: To formulate mathematical equations for dental implant stability patterns during the osseointegration period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An online systematically search of the literature between January 1996 and December 2017 was performed for all prospective clinical trials that measured implant stability using RFA device during the osseointegration period. Initial mathematical function with adjustable parameters were created. Then curve-fitting was performed using a computerized program to formulate mathematical equations stability patterns. RESULTS: Nine publications (24 study groups) were included in the mathematical analysis. Curve fitting with low sum of squared errors could be applied in all studies, except one. The stability has been divided into high, medium, and low stability. The curve fitting showed stability dip areas and intersection point which predict the returning of the stability to reach the primary stability. The study groups with low primary stability showed the poorest results, the high and medium stability group showed the stability pattern following the assumed primary stability pattern according to the mathematic equations. CONCLUSIONS: The model of primary and secondary stability could be predicted from the proposed equations.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea , Planejamento de Prótese Dentária , Retenção em Prótese Dentária , Matemática , Osseointegração , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Frequência de Ressonância , Vibração
16.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 47(5): 506-512, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444956

RESUMO

Supportive programming is frequently designed to increase the success of underrepresented groups in STEM. In this article, we introduce three guiding concepts from developmental psychology (developmental trajectories, developmentally appropriate practices, and holism) and explain how they relate to effective support of students from underrepresented groups. We provide examples of successful applications of these principles in classes, degree programs, and research experiences. © 2019 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 47(5):506-512, 2019.


Assuntos
Engenharia/educação , Matemática/educação , Ciência/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Tecnologia/educação , Humanos , Aprendizagem
17.
J Appl Meas ; 20(3): 272-292, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390603

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to construct a measure of numeracy skill use in the workplace for incarcerated and household adults. The 2012/2014 Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) Survey of Adult Skills asked about the type and frequency of numeracy tasks performed as part of one's job to nationally-representative incarcerated and household adult samples. This paper takes these items from this survey and focuses on the validation of a measure of numeracy skill use in the workplace using the principles of the Rasch rating scale model. In the interest of exploring options for strengthened validity, response categories were collapsed to produce an optimal categorization structure. Findings suggest an instrument to measure numeracy skill use in prison and free market workplaces could potentially be improved with fewer response categories and more items that ask about a broader range of numeracy skills.


Assuntos
Matemática , Prisioneiros , Psicometria , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295904

RESUMO

There are tentative indications that physical activity (PA) during school time can be beneficial for children's academic performance. So far, most studies have focused on the effects of moderate-to-vigorous PA, for example, in the form of energizers or extra physical education lessons. Little is known about the effects of physically active learning, in which PA is integrated with the academic content of the lessons, especially in preadolescent children. Moreover, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the enjoyment of physically active learning in this age group. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess the effects of integrating juggling with math practice in primary school children, on (1) multiplication memorization performance and (2) enjoyment during the math lessons. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial, in which 312 children (mean age 10.4 years) from nine Dutch primary schools participated. Fourteen classes were randomly assigned to either a group that learned juggling whilst practicing multiplication tables (intervention group), or to a group that practiced the same multiplication tables while sedentary (control group). Both interventions had a duration of 5 weeks and consisted of 20 short lessons (4 lessons per week, 5 to 8 min). We used mixed-model analyses to examine the effect of the intervention on multiplication memorization performance. Group (control or intervention) was used as the fixed factor, and class and school as random intercepts. Analyses were adjusted for pretest multiplication performance, age, gender, general motor skill level, physical activity behavior (PAQ-C), and academic math performance. No significant intervention effect on multiplication performance were observed. However, the math-juggling program significantly increased enjoyment of children during the math lessons. We can conclude that the intervention did not improve, but neither deteriorated children's math performance. The increased enjoyment in the math-juggling group can serve as an important starting point for structurally incorporating physical activities in the classroom setting.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Matemática/educação , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Ensino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Instituições Acadêmicas
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349603

RESUMO

Being physically active has many benefits for children and adolescents. It is essential for various aspects of physical and mental health, and also positively influences academic performance and school achievement. In addressing the still incomplete understanding of the link between physical activity (PA) and academic achievement, the present study scrutinized the open issues regarding different roles of PA type and PA duration within the relation between self-reported PA and objectively measured mathematical achievement in fourth graders. As to the type of PA, the current study distinguished between structured and unstructured sports activities children perform in their leisure time. Moreover, the current study investigated the indirect effect of PA on mathematical achievement by controlling for the mathematical self-concept as a mediating variable. Results showed PA to be positively related to mathematical outcomes if implemented in a structured setting and pursued for at least two hours per week. As to the mediation, the results revealed a full mediation, indicating PA to improve mathematical self-concept, which, in turn, positively affected mathematical achievement. Thus, engaging in structured PA for two hours or more a week may have additional benefits for children's and adolescents' self-concept in a way that is favorable and encouraging for promoting their academic achievement.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Exercício/psicologia , Matemática , Autoimagem , Esportes/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Suíça
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 262, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical education is perceived as demanding and stressful. Whether this is particularly pronounced in this course of study remains under debate. METHODS: We used the questionnaire "Work-Related Behavior and Experience Patterns (Arbeitsbezogene Verhaltens- und Erlebensmuster (AVEM))" to assess the development of study-related behavior and experience patterns in medical (n = 584) and STEM students (n = 757) at one German university, with a special emphasis on gender differences, over 3 years of study. Students were surveyed at the beginning of their studies (t0) and again in each consecutive summer semester (t1-t3). Both cross-sectional and longitudinal data were generated and analyzed. Results in the abstract are from the cross-sectional analysis. RESULTS: Freshman medical students presented with a larger proportion of students with a healthy pattern (58.1%) than STEM students (42.5%). In both groups this proportion decreased to 33.8%/25.1% at t2, with only a minor improvement at t3 (38.1/27.0%). Correspondingly, the proportion of students with a burnout-related risk pattern increased from 8.0% (Med)/13.7% (STEM) to a maximum of 16.9% at t2 in medical students and 27.0% at t3 in STEM students. In both groups female students showed a more unfavorable distribution of patterns and a higher vulnerability, especially in the area of resistance toward stress. CONCLUSIONS: The unfavorable development of behavior and experience patterns in both student groups demonstrates increasing study related stress and emphasizes the need for prevention and health promotion on an individual and a contextual level.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Engenharia/educação , Saúde Mental , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Matemática/educação , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Tecnologia/educação , Adulto Jovem
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