Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 747
Filtrar
1.
Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 26(2): 137-143, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-197249

RESUMO

This study aims to improve current understanding of how the relationship between perceived math ability and math achievement may be mediated or moderated by levels of anxiety about math, considering intellectual abilities, gender, and school year. In this study, participants were 2,245 Spanish students (7th to 10th grade). All completed the FennemaSherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales and the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test. The main results showed that (I) perceivedcompetence is a potent predictor of achievement (the higher the perceived competence, the better the performance in mathematics), (II) anxiety about mathematics significantly mediates the relationship between perceived competence and math achievement (although the effect is small), and (III) levels of anxiety condition the intensity of the effect of perceived competence on math achievement (at high levels of anxiety the effect size of the relationship between perceived competence and achievement is large, whereas at low levels of anxiety the effect is small)


El estudio tiene como objetivo mejorar el conocimiento actual sobre cómo la relación entre la capacidad matemática percibida y el rendimiento matemático puede estar mediada, o moderada, por el nivel de ansiedad ante las matemáticas, teniendo en cuenta las habilidades intelectuales, el género y el curso escolar. En el estudio participaron 2,245 estudiantes españoles de 7º a 10º grado. Todos completaron las Escalas de Actitudes Matemáticas Fennema-Sherman y la Escalade Inteligencia Triárquica de Sternberg. Los principales resultados mostraron que (I) la competencia percibida es un potente predictor de rendimiento matemático (cuanto mayor es la competencia percibida mejor es el rendimiento en matemáticas), (II) la ansiedad ante las matemáticas media significativamente la relación entre la competencia percibida y el rendimiento matemático (aunque el efecto sea pequeño) y (III) el nivel de ansiedad condiciona la intensidad del efecto de la competencia percibida en el rendimiento matemático (a un nivel de ansiedad elevado el tamaño del efecto de la relación entre la competencia percibida y el logro es grande, mientras que a un nivel bajo el efecto es pequeño)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Matemática/educação , Sucesso Acadêmico , Ansiedade
2.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 19(3): es8, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870083

RESUMO

Cognitive neuroscience research is typically conducted in controlled laboratory environments that hold very little resemblance to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms. Fortunately, recent advances in portable electroencephalography technology now allow researchers to collect brain data from groups of students in real-world classrooms. Even though this line of research is still new, there is growing evidence that students' engagement, memory retention, and social dynamics are reflected in the brain-to-brain synchrony between students and teachers (i.e., the similarity in their brain responses). In this Essay, I will provide an overview of this emerging line of research, discuss how this approach can facilitate new collaborations between neuroscientists and discipline-based education researchers, and propose directions for future research.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Engenharia/educação , Matemática/educação , Ciência/educação , Tecnologia/educação , Universidades , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudantes/psicologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238230, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898854

RESUMO

In a cross-sectional study of youth ages 8-15, we examined implicit and explicit gender stereotypes regarding math and language abilities. We investigated how implicit and explicit stereotypes differ across age and gender groups and whether they are consistent with cultural stereotypes. Participants (N = 270) completed the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) and a survey of explicit beliefs. Across all ages, boys showed neither math nor language implicit gender biases, whereas girls implicitly favored girls in both domains. These findings are counter to cultural stereotypes, which favor boys in math. On the explicit measure, both boys' and girls' primary tendency was to favor girls in math and language ability, with the exception of elementary school boys, who rated genders equally. We conclude that objective gender differences in academic success guide differences in children's explicit reports and implicit biases.


Assuntos
Idioma , Matemática/educação , Autoimagem , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Aptidão , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estereotipagem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936827

RESUMO

The present study tests predictions from the Tripartite Integration Model of Social Influences (TIMSI) concerning processes linking social interactions to social integration into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) communities and careers. Students from historically overrepresented groups in STEM were followed from their senior year of high school through their senior year in college. Based on TIMSI, we hypothesized that interactions with social influence agents (operationalized as mentor network diversity, faculty mentor support, and research experiences) would promote both short- and long-term integration into STEM via social influence processes (operationalized as science self-efficacy, identity, and internalized community values). Moreover, we examined the previously untested hypothesis of reciprocal influences from early levels of social integration in STEM to future engagement with social influence agents. Results of a series of longitudinal structural equation model-based mediation analyses indicate that, in the short term, higher levels of faculty mentorship support and research engagement, and to a lesser degree more diverse mentor networks in college promote deeper integration into the STEM community through the development of science identity and science community values. Moreover, results indicate that, in the long term, earlier high levels of integration in STEM indirectly influences research engagement through the development of higher science identity. These results extend our understanding of the TIMSI framework and advance our understanding of the reciprocal nature of social influences that draw students into STEM careers.


