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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243913, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332441

RESUMO

We analyse academic success using a genealogical approach to the careers of over 95,000 scientists in mathematics and associated fields in physics and chemistry. We look at the effect of Ph.D. supervisors (one's mentors) on the number of Ph.D. students that one supervises later on (one's mentees) as a measure of academic success. Supervisors generally provide important inputs in Ph.D. projects, which can have long-lasting effects on academic careers. Moreover, having multiple supervisors exposes one to a diversity of inputs. We show that Ph.D. students benefit from having multiple supervisors instead of a single one. The cognitive diversity of mentors has a subtler effect in that it increases both the likelihood of success (having many mentees later on) and failure (having no mentees at all later on). We understand the effect of diverse mentorship as a high-risk, high-gain strategy: the recombination of unrelated expertise often fails, but sometimes leads to true novelty.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Escolha da Profissão , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática/história , Mentores/história , Física/história , Física/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisadores/história , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Estudantes/história , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(4): e202027, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242904

RESUMO

Importance: Children born preterm are at an elevated risk of academic underachievement. However, the extent to which performance across domain-specific subskills in reading and mathematics is associated with preterm birth remains unclear. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of academic outcomes of school-aged children born preterm, compared with children born at term, appraising evidence for higher- and lower-order subskills in reading and mathematics. Data Sources: PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature electronic databases from January 1, 1980, to July 30, 2018, were searched for population, exposure, and outcome terms such as child (population), preterm birth (exposure), and education* (outcome). Study Selection: Peer-reviewed English-language publications that included preterm-born children and a comparison group of term-born children aged 5 to 18 years and born during or after 1980 and that reported outcomes on standardized assessments from cohort or cross-sectional studies were screened. Of the 9833 articles screened, 33 unique studies met the inclusion criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data were analyzed from August 1 to September 29, 2018. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Two reviewers independently screened the databases and extracted sample characteristics and outcomes scores. Pooled mean differences (MDs) were analyzed using random-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures: Performance on standardized assessment of higher-order subskills of reading comprehension and applied mathematics problems; lower-order reading subskills of decoding, pseudoword decoding, and word identification; and lower-order mathematics subskills of knowledge, calculation, and fluency. Results: Outcomes data were extracted for 4006 preterm and 3317 term-born children, totaling 7323 participants from 33 unique studies. Relative to children born at term, children born preterm scored significantly lower in reading comprehension (mean difference [MD], -7.96; 95% CI, -12.15 to -3.76; I2 = 81%) and applied mathematical problems (MD, -11.41; 95% CI, -17.57 to -5.26; I2 = 91%) assessments. Across the assessments of lower-order skills, children born preterm scored significantly lower than their term-born peers in calculation (MD, -10.57; 95% CI, -15.62 to -5.52; I2 = 92%), decoding (MD, -10.18; 95% CI, -16.83 to -3.53; I2 = 71%), mathematical knowledge (MD, -9.88; 95% CI, -11.68 to -8.08; I2 = 62%), word identification (MD, -7.44; 95% CI, -9.08 to -5.80; I2 = 69%), and mathematical fluency (MD, -6.89; 95% CI, -13.54 to -0.23; I2 = 72%). The associations remained unchanged after sensitivity analyses for reducing heterogeneity. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings provide evidence that preterm birth is associated with academic underperformance in aggregate measures of reading and mathematics, as well as a variety of related subskills.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Pré-Escolar/educação , Matemática/educação , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Compreensão/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Gerenciamento de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Nascimento Prematuro/psicologia , Leitura
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(16): 8794-8803, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253310

RESUMO

Multiple-choice examinations play a critical role in university admissions across the world. A key question is whether imposing penalties for wrong answers on these examinations deters guessing from women more than men, disadvantaging female test-takers. We consider data from a large-scale, high-stakes policy change that removed penalties for wrong answers on the national college entry examination in Chile. The policy change reduced a large gender gap in questions skipped. It also narrowed gender gaps in performance, primarily among high-performing test-takers, and in the fields of math, social science, and chemistry.