Assuntos
Engenharia/educação , Matemática/educação , Modelos Estatísticos , Ciência/educação , Apoio Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Tecnologia/educação , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mentores , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivação , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
5.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 262-270, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192063

RESUMO

Many previous studies have discussed the influence of extrinsic factors (e.g. living environment) on academic achievement of children from western China. The present study focused on four non-cognitive factors, self-educational aspiration, self-efficacy, instrumental motivation, and anxiety, which could affect mathematics achievement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms how these four non-cognitive factors affected mathematics achievement. 5774 primary school students from 4th and 5th grade in western China participated in this study. A moderated chained mediation model was constructed. The results showed that self-educational aspiration could positively predict mathematics achievement. However, instrumental motivation and anxiety formed chained mediation between self-educational aspiration and mathematics achievement, and negatively predicted mathematics achievement. Besides, self-efficacy played a moderated role in the relationship between self-educational aspiration and anxiety


Muchos estudios previos han discutido la influencia de factores extrínsecos (por ejemplo, entorno vital) en el logro académico de los niños de China occidental. El presente estudio se centró en cuatro factores no cognitivos, la aspiración autoeducativa, la autoeficacia, la motivación instrumental y la ansiedad, los cuales podrían afectar el logro matemático. El propósito de este estudio fue investigar los mecanismos por los cuales estos cuatro factores no cognitivos afectaron el logro matemático. Un total de 5774 estudiantes de primaria de 4º y 5º grado en el oeste de China participaron en este estudio. Se construyó un modelo de mediación encadenado moderado. Los resultados mostraron que la aspiración autoeducativa podría predecir positivamente el logro matemático. Sin embargo, la motivación instrumental y la ansiedad formaron una mediación encadenada entre la aspiración autoeducativa y el logro matemático, y predijeron negativamente el logro matemático. Además, la autoeficacia desempeñó un papel moderado en la relación entre la aspiración autoeducativa y la ansiedad


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Autoeficácia , Modelos Psicológicos , Matemática/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Aspirações Psicológicas , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sucesso Acadêmico
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726352

RESUMO

Mathematics is often promoted as endowing those who study it with transferable skills such as an ability to think logically and critically or to have improved investigative skills, resourcefulness and creativity in problem solving. However, there is scant evidence to back up such claims. This project tested participants with increasing levels of mathematics training on 11 well-studied rational and logical reasoning tasks aggregated from various psychological studies. These tasks, that included the Cognitive Reflection Test and the Wason Selection Task, are of particular interest as they have typically and reliably eluded participants in all studies, and results have been uncorrelated with general intelligence, education levels and other demographic information. The results in this study revealed that in general the greater the mathematics training of the participant, the more tasks were completed correctly, and that performance on some tasks was also associated with performance on others not traditionally associated. A ceiling effect also emerged. The work is deconstructed from the viewpoint of adding to the platform from which to approach the greater, and more scientifically elusive, question: are any skills associated with mathematics training innate or do they arise from skills transfer?


Assuntos
Criatividade , Inteligência , Lógica , Matemática/educação , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630336

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate secondary students' mathematics achievement emotions and their mediating effects on the relationships between classroom environmental characteristics, namely, teacher-student interactional styles (i.e., teacher leadership and student freedom styles), and students' mathematics learning outcomes in mainland China. A sample of 1423 Grade 7 to 9 junior secondary students responded to a questionnaire that comprised three sets of scales for assessing students' perceived teacher-student interactional styles, mathematics achievement emotions, and cognitive and affective learning outcomes. The results indicated that students' mathematics learning outcomes were positively associated with both teacher leadership and student freedom styles. Moreover, students' mathematics achievement emotions mediated the relationships between these two interactional styles and their mathematics learning outcomes. These results highlight the importance of mathematics achievement emotions in student learning, and provide implications for the improvement of mathematics classroom environments.


Assuntos
Logro , Matemática/educação , Estudantes , Adolescente , Criança , China , Emoções , Humanos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235383, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645110

RESUMO

A major concern among universities around the world is that female students face gender bias, discrimination and related barriers in male-dominated STEM fields. To investigate this concern, we conducted a novel large-scale experiment of interactions between female and male students in one of the most important gateway courses for the Sciences and a course in which students interact one-on-one extensively throughout the term. Over the past four years, at a large public research university, we randomly paired every student enrolled in an introductory Chemistry lab (3,902 students and total N = 5,537). Using precise estimates from the experiment, we provide novel evidence that female students are not negatively affected academically by male partners. When assigned a male partner, female students do not receive lower scores or grades, and they are no more likely to drop the course or not continue in Chemistry or a STEM field. We also find that academically weaker female students are not negatively affected by male students and that female students are not negatively affected when paired with academically stronger male students. Although previous studies have documented that female students self-report experiencing gender bias from male peers in STEM, importantly, we do not find evidence that female students are negatively affected by male peers in intensive, long-term pairwise interactions in their course grades or future STEM course taking. The findings provide hopeful news for future trends in female representation in STEM fields.


Assuntos
Currículo , Engenharia/educação , Matemática/educação , Grupo Associado , Ciência/educação , Estudantes , Tecnologia/educação , Universidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Análise de Regressão , Ensino
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234685, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584838

RESUMO

In spite of efforts to increase gender diversity across many science fields, women continue to encounter beliefs that they lack ability and talent. Undergraduate education is a critical time when peer influence may alter choice of majors and careers for women interested in science. Even in life science courses, in which women outnumber men, gender biases that emerge in peer-to-peer interactions during coursework may detract from women's interest and progress. This is the first study of which we are aware to document that women are outperforming men in both physical and life science undergraduate courses at the same institution, while simultaneously continuing to be perceived as less-able students. This is problematic because undergraduate women may not be able to escape gender-ability stereotypes even when they are outperforming men, which has important implications for 1) the recognition of women's achievements among their peers in undergraduate education and 2) retention of women in STEM disciplines and careers.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Engenharia/educação , Matemática/educação , Ciência/educação , Estudantes , Tecnologia/educação , Logro , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção
10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(5): e1007809, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379759

RESUMO

Postdocs are a critical transition for early-career researchers. This transient period, between finishing a PhD and finding a permanent position, is when early-career researchers develop independent research programs and establish collaborative relationships that can make a successful career. Traditionally, postdocs physically relocate-sometimes multiple times-for these short-term appointments, which creates challenges that can disproportionately affect members of traditionally underrepresented groups in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). However, many research activities involving analytical and quantitative work do not require a physical presence in a lab and can be accomplished remotely. Other fields have embraced remote work, yet many academics have been hesitant to hire remote postdocs. In this article, we present advice to both principal investigators (PIs) and postdocs for successfully navigating a remote position. Using the combined experience of the authors (as either remote postdocs or employers of remote postdocs), we provide a road map to overcome the real (and perceived) obstacles associated with remote work. With planning, communication, and creativity, remote postdocs can be a fully functioning and productive member of a research lab. Further, our rules can be useful for research labs generally and can help foster a more flexible and inclusive environment.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância/métodos , Preceptoria/métodos , Pesquisadores/educação , Escolha da Profissão , Educação a Distância/tendências , Engenharia/educação , Humanos , Matemática/educação , Ciência/educação , Tecnologia/educação
11.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(5): e1007754, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379823

RESUMO

The current academic culture facing women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields in the United States has sparked the formation of grassroots advocacy groups to empower female scientists in training. However, the impact of these initiatives often goes unmeasured and underappreciated. Our Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) organization serves postdoctoral researchers, graduate students, and research technicians (trainees) at a private research institute for biological sciences. Here we propose the following guidelines for cultivating a successful women-in-STEM-focused group based upon survey results from our own scientific community as well as the experience of our WiSE group leaders. We hope these recommendations can provide guidance to advocacy groups at other research and academic organizations that wish to strengthen their efforts. Whereas our own group specifically focuses on the underrepresented state of women in science, we hope these guidelines may be adapted and applied to groups that advocate for any minority group within the greater scientific community (i.e., those of gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic background, sexual orientation, etc.).