Assuntos
Teste de Admissão Acadêmica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/normas , Química/educação , Química/normas , Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Chile , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática/educação , Matemática/normas , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Políticas , Ciências Sociais/educação , Ciências Sociais/normas , Ciências Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(9): 4609-4616, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071248

RESUMO

There is extensive, yet fragmented, evidence of gender differences in academia suggesting that women are underrepresented in most scientific disciplines and publish fewer articles throughout a career, and their work acquires fewer citations. Here, we offer a comprehensive picture of longitudinal gender differences in performance through a bibliometric analysis of academic publishing careers by reconstructing the complete publication history of over 1.5 million gender-identified authors whose publishing career ended between 1955 and 2010, covering 83 countries and 13 disciplines. We find that, paradoxically, the increase of participation of women in science over the past 60 years was accompanied by an increase of gender differences in both productivity and impact. Most surprisingly, though, we uncover two gender invariants, finding that men and women publish at a comparable annual rate and have equivalent career-wise impact for the same size body of work. Finally, we demonstrate that differences in publishing career lengths and dropout rates explain a large portion of the reported career-wise differences in productivity and impact, although productivity differences still remain. This comprehensive picture of gender inequality in academia can help rephrase the conversation around the sustainability of women's careers in academia, with important consequences for institutions and policy makers.


Assuntos
Autoria , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adulto , Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Demography ; 57(1): 123-145, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989536

RESUMO

This study investigates the effect of violent crime on school district-level achievement in English language arts (ELA) and mathematics. The research design exploits variation in achievement and violent crime across 813 school districts in the United States and seven birth cohorts of children born between 1996 and 2002. The identification strategy leverages exogenous shocks to crime rates arising from the availability of federal funds to hire police officers in the local police departments where the school districts operate. Results show that children who entered the school system when the violent crime rate in their school districts was lower score higher in ELA by the end of eighth grade, relative to children attending schools in the same district but who entered the school system when the violent crime rate was higher. A 10% decline in the violent crime rate experienced at ages 0-6 raises eighth-grade ELA achievement in the district by 0.03 standard deviations. Models that estimate effects by race and gender show larger impacts among Black children and boys. The district-wide effect on mathematics achievement is smaller and statistically nonsignificant. These findings extend our understanding of the geography of educational opportunity in the United States and reinforce the idea that understanding inequalities in academic achievement requires evidence on what happens inside as well as outside schools.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos de Linguagem/normas , Estudos de Linguagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Matemática/normas , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Dev Sci ; 23(5): e12931, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823450

RESUMO

This paper examines the magnitude and source of gender gaps in cognitive and social-emotional skills in early primary grades in rural Indonesia. Relative to boys, girls score more than 0.17 SD higher in tests of language and mathematics (cognitive skills) and between 0.18 and 0.27 SD higher in measures of social competence and emotional maturity (social-emotional skills). We use Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to investigate the extent to which gender differences in early schooling and parenting practices explain these gender gaps in skills. For cognitive skills, differences in early schooling between boys and girls explain between 9% and 11% of the gender gap whereas differences in parenting practices explain merely 3%-5% of the gender gap. This decomposition result is driven largely by children living in villages with high-quality preschools. In contrast, for social-emotional skills, differences in parenting styles toward boys and girls explain between 13% and 17% of the gender gap, while differences in early schooling explain only 0%-6% of the gender gap.


Assuntos
Cognição , Inteligência Emocional , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , Habilidades Sociais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Matemática/normas , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas
7.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 149(2): 343-367, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328937

RESUMO

In 3 experiments, we investigated how age-related differences in cognitive performance are exacerbated by age-based stereotype threat. We adopted a strategy approach and investigated a domain, namely arithmetic, where age-related differences in participants' performance are either nonexistent or very small and where effects of age-based stereotype threat have never been investigated. In 2 types of tasks (problem verification in Experiment 1 and computational estimation in Experiments 2 and 3), we found that age-based stereotype threat led older adults to obtain poorer performance, to adopt less systematically and less often the better strategy on each problem, to repeat the same strategy across trials even when it was inappropriate, and to execute available strategies more poorly. We also found that poorer strategy use mediated threat effects and that individual differences in processing resources moderated individuals' sensitivity to effects of stereotype threat. Our results establish that age-based stereotype threat effects occur in a wide variety of cognitive domains and tasks and are independent of pre-experimental differences in young and older adults' performance. They deepen our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying age-based, and other stereotype threat effects. They also document how domain-general and domain-specific processing resources moderate individual differences in age-based stereotype threat effects. Our findings have important implications to improve our understanding of how and when age-based (and other) stereotype threat effects occur, and, more generally, how psychosocial factors modulate age-related changes in human cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cognição , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Estereotipagem , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , França , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Dev Psychol ; 55(12): 2522-2533, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535893