Assuntos
Educação/métodos , Mulheres/educação , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adulto , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Engenharia/educação , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Matemática/educação , Grupos Minoritários/educação , Ciência/educação , Estudantes , Tecnologia/educação , Estados Unidos
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1194: 459-474, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468563

RESUMO

Problem solving is one of the most important goals of mathematics teaching. Several researches, such as the one attached to this dissertation, demonstrate that the problems of mathematics and their resolution are ultimately a problem for the majority of students. The very low performance for pupils in our 15-year-old country in the PISA international competition, coupled with references to problem solving research, demonstrates the weakness of our country's education system to bridge the gap between school reality and everyday problems or original problems. In contrast to the unpleasant results of the mathematical problem solving research, several theories in the science of mathematics teaching describe problem solving methods, such as Polya's method of questioning, which help the student develop the thinking skills he/she has, his/her metacognostic abilities, and above all he/she can raise a level of knowledge in relation to what he/she is before dealing with problem solving. Key findings of the research are that there is no absolute link between pupils' skills in solving original problems and answers to the problems of school reality. However, the questionnaire method we applied in the second phase of the survey has shown to deliver. The students found the value of the method in solving a problem by correcting errors or shortcomings and eventually answering correctly. Methods and research on them, however, present the way to acquiring mathematical knowledge through problems. For safer conclusions, we expect as a learning community the results of research in cognitive science and neuroscience around problem solving. The last two areas of educational research, cognitive science and neuro-education, are expected to provide answers for the transition of knowledge from one level to another.


Assuntos
Matemática , Resolução de Problemas , Ensino , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Matemática/educação , Ensino/normas , Pensamento
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(4): e202027, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242904

RESUMO

Importance: Children born preterm are at an elevated risk of academic underachievement. However, the extent to which performance across domain-specific subskills in reading and mathematics is associated with preterm birth remains unclear. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of academic outcomes of school-aged children born preterm, compared with children born at term, appraising evidence for higher- and lower-order subskills in reading and mathematics. Data Sources: PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature electronic databases from January 1, 1980, to July 30, 2018, were searched for population, exposure, and outcome terms such as child (population), preterm birth (exposure), and education* (outcome). Study Selection: Peer-reviewed English-language publications that included preterm-born children and a comparison group of term-born children aged 5 to 18 years and born during or after 1980 and that reported outcomes on standardized assessments from cohort or cross-sectional studies were screened. Of the 9833 articles screened, 33 unique studies met the inclusion criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data were analyzed from August 1 to September 29, 2018. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Two reviewers independently screened the databases and extracted sample characteristics and outcomes scores. Pooled mean differences (MDs) were analyzed using random-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures: Performance on standardized assessment of higher-order subskills of reading comprehension and applied mathematics problems; lower-order reading subskills of decoding, pseudoword decoding, and word identification; and lower-order mathematics subskills of knowledge, calculation, and fluency. Results: Outcomes data were extracted for 4006 preterm and 3317 term-born children, totaling 7323 participants from 33 unique studies. Relative to children born at term, children born preterm scored significantly lower in reading comprehension (mean difference [MD], -7.96; 95% CI, -12.15 to -3.76; I2 = 81%) and applied mathematical problems (MD, -11.41; 95% CI, -17.57 to -5.26; I2 = 91%) assessments. Across the assessments of lower-order skills, children born preterm scored significantly lower than their term-born peers in calculation (MD, -10.57; 95% CI, -15.62 to -5.52; I2 = 92%), decoding (MD, -10.18; 95% CI, -16.83 to -3.53; I2 = 71%), mathematical knowledge (MD, -9.88; 95% CI, -11.68 to -8.08; I2 = 62%), word identification (MD, -7.44; 95% CI, -9.08 to -5.80; I2 = 69%), and mathematical fluency (MD, -6.89; 95% CI, -13.54 to -0.23; I2 = 72%). The associations remained unchanged after sensitivity analyses for reducing heterogeneity. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings provide evidence that preterm birth is associated with academic underperformance in aggregate measures of reading and mathematics, as well as a variety of related subskills.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Pré-Escolar/educação , Matemática/educação , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Compreensão/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Gerenciamento de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Nascimento Prematuro/psicologia , Leitura
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(16): 8794-8803, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253310

RESUMO

Multiple-choice examinations play a critical role in university admissions across the world. A key question is whether imposing penalties for wrong answers on these examinations deters guessing from women more than men, disadvantaging female test-takers. We consider data from a large-scale, high-stakes policy change that removed penalties for wrong answers on the national college entry examination in Chile. The policy change reduced a large gender gap in questions skipped. It also narrowed gender gaps in performance, primarily among high-performing test-takers, and in the fields of math, social science, and chemistry.


Assuntos
Teste de Admissão Acadêmica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/normas , Química/educação , Química/normas , Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Chile , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática/educação , Matemática/normas , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Políticas , Ciências Sociais/educação , Ciências Sociais/normas , Ciências Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231410, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275730

RESUMO

The effects of peer tutoring on students' mathematics self-concepts were examined. The Marsh questionnaire was used to measure students' mathematics self-concepts before and after implementation of a peer tutoring program. A pretest posttest control group design was employed. Study participants included 376 students from grades 7 to 9 (12 to 15 years old). No statistically significant differences were reported between the pretest and the posttest for any of the control groups. Statistically significant improvements were reported for all grades for the experimental groups. An average increment of 13.4% was reported for students in the experimental group, and the overall effect size was reported to be medium (Hedges' g = 0.48). No statistically significant differences were reported across grades for the experimental group. The main conclusion of this study is that same-age and reciprocal peer tutoring may be very beneficial for middle school students' mathematics self-concepts. Several recommendations for field practitioners emanated from the study: use same-age and reciprocal tutoring over cross-age and fixed peer tutoring; schedule tutoring programs for four weeks or less with two to four sessions of 25 minutes or less per week for each tutoring session; and, include a control group in research studies.


Assuntos
Matemática/educação , Grupo Associado , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(12): 6476-6483, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152114

RESUMO

We tested the hypothesis that underrepresented students in active-learning classrooms experience narrower achievement gaps than underrepresented students in traditional lecturing classrooms, averaged across all science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and courses. We conducted a comprehensive search for both published and unpublished studies that compared the performance of underrepresented students to their overrepresented classmates in active-learning and traditional-lecturing treatments. This search resulted in data on student examination scores from 15 studies (9,238 total students) and data on student failure rates from 26 studies (44,606 total students). Bayesian regression analyses showed that on average, active learning reduced achievement gaps in examination scores by 33% and narrowed gaps in passing rates by 45%. The reported proportion of time that students spend on in-class activities was important, as only classes that implemented high-intensity active learning narrowed achievement gaps. Sensitivity analyses showed that the conclusions are robust to sampling bias and other issues. To explain the extensive variation in efficacy observed among studies, we propose the heads-and-hearts hypothesis, which holds that meaningful reductions in achievement gaps only occur when course designs combine deliberate practice with inclusive teaching. Our results support calls to replace traditional lecturing with evidence-based, active-learning course designs across the STEM disciplines and suggest that innovations in instructional strategies can increase equity in higher education.


Assuntos
Logro , Grupos Minoritários/educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Avaliação Educacional , Engenharia/educação , Humanos , Matemática/educação , Ciência/educação , Estudantes , Tecnologia/educação , Estados Unidos , Universidades
17.
Dev Psychol ; 56(4): 686-698, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134293

RESUMO

Spatial skills are associated with mathematics skills, but it is unclear if spatial training transfers to mathematics skills for preschoolers, especially from underserved communities. The current study tested (a) whether spatial training benefited preschoolers' spatial and mathematics skills, (b) if the type of feedback provided during spatial training differentially influenced children's spatial and mathematics skills, and (c) if the spatial training's effects varied by socioeconomic status (SES). Preschoolers (N = 187) were randomly assigned to either a 'business-as-usual' control or one of three spatial training groups (modeling and feedback [MF]; gesture feedback [GF]; spatial language feedback [SLF]). Three-year-olds were trained to construct puzzles to match a model composed of various geometric shapes. New models were created similar to the 2-dimensional trials of the Test of Spatial Assembly (TOSA). Training was given once per week for 5 weeks. Preschoolers were pretested and posttested on 2D and 3D TOSA trials, spatial vocabulary, shape identification, and 2 mathematics assessments. Results indicate that first, any spatial training improved preschoolers' 2D TOSA performance, although a significant interaction with SES indicated improvement was driven by low-SES children. Furthermore, low-SES children showed greatest gains on the 2D TOSA with MF and GF. Second, MF and GF improved low-SES children's performance on the 3D TOSA. Third, only low-SES children with MF saw improvements in far-transfer to mathematics (Woodcock-Johnson: Applied Problems, but not the Test of Early Mathematical Ability). Results indicate that, especially for low-income learners, spatial training can improve children's early spatial and mathematics skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Retroalimentação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Gestos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Matemática/educação , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Classe Social , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Vocabulário , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 45(2): 49-65, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036691