RESUMO

This study examines associations between stimulating-responsive social interactions with mothers and nonparental childcare providers during the first 3 years of life and children's vocabulary and mathematics skills through age 15 (N = 1,364). Additive relations were found in which more stimulating-responsive interactions with mothers and with caregivers were linked to higher mathematics achievement in childhood and adolescence. More stimulating-responsive early interactions with mothers were also associated with larger child vocabularies through age 15. Synergistic relations, consistent with the dual-risk hypothesis, also were found. Children whose early interactions with both mothers and caregivers were low in stimulation and responsivity had substantially lower mathematics skills. Implications for early childhood interventions and policies are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Logro , Cuidadores/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Vocabulário
9.
Dev Psychol ; 55(5): 1005-1018, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730172

RESUMO

In line with the reciprocal internal/external frame of reference model (RI/E model), it is well-established that secondary school students generate domain-specific ability self-concepts by comparing their own performance in a domain socially (i.e., with others' performance in this domain) and dimensionally (i.e., with their own performance in other domains). However, developmental theories of ability conceptions suggest that the use of such performance comparisons to evaluate own abilities may differ by students' developmental stage because of important developmental changes between early and late childhood. Yet, to our knowledge, no study has investigated dimensional comparison effects in elementary school longitudinally although this can provide valuable information on the formation of ability self-concepts. Thus, we tested whether longitudinal dimensional effects on changes in students' ability self-concepts occur in the early school years. Ability self-concepts and grades in math and German of 542 German elementary school students were assessed seven times over 24 months from Grade 2 (M = 7.95 years of age, SD = 0.58) to Grade 4. Cross-sectional analyses showed some evidence for dimensional effects of students' math grades on their German self-concepts, but not of students' German grades on their math self-concepts. Longitudinal analyses with latent cross-lagged models revealed no evidence for longitudinal dimensional effects on changes in children's ability self-concepts. Findings indicate that dimensional comparisons are not as important in ability self-concept formation in the first school years as they tend to be later on. Findings underline the importance of considering developmental differences to better understand ability self-concept formation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Logro , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia
10.
Dev Psychol ; 55(4): 767-779, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589340

RESUMO

Children with higher levels of executive function (EF) skills consistently demonstrate higher levels of academic achievement. Despite the consistency of these associations, fundamental questions remain about whether efforts to improve an individual child's EF skills result in corresponding improvements in his or her academic performance. In the absence of experimental evidence, developmentalists have used repeated measures designs to test the nature, magnitude, and direction of the associations between EF skills and academic achievement. In contrast to previous studies, this study described how between- and within-person associations between EF and achievement address different questions. Using data from a subsample of participants (N = 6,040) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten, 2010-2011 (ECLS-K:2011) cohort, we estimated a series of latent growth curve models with structured residuals to test the between and within-person associations between 2 dimensions of EF (working memory, cognitive flexibility) and 2 domains of academic achievement (math, reading). Whereas between-person associations between EF and achievement were large (φ = .55-.91), the within-person associations were small (ßs = -.10-.25). Within-person effects of earlier reading achievement on later EF skills was the most consistent finding. Results were unchanged when analyses were repeated using the subset of children who were eligible for free and reduced-price lunch, a proxy for low socioeconomic households. Results are discussed with respect to interest in improving EF skills as a means for facilitating school outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Leitura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pobreza , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estados Unidos
11.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 40(1): 49-53, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prematurity affects children's functioning in domains such as cognitive skills and math skills. However, there is limited research examining math skills as gestational age (GA) increases weekly. We aimed at determining, in a population-based cohort of children aged 8 to 9 years, the association between the GA spectrum and math skills and working memory's (WM's) role in this relationship. METHODS: Children aged 8 to 9 years in 2014 (n = 1761), from 44 primary schools in a metropolitan city, were recruited through the Memory Maestros study in 2012. GA was measured using the parent report. Math skills were measured using the Wide Range Achievement Test 4 math computation subtest (mean, 100; SD, 15), and WM was measured using 2 subtests of the Automated Working Memory Assessment. The method of analysis was multivariate linear regression, with adjustment for both WM measures and social risk indicators as potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 1168 children (66%) had analyzable data. Compared with children of ≤34-week gestation, there was a mean difference increase of 0.48 in math standard scores per weekly increase in GA (95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.85%; p = 0.01). This equates to a difference of 6.29 (0.42 SD) standard math scores between the ≤34- and ≥42-week group. The relationship was independent of WM. CONCLUSION: Weekly increases in GA beyond 34 weeks are associated with higher mathematics achievement scores for children aged 8 to 9 years, independent of the child's WM. This assists with identification of individuals at risk of poorer math skills.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia
12.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(2): 326-340, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421327

RESUMO

Student self-efficacy, behavioral engagement, and emotional engagement are key factors for academic achievement. Research has yet to identify the developmental cascades linking these four constructs. Three theoretical frameworks, i.e., Self-Efficacy Theory, the Self-System Model of Motivational Development, and Expectancy-Value Theory, suggest different nexus. Following 671 students (51.8% girls) from their 4th to 6th grade, this study aims to assess competing hypotheses from these three frameworks in math. Three cross-lag models were tested to test each theoretical framework. A fourth and final model was tested to include the significant paths from the previous models. Mediation paths were also tested. Results mainly support assumptions from Self-Efficacy Theory, that is student self-efficacy and academic achievement are mutually associated from 4th to 6th grades. Some of the propositions of Expectancy-Value Theory were also supported. Self-efficacy was associated with later emotional engagement and academic achievement. However, emotional engagement in 5th grade was negatively associated with achievement in 6th grade and was not associated with behavioral engagement. Assumptions from the Self-System Model were not supported by the data. Testing the fourth model revealed an unexpected developmental cascade: 5th-grade self-efficacy mediated the association between 4th-grade achievement and 6th-grade emotional engagement. This last finding may have great implications for young adolescents as emotional engagement is an indicator of student well-being and intrinsic value of learning. Implications for theory validation and intervention targets for adolescents are discussed.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Autoeficácia , Participação Social/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Motivação , Instituições Acadêmicas
13.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(2): 306-325, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141096

RESUMO

Much of the workforce demand in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in the United States goes unmet, and females and racial/ethnic minorities are vastly underrepresented in these fields. To understand the psychological antecedents for STEM career attainment, this study took an intersectional approach and examined racial/ethnic and gender differences in youth's math-related ability beliefs-growth mindset, self-concept, and career expectancy-and their longitudinal relations to STEM career attainment. Specifically, the study utilized nationally representative data of 10th graders over 10 years (n ~ = 14,320, Mage = 16.46, 50.4% female; 60.6% White, 15.5% Latinx, 14.1% Black, 9.8% Asian). The results indicated that youth's math-related ability beliefs positively predicted their later STEM career outcomes. Furthermore, female adolescents' math self-concept was more negative than male adolescents among Whites and Latinxs but not among Blacks and Asians. Black adolescents did not fully garner the advantage of having positive self-concept. Finally, high school math achievement did not predict Latina and Black youth's STEM career expectancy. The current findings inform future interventions that different ability beliefs may need to be targeted for each race/ethnicity and gender.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Cultura , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Motivação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
14.
Br J Educ Psychol ; 89(4): 726-749, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National ranking from the triennial Programme of International Student Assessment (PISA) often serves as a barometer of national performance and human capital. Though excessive student- and school-level covariates (n > 700) may prove intractable for traditional least-squares estimate procedures, shrinkage methods may be more suitable for subset selection. AIMS: With a focus on the United States, this paper proposes sparse regression for PISA 2012 to discover salient student- and school-level predictor variables for mathematical literacy achievement. SAMPLE: The sparse regression analysis was conducted on 10 top-tiered OECD countries/economies, Canada, and the United States in mathematical literacy on the 2012 PISA. Two- and three-level hierarchical regression analyses were performed on Canadian and US students (N = 26,522) along with five of the ten top-tiered countries/economies (N = 58,385). METHODS: Using the 'least absolute shrinkage and selection operator' (LASSO) technique, the study (1) identified salient predictor variables of mathematical literacy performance for the top-tiered countries/economies, Canada, and the United States and (2) used these salient variables to perform two- and three-level hierarchical regression on data from Canada and the United States along with five top-tiered countries/economies. Weights and replicates were used to account for complex sample design. A weighted, two-level confirmatory factor analysis was performed to identify latent constructs. Missing data were handled through multiple imputation. RESULTS: Separate two-level hierarchical models accounted for 32-35% student-level and 58-70% school-level variance in Canada and the United States, respectively; three-level models accounted for 33% of level-one variance, 62-65% level-two variance, and 13-44% of level-three variance for the US/Canada and US/Canada/top-tiered students, respectively. Following top-tiered countries/economies, Canadian students had high levels of self-efficacy, were more likely to encounter advanced concepts in class, were less activity/small group-centred, and were more likely to consider truancy a learning hindrance. Factor analyses revealed a positive relation with rigour and class organization (teacher-centred) for top-tiered countries and Canada, though not for the United States. For all countries, there was a strong relation between rigour and self-beliefs. CONCLUSION: Compared to top performers, a less rigorous curriculum, coupled with class and school factors, may explain lag in US performance.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Educação/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoeficácia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Canadá , Criança , Países Desenvolvidos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
16.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(7): 6312, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323384

RESUMO

Objective. To determine whether a standalone pharmacy calculations course promotes student performance and retention when compared to pharmacy calculations taught within a pharmaceutics course. Methods. Data were compared between two groups of student pharmacists (those who took the combined pharmaceutics-calculations course and those who took the standalone calculations course). Data from both groups, such as course grades, objective structured clinical evaluation (OSCE) scores, and independent calculation self-assessment skills test scores were compared to students' pre-pharmacy math grade point average (GPA) to determine whether variance was more likely to have been caused by inter-student aptitude differences or course structure differences. Student confidence in their pharmacy calculations skills and course structure preferences was surveyed. Results. Students who took the standalone pharmaceutical calculations course performed better as indicated by an improvement in calculations course grades, OSCE performance, retention of calculation skills, and in self-confidence. Students also reported that the standalone course structure was more effective. Conclusion. The new, standalone calculations course is effective and improved student calculations performance and retention.


Assuntos
Biofarmácia/educação , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Educação em Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Currículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3777, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254267

RESUMO

Fewer women than men pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), despite girls outperforming boys at school in the relevant subjects. According to the 'variability hypothesis', this over-representation of males is driven by gender differences in variance; greater male variability leads to greater numbers of men who exceed the performance threshold. Here, we use recent meta-analytic advances to compare gender differences in academic grades from over 1.6 million students. In line with previous studies we find strong evidence for lower variation among girls than boys, and of higher average grades for girls. However, the gender differences in both mean and variance of grades are smaller in STEM than non-STEM subjects, suggesting that greater variability is insufficient to explain male over-representation in STEM. Simulations of these differences suggest the top 10% of a class contains equal numbers of girls and boys in STEM, but more girls in non-STEM subjects.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Engenharia/estatística & dados numéricos , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Motivação , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13778, 2018 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30214027

RESUMO

To investigate whether participants can activate only one spatially oriented number line at a time or multiple number lines simultaneously, they were asked to solve a unit magnitude comparison task (unit smaller/larger than 5) and a parity judgment task (even/odd) on two-digit numbers. In both these primary tasks, decades were irrelevant. After some of the primary task trials (randomly), participants were asked to additionally solve a secondary task based on the previously presented number. In Experiment 1, they had to decide whether the two-digit number presented for the primary task was larger or smaller than 50. Thus, for the secondary task decades were relevant. In contrast, in Experiment 2, the secondary task was a color judgment task, which means decades were irrelevant. In Experiment 1, decades' and units' magnitudes influenced the spatial association of numbers separately. In contrast, in Experiment 2, only the units were spatially associated with magnitude. It was concluded that multiple number lines (one for units and one for decades) can be activated if attention is focused on multiple, separate magnitude attributes.


Assuntos
Associação , Cognição/fisiologia , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 35(9): 1545-1557, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054845

RESUMO

Mathematics rules the world of science. Innovative technologies based on mathematics have paved the way for implementation of novel strategies in assisted reproduction. Ascertaining efficient embryo selection in order to secure optimal pregnancy rates remains the focus of the in vitro fertilization scientific community and the strongest driver behind innovative approaches. This scoping review aims to describe and analyze complex models based on mathematics for embryo selection, devices, and software most widely employed in the IVF laboratory and algorithms in the service of the cutting-edge technology of artificial intelligence. Despite their promising nature, the practicing embryologist is the one ultimately responsible for the success of the IVF laboratory and thus the one to approve embracing pioneering technologies in routine practice. Applied mathematics and computational biology have already provided significant insight into the selection of the most competent preimplantation embryo. This review describes the leap of evolution from basic mathematics to bioinformatics and investigates the possibility that computational applications may be the means to foretell a promising future for the IVF clinical practice.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial/tendências , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Inteligência Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Blastocisto , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Laboratórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez/tendências , Software/estatística & dados numéricos
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