RESUMO

This study analyzed the contribution of cognitive processes (planning, attention, simultaneous and successive processing) and domain-specific skills (counting, number processing and conceptual comprehension) to the arithmetic performance achieved in the last three grades (4th, 5th, and 6th) of elementary school. Three groups of students with a different arithmetic achievement level were characterized. The predictive value of the cognitive processes and the math specific skills are explored through diverse covariance and discriminant analyses. Participants were 110 students (M = 10.5 years, SD = 1.17) classified in three groups: mathematical difficulties (MD; n = 26), high achieving (HA; n = 26), and typical achieving (TA; n = 58). Cognitive processes and domain-specific skills were evaluated in two individual sessions at the end of the school year. Nonverbal intelligence was assessed in a final collective session with each class. The mathematical difficulties group's achievement was deficient in simultaneous and successive processing, number processing, and conceptual comprehension compared to the typical achievement group. High achievement children obtained significantly better results than the typical achievement children in simultaneous processing, counting, number processing, and conceptual comprehension. Number processing and conceptual comprehension were the most consistent classifiers, although successive and simultaneous processing, respectively, also contributed to identifying students with mathematical difficulties and high achievement. These findings have practical implications for preventive and intervention proposals linked to the observed profiles.


Assuntos
Logro , Cognição/fisiologia , Matemática/educação , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes
19.
J Sci Med Sport ; 23(8): 735-739, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926869

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the benefit of physically-active lessons for learning maths multiplication-tables. The impact of the intervention on general numeracy, physical activity (PA), aerobic fitness, body mass index (BMI) and school-day moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was also assessed. DESIGN: Randomised controlled cross-over trial. METHOD: Year 3 students (n=172, mean age 8.4±0.3 years, 48% male) were recruited from 10 classes across two urban primary schools. Participants were randomly assigned to a seated classroom (Classroom) group or physically-active lessons in the playground (Playground) and crossed over to the alternative condition in the subsequent school term. The 6-week intervention comprised 3×30min sessions/week. Multiplication-tables (teacher-designed test) and general maths (standardised test) were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Aerobic fitness was assessed via the shuttle-run. Pre- to post-intervention change scores were compared for analysis and effect sizes (ES) calculated. Total PA and MVPA were assessed with accelerometers in a subset of participants. RESULTS: Multiplication scores improved significantly more in Playground than Classroom groups (ES=0.23; p=0.045), while no significant differences were observed in general numeracy (ES=0.05; p=0.66). Total PA and MVPA were substantially higher during Playground than Classroom lessons (ES: total PA=7.4, MVPA=6.5; p<0.001) but there were no differences in PA/MVPA between the groups throughout the rest of the school day. Aerobic fitness improved more in Playground than Classroom groups (ES=0.3; p<0.001) while the change in BMI was not different between groups (p=0.39). CONCLUSIONS: Physically-active lessons may benefit the learning of maths multiplication-tables while favourably contributing to school-day PA/MVPA.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Aprendizagem , Matemática/educação , Modelos Educacionais , Actigrafia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
20.
Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 26(1): 67-75, ene. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196999

RESUMO

Esta investigación aporta datos sobre la motivación en edades tempranas y su impacto sobre el rendimiento matemático, incluyendo a la familia como agente educativo esencial. Se obtuvo una muestra de 127 alumnos de 1º de Educación Primaria y sus progenitores. Se evaluó el rendimiento de los estudiantes y sus diferentes tipos de motivación (intrínseca, identificada y controlada), las prácticas matemáticas formales e informales en el hogar y la importancia percibida respecto a ese contenido. Los datos sugieren que los alumnos distinguen especialmente las formas de motivación más autodeterminadas (intrínseca e identificada). La motivación identificada guarda una relación significativa con el rendimiento matemático. La importancia percibida de los padres respecto a las matemáticas predice el desarrollo de una motivación intrínseca hacia dicho contenido, mientras que la práctica formal predice el desarrollo de una preocupante motivación controlada. En cuanto al rendimiento, encontramos una relación significativa negativa con las prácticas informales del hogar


The present study offers data on motivation at early ages and its impact on math achievement, including family as an essential educational agent. The sample consisted of 127 first grade students and their parents. Students’ achievement and their different types of motivation (intrinsic, identified, and controlled) were assessed, as well as math formal and informal practices at home and perceived importance of that content. Results suggest that students differentiate better the more self-determined types of motivation (intrinsic and identified). Identified motivation is significantly correlated to math achievement. Parents’ perceived importance towards math promotes the development of an intrinsic motivation for that content, while formal practices at home are related to the development of a controlled motivation. Finally, a significant negative relation is found between achievement and informal practices at home


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Desempenho Acadêmico , Relações Familiares , Matemática/educação , Motivação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA