Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.220
Filtrar
1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(19): 5144-5151, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738413

RESUMO

Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica are well-known Chinese herbal medicines for wind dispersing and exterior releasing. Through textual research on Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica, the discrimination of their medicinal parts in history was clarified, and the processing, the property(nature and flavor), meridian tropism, functions, indications, usage, dosage, and the selection of decoction pieces were compared to provide the basis for clinical application. As a result, the whole herb of Schizonepeta tenuifolia was used as medicine in the early records. The aerial part and the dried spike of S. tenuifolia were used as medicines separately in the Song Dynasty, which was recorded in the Atlas of Materia Medica(Ben Cao Tu Jing). Some ancient classics emphasized that only the dried spike could be used as medicine. The separation of Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica meets the different needs of clinical medication and supports the concept of rational development and utilization of Chinese medicine resources. About ten processing methods for Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica have been recorded since ancient times, and raw and charred drugs were the major products. Raw Schizonepetae Herba is required to be used in sections, whereas raw Schizonepetae Spica in clean preparation. Both charred products should avoid scorching. Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica are similar in the property(pungent, bitter, and warm), meridian tropism(lung and liver meridians, as well as qi and blood aspects), and functions(releasing exterior, dispersing wind, regulating and stopping blood, promoting eruption, dispelling sores, promoting digestion, eliminating alcohol effect, etc.), but Schizonepetae Spica is superior in efficacy. For Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica in traditional Chinese medicinal prescriptions, the raw and charred products are similar in usage and dosage, while their focuses in clinical compatibility vary. The raw and charred products of Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica are widely applied clinically. Decoction pieces of different specifications can result in different efficacies and clinical applications, so medication should be performed with caution.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Lamiaceae , Materia Medica , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(20): 5436-5442, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738447

RESUMO

Liangmianzhen(Zanthoxyli Radix) has long been used as medicine. The current medicinal parts are different from those in the ancient. As recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, the medicinal part is root. However, in ancient works, the medicinal parts include root, stem, leaf, and fruit. In an attempt to find the historical basis that stem is a reasonable medicinal part, the herbalogical study was carried out on this medicinal based on the formal names, synonyms, original plant, medicinal parts, habitat of the medicinal plant, producing area, processing and preparation methods, efficacy, and indications recorded in ancient Chinese materia medica and local gazetteers. The results showed that Liangmianzhen was firstly recorded as a medicinal in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica with the formal name of "Manjiao". "Manjiao" was adopted from the Han Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty when it was changed to "Rudijinniu", the name originating from the folk in the south of the Five Ridges. Now, the formal name is "Liangmianzhen", which was firstly recorded in Wuxuan County Gazetteer in 1914 and then as a synonym in the Updated Records of Picking Herbs in the South of the Five Ridges. According to the formal names, synonyms, and the descriptions of the original plant, the medicinal plants of Liang-mianzhen have the characteristics of shrub-like young seedlings, vine adult seedlings, corymbiform thyrsus, stems with thorns, amphitropous golden-yellow roots with horn-like branches, and thorns on both sides of the leaves. Thus, "Manjiao", "Rudijinniu", and "Liangmianzhen" were from the same species of Zanthoxylum nitidum(Rutaceae), which was also verified based on the growth environment, habitat, processing and preparation methods, efficacy, and indications. In ancient times, the stem and root were the main medicinal parts and leaves and fruits were also used. However, in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, root is recorded as the only medicinal part, which is obviously inconsistent with the records in the ancient classics. In light of the limited medicinal resources for Liang-mianzhen, other medicinal parts of Z. nitidum is recommended. This study clarified the medicinal parts of Z. nitidum in history. It is recommended that the stem be added to the medicinal parts of Z. nitidum in the next edition of Chinese Pharmacopeia.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Plantas Medicinais , China , Frutas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
3.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 51(4): 213-216, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645118

RESUMO

Animal drugs and their paintings were recorded in both Ben Cao Tu Jing(Illustrated Classic of Materia Medica) and Sman Thang of Tibetan medicine. By analyzing the species,techniques of expression, and facticity in the book and the paintings, different characteristics of animal drugs and their paintings were manifested, reflecting a colorful scene of diverse cultures.


Assuntos
Materia Medica , Animais , China , Medicina Tradicional Tibetana
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3156-3164, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467708

RESUMO

Tianxiong has been used as a Chinese medicinal in China for thousands of years, and the earliest record can be traced back to the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. It is effective in dispersing wind, dissipating cold, and replenishing fire to streng-then yang. To clarify the origin of Tianxiong, the present herbalogical study reviewed the ancient and modern literature from the origin, processing, and clinical efficacy. Before the Tang Dynasty, although the description of Tianxiong was quite superficial, an apparent difference between Tianxiong and Fuzi was recognized. In the Tang and Song Dynasties, Tianxiong and Fuzi were mistakenly recognized to be prepared from a same plant since their raw materials came from artificial cultivation. Medical literature in the Ming and Qing Dynasties mostly followed the previous records, with the origin of Tianxiong remaining controversial. There were three mainstream views about the origin of Tianxiong according the ancient medical books. First, Tianxiong was a kind of Aconiti Radix(Chuanwu) without attachment of Fuzi. Second, Tianxiong was the large Fuzi. Third, Tianxiong derived from Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix(Caowu) about 10 cm in length. By contrast, Fuzi in a large size was simply regarded as Tianxiong in modern times. The processing methods were diversified in the ancient times, and the fire-processing was continuously applied. With the deepening of the research on the efficacy and detoxification mechanism, more methods were discovered, such as processing with ginger juice, child's urine and alcohol. As for modern times, the processing of Tianxiong has not been nearly passed down. The characteristic processing of Tianxiong only handed down in Sichuan province and Lingnan area, which can be discriminated by the last step. The efficacies of Tianxiong can be directly understood from its literal name, including dispersing wind, dissipating cold, and replenishing fire to assist yang. Nowadays, Tianxiong is mostly used to strengthen yang.


Assuntos
Aconitum , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Criança , China , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Extratos Vegetais
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4865-4874, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581098

RESUMO

In ancient times, the original plants of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium had experienced succession and change, including tangerine(Citrus reticulata), pomelo(C. grandis), and Huazhou pomelo(C. grandis 'Tomentosa'), a specific cultivar of C. grandis produced in Huazhou, Guangdong. Before the Qing Dynasty, tangerine was the main original plant, while Huazhou pomelo came to the fore in the Qing Dynasty. In the 1950 s and 1960 s, the producing area of Huazhou pomelo was destroyed, and thus it had to be supplemented with pomelo. From then on, C. grandis 'Tomentosa' and C. grandis were both listed as the original plants of Citri Grandis Exocarpium in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. This paper reviewed the historical evolution of the collection, processing, and efficacy of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium. The research showed that:(1)The harvest time of the original plants of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and Citri Grandis Exocarpium had changed from maturity to immaturity. The collection and processing of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum was first recorded in the Illustrated Classics of Materia Medica in the Song Dynasty. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the mesocarp of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum needed to be removed completely, and Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' was processed into different specifications such as seven-piece, five-piece, and single piece. Furthermore, processed young fruits of Huazhou pomelo appeared.(2)Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium were processed with carp skin for the first time in the Master Lei's Discourse on Medicinal Processing. It was suggested that carp skin might be helpful for eliminating bones stuck in throat. During the Song, Jin, and Yuan Dynasties, some other processing methods such as ba-king, stir-frying, and salt-processing appeared. Honey, soil, ginger juice, and alum were firstly used as adjuvants for the processing in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Citri Exocarpium Rubrum was mainly prepared with salt in order to improve the effect of lowering Qi, while it was unnecessary for Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' because of its obvious effect of lowering Qi and eliminating phlegm. The stir-frying and honey-frying methods helped reduce the strong effect of Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa'.(3)According to the application of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium in history, their medicinal use began in Han and Tang Dynasties, developed in Song, Jin, and Yuan Dynasties, and matured in Ming and Qing Dynasties. Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' was originally applied in Ming and Qing Dynasties, and it still plays an important in role treating COVID-19 nowadays. Moreover, Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis had cold medicinal property, while Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' had warm medicinal property, and thus they should not be treated the same. At present, Huazhou pomelo has a certain production scale. Therefore, it is recommended that in the next edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, only C. grandis 'Tomentosa' should be included as the original plant of Citri Grandis Exocarpium, and C. grandis should be deleted. The results are conducive to the further development and utilization of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium, and support the rational use of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and its processed products.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Citrus , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 45: 101482, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530182

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: According to the World Health Organization, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has 48.896.564 reported cases and 1.236.995 deaths worldwide on November 5, 2020. Despite great efforts, there is no treatment of COVID-19 up to nowadays. Therefore, it is essential to search for therapeutic alternatives to COVID-19, such as Integrative Medicine, especially Homeopathy, which was used with excellent results in the great epidemics. AIM: This study aims to describe the coronavirus Pandemic from the perspective of Classical Systemic Homeopathy and to identify the homeopathic medicine (medicines genius) that has its sphere of action in most of the symptoms involved in this pandemic. METHODS: Articles published in indexed journals and websites of medical institutions, books of homeopathic materia medica, scientific journals, and government publications were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 39 references were selected and enclosed 20 articles indexed on COVID-19, 08 references of systemic conditions, 11 articles indexed of homeopathy, 06 classic homeopathy books. After the study, the homeopathic medicine Cinchona officinalis (China officinalis) was proposed, according to pathogenesis (experimental pathophysiological study in humans) described in the materia medica books consulted, for the relief of symptoms. Its sphere of action in most of the symptoms involved in this pandemic. Moreover, acute homeopathic medicines were determined to act in the relief of symptoms of the various phases of the manifestations of the disease. CONCLUSION: Data contributes to use in homeopathic interventions during the COVID-19 epidemic as a health promotion and treatment strategy that can be used as an adjunct to all sanitary and therapeutic measures recommended by health authorities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Homeopatia , Materia Medica , Humanos , Materia Medica/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(14): 3455-3464, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402267

RESUMO

Chinese materia medica( CMM) serves as an important cornerstone for the development of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) culture and industry due to its unique ecological,medical,economic,scientific and technological,and cultural values. The supply shortage and unstable quality of some CMM resources have hindered the development of TCM. Ensuring the sustainable use of CMM resources has become essential for the development of TCM in China. Enriching CMM resources is the key to ensuring the sustainable utilization of TCM resources in China,which can be achieved via expanding the medicinal parts,developing the substitutes,seeking for analogues,exploring the ethnic and folk medicines,or introducing foreign medicinal materials. CMM efficacy or function positioning plays a very important role in the transformation of new CMM resources. The strategies and methods for efficacy or function positioning of new CMM resources,including analogy,plant genetic relationship exploration,medicinal property deduction,ethnobotanical investigation,text mining,network pharmacology,and structure-activity relationship exploration,were systematically proposed in this study based on CMM theory,textual research,and modern methodologies. This paper is expected to provide a theoretical reference for the continuous enrichment and development of CMM resources and the high-quality development of TCM culture and industry.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , China , Mineração de Dados , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
8.
Bull Cancer ; 108(9): 837-842, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246457

RESUMO

The new paradigm of precision medicine in oncology questions today the respective place of evidence-based medicine and doctor-patient relationship. Based on the results of a randomized study comparing the efficacy of a homeopathic molecule in the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy in non-metastatic breast cancer, this article extends and develops the discussion of maintaining an unresolved tension between medical art and medical science, between care and cure. This tension sets a base for the authors of the therapeutic alliance in medicine, defined as a dialectic constantly adjourned between the alliance of the doctor with the patient and his therapy, and the therapeutic effect of this alliance. Because if a policy or a public opinion were to promote an exclusively rational medicine deprived of the field of relation to care, or on the contrary a medicine based only on clinical sense and intuition, then respectively the ethics of care and the progress of therapy would be threatened. It is advisable to be aware of erring from the truth, amplified today by social networks, as much due to a tide of scientific positivism, as an excess of the "good caring soul". Taking into account the therapeutic alliance makes it possible to no longer oppose scientific medicine and care relationship.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Relações Médico-Paciente , Medicina de Precisão , Ciência , Aliança Terapêutica , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Atenção à Saúde/ética , Feminino , Humanos , Materia Medica/uso terapêutico , Medicina , Metáfora , Morfinanos/uso terapêutico , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/terapia , Redes Sociais Online , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/terapia
9.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 84(18): 761-768, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180377

RESUMO

Dipyrone or metamizole is one of the most frequently used analgesic worldwide. Despite its widespread use, this drug may exert genotoxic and cytotoxic effects on lymphocytes. Therefore, studies with therapeutic agents that may provide protection against these effects are important. The homeopathic compound Canova® (CA) appears to be a beneficial candidate for preventing DNA damage and cellular lethality, since this compound acts as an immunomodulator associated with cytoprotective actions. Hence, the aim of the present investigation was to determine the potential cytoprotective effects of CA using cell line VERO as a model. VERO cells were incubated with sodium dipyrone and subsequently subject to the comet, apoptosis and immunocytochemistry assays. Data demonstrated that sodium dipyrone induced an increase in DNA damage index (DI) employing the comet assay. However, when VERO cells were co-treated with CA at the three concentrations studied, a significant reduction in DI was observed, indicating an antigenotoxic effect attributed to CA. Further dipyrone induced an elevation in %apoptosis at 24 and 48 hr. However, when dipyrone was co-incubated with CA, a significant reduction in %apoptosis was noted at the three concentrations of CA employed. Results from immunocytochemical analysis showed a rise in the expression of caspase 8 and cytochrome C when cells were exposed to dipyrone. In contrast, co-treatment of dipyrone and CA significantly reduced the effect of dipyrone. Therefore, evidence indicated that CA acted as an anticytotoxic and antigenotoxic agent counteracting damage induced by dipyrone.


Assuntos
Venenos de Crotalídeos/farmacologia , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Dipirona/efeitos adversos , Materia Medica/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ensaio Cometa , Imuno-Histoquímica , Células Vero
10.
Toxicon ; 200: 1-2, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181973

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The St. Ignatius bean of the Strychnos ignatii tree and Nux Vomica homeopathic products presumably could contain the toxic alkaloids strychnine and brucine. This study aimed to determine the amount of these toxic alkaloids in some commercially available Nux Vomica products and the St. Ignatius bean and to determine if overdose of these products could result in clinically significant toxicity. METHODS: Using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, various formulations of Nux Vomica products and St. Ignatius beans were analyzed for strychnine, and brucine with detection limits set at 0.1 ng/g. RESULTS: None of the analyzed Nux Vomica products contained any detectable strychnine or brucine, while the expected strychnine dose from a St. Ignatius bean would be < 0.001 mg. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study reveals that the amount of strychnine in homeopathic Nux Vomica products or St. Ignatius beans are not likely to result in clinically significant strychnine toxicity.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Materia Medica , Strychnos nux-vomica , Sementes , Estricnina
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(10): 2461-2466, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047091

RESUMO

Biochar is a kind of solid material with high aromatization and rich in carbon, which is formed by pyrolysis of biomass at high temperature(250-700 ℃) under anoxic or hypoxic conditions. It has the characteristics of large specific surface area and rich pores. In recent years, as a good soil conditioner, biochar has gradually improved its advantages in improving soil rhizosphere micro ecological environment, promoting plant growth and development, and enhancing plant resistance, etc. It has been proved that biochar can affect the growth and development of plants by improving soil physical and chemical properties, adjusting microbial community structure, participating in the metabolic process in plants, and inducing plants to enhance resistance. This paper summarized the research progress of biochar application in agriculture and introduced the ecological effects and mechanism of biochar on plant seed germination, seedling growth, crop yield and stress resistance. Combined with the characteristics of Chinese materia medica, this paper expounds the application potential of biochar in improving the content of secondary metabolites of Chinese materia medica and alleviating continuous cropping obstacles of Chinese materia medica, etc. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the research of biochar in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, allelopathy and heavy metal stress of medicinal plants, so as to provide reference for the application of biochar in the cultivation of Chinese materia medica.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Agricultura , Carvão Vegetal , China , Humanos
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(10): 2607-2616, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047110

RESUMO

Rubi Fructus is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. The origin of Rubi Fructus is the dried fruit of Rubus chingii, a plant of the family Rosaceae, according to the 2015 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia. There are some differences in the plant origin of Rubi Fructus in ancient herbal literature, to trace back its sources, we conducted a textual research on its origin, producing areas, quality evaluation, processing and concocting, properties, tastes and efficacy etc. based on the records of ancient herbal literatures and combined with plant morphology and related investigation. RESULTS:: showed that the variety of Rubi Fructus was more complex among ancient herbal literature, including R. coreanus, R. hirsutus, R. corchorifolius, R. foliolosus and other mixed varieties. Most scholars believe that the R. chingii has not been recorded in ancient herbal literature, while R. chingii was recorded as early as the Ming Dynasty in Compendium of materia medica through our textual research. Ancient Chinese herbs recorded that Rubi Fructus was mostly produced in Hubei, Shandong, Shanxi and Jiangsu provinces, while R. chingii mainly produced in Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian and other provinces nowadays. Also, it was recorded that Rubi Fructus harvested in wheat field during May were the best. Besides, R. chingii with big, full, grain integrate, firm, yellow and green color, sour taste and impurity free possess the best quality in the contemporary. The ancient records of processing and concocting, properties, tastes and efficacy were basically the same as modern ones.These results provide the basis for the correct utilization and further development of Rubi Fructus.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Rubus , China , Frutas , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(8): 1851-1857, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982491

RESUMO

This study steps through four key principles, four open problems and future perspectives of Chinese materia medica(CMM) ecological agriculture by presenting the historical development, existing theories and practice outcomes. Then, it focuses on refining the main principles of CMM ecological agriculture:(1)the principles of ecological niche associated with yield and comprehensive income;(2)principles of biological diversity associated with the integrated control of diseases, pests and weeds;(3)principles of adversity effects associated with the quality improvement of CMM;(4)principles of structural stability associated with the sustainable development of CMM ecological agriculture. On this basis, four burning issues of CMM ecological agriculture were obtained,(1)ecological planting mode and supporting technologies need to be perfect;(2)multi-integrated industrial coupling remains to strengthen;(3) quality assurance system of CMM ecological agriculture and high-quality and favorable price model remains to be formed;(4)awareness of the demonstration and extension of CMM ecological agriculture needs to be desired. Finally, suggestions for the sustainable development of CMM ecological agriculture are put forward:(1)strengthen the national planning and layout, develop CMM ecological agriculture accor-ding to local conditions;(2)pay equal attention to inheritance and innovation, and strengthen the theory and practical technology research of CMM ecological agriculture;(3)strengthen industrial coupling and realize the transformation of CMM ecological agriculture from a production-based to a multi-in-one compound model;(4)intensify standards and brands, building a quality assurance system for CMM ecological products;(5) publicize the demonstration and popularization of CMM ecological agriculture. In summary, the development of CMM ecological agriculture possessed a firmer theory and practice foundation, although there is still much room for improvement. A better field of Chinese medicine agricultural development with immense economic and social benefits will not a question of "if" but "when" by accurately grasp the way forward.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Agricultura , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(8): 1858-1863, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982492

RESUMO

As the most advanced environment-friendly production model in the international society, ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica(CMM) is the only way for the development of modern agriculture. With the proposal of the declaration on ecolo-gical agriculture of CMM, "Don't grab land from farmland, don't be enemies of grass and insects, don't be afraid of barren slopes and forests, and live up to the green and green mountains", the ecological planting of CMM has blossomed all over the country, and formed a scientific theory, technology and model. Based on the theory and method of economics, this paper expounds the comprehensive benefits and development advantages of ecological agriculture of CMM from the perspectives of farmers(producers), patients(consumers) and the country. From the perspective of medicinal farmers, the input and output income of conventional agriculture and ecological agriculture of CMM such as Panax ginseng, Astragalus propinquus, Atractylodes lancea, and Bupleurum chinense were compared, and it was found that ecological agriculture of CMM had obvious advantages in net income, average annual income and input-output ratio, which could better promote farmers' income. From the perspective of patients, according to the same dose, the content of active ingredients in ecologically planted CMMs is significantly higher than that in conventionally-planted herbs, and the amount of effective substances taken by patients is also higher, so as to achieve better therapeutic effect. At the national level, ecological planting of CMM is the key to ensuring the high-quality development of CMM industry, increasing farmers' income, ensuring the safety of people's drug use and promoting the sustainable development of agriculture. It is also an important part of realizing the harmonious development of economy, society and environment and promoting ecological civilization. In general, the declaration on ecological agriculture of CMM embo-dies the core characteristics and goals of ecological agriculture, and also points of the path and vision of ecological agriculture of CMM in the future. The declaration will guide production practice, promote the benefit of farmers, and lay the foundation for the sustainable development of CMM industry.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Plantas Medicinais , Agricultura , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(8): 1869-1875, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982494

RESUMO

Ecological agriculture is a crucial way for agriculture of Chinese materia medica, which emphasizes the application of ecological principles in the cultivation of traditional Chinese medicine. While long-term intensive farming and modern chemical agriculture have threatened soil health, the sustainable development of ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica is constrained. No-til-lage can reduce both frequency and intensity of tillage. Compared with conventional agriculture, no-tillage can reduce soil disturbance, maintain no-tillage for a long or permanent period and keep mulching. The application of no-tillage has a long history. More and more studies have shown that no-tillage has many advantages over conventional tillage, and the ecological and economic benefits of no-tillage are particularly outstandingin long-term. The cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials adheres to the principle of not grabbing land from farmland, making full use of the soil resources under forests, mountains and wasteland. Reducing the risk of soil loss and sustai-nable utilization are the core issues in the process of new land cultivation. No-tillage application, which not only inherits the traditional Chinese concept of natural farming, but also integrates the laws of ecological agriculture, will become the core strategies of sustainable development of Chinese materia medica ecological agriculture. This study will introduce the basic concepts and development process of no-tillage, analyze their ecological benefits in ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica, and put forward their application strategies.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Agricultura , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(8): 1876-1882, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982495

RESUMO

Weeds is one of the important parts of agricultural ecosystem of Chinese materia medica. Weeds is a double-edged sword with advantages and disadvantages for the cultivated medicinal plants. In this study, we firstly analyzed the positive and negative effects of weeds on the yield and quality of Chinese materia medica. We then explored the possible mechanisms for the weeds' positive effects from the aspects of interspecific relationship, soil microecological environment, light environment, natural control of pests and so on. We also summarized three basic principles of weed control, that is, "making medicinal plants and weeds coexist harmoniously, achieving the overall optimum growth of medicinal plants", "prevention first, integrated control" and "preserving beneficial weeds and increasing their beneficial effects, removing harmful weeds and control their adverse effects". Finally, we introduced several common weed ecological control technology in field of the cultivated medicinal plants in China, including technology of controlling weeds by no-tillage, stral mulch, rotation, alternative herbs, competitive crops, and allelopathy. This study is aimed to apply the ecology theory to guide weed management and control, so as to achieve the goal of advantages promotion and disadvantages elimination of weeds to cultivated medicinal plants, making weeds into treasure and to promote the sustainable and healthy development of Chinese medicinal materials production and the protection of weed diversity.


Assuntos
Materia Medica , Plantas Medicinais , Agricultura , China , Ecossistema
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(8): 1883-1892, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982496

RESUMO

Nitrogen fertilizer has been the long-lasting crucial component in cultivation of Chinese materia medica(CMM) and crops for its profound effects on enhancing the productivity. In consideration of its role in better production, intensive and excessive application of N fertilizer is often found in CMM cultivation. Therefore, firstly, this review summarized various concentrations of N application with regards to different CMM and districts from the literatures published in the last two decades. The recommended concentration of nitrogen application of forty seven CMM species were covered in this review. We found that the optimum rates of nitrogen fertili-zer for different medicinal plants species were varied in the range between 0-1 035.55 kg·hm~(-2). Most of the optimum rates of nitrogen fertilizer for CMM in published researches fell between 100-199 kg·hm~(-2). The optimum rate of nitrogen fertilizer is not only related to amount of nitrogen required for different medicinal plants but also to soil fertilities of different fields. In addition, we outlined the diffe-rent effects of proper and excessive nitrogen deposition on yield of CMM. Proper nitrogen deposition benefits the yield of CMM, howe-ver, excessive nitrogen use accounts for a decrease in CMM yield. We elucidated that nutritional content, water use efficiencies, and photosynthesis capacity were major influencing factors. Researches showed that proper nitrogen fertilizer could promote the water use efficiencies of plants and boost photosynthesis. Consequently, the yield of CMM can be enhanced after nitrogen deposition. However, negative effects of nitrogen fertilizer were also found on plant including producing toxic substances to the soil and causing severe pest damages. Lastly we analyzed the impact of N fertilizer application on secondary metabolites which accounts for a large part of active pharmaceutical ingredients of CMM. It usually caused an increase in nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content and a decrease in non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content respectively. The potential underlying mechanisms are the different synthetic pathways of these metabolites and the plant nutritional status. Synthesis of non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites like phenols can be inhibited after nitrogen application because of the competition of the same precursor substances between metabolites synthesis and plant growth. To sum up, impacts and mechanisms of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality enhancement of CMM were discussed in this review. Negative effects of excessive nitrogen application on CMM should be paid special attention in CMM cultivation and prescription fertilization based on the field soil quality is strongly recommended. Overall, this review aims to provides insights on improving the proper application of N fertilizer in the cultivation of CMM.


Assuntos
Materia Medica , Nitrogênio , Agricultura , China , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(8): 1901-1909, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982498

RESUMO

Nitrogen fertilizers play an important role in the regulation of plant stress resistance. Impacts of nitrogen fertilizers on abiotic stress resistance and biotic stress resistance of Chinese materia medica(CMM) were summarized in this study. Adequate nitrogen application improves the abiotic stress resistance and weed resistance of CMM, however adverse effect appears when excess nitrogen is used. Generally, pest resistance decreases along with nitrogen deposition, while effects of nitrogen application on disease resistance vary with different diseases. Mechanisms underlying the impact of nitrogen fertilizers on plant stress resistance were also elucidated in this study from three aspects including physical defense mechanisms, biochemistry mechanisms and molecular defense mechanisms. Nitrogen availability modulates physical barrier of CMM like plant growth, formation of lignin and wax cuticle, and density of stomata. Growth of CMM promoted by nitrogen fertilizer may cause some decrease in pest resistance of CMM due to an increase in hiding places for pest along with plant growth. High ambient humidity caused by excessive plant growth facilitates the growth and development of CMM pathogen. Nitrogen application can also interfere with the accumulation of lignin in CMM which makes CMM more vulnerable to pest and pathogen attack. Stomatal closing delays due to nitrogen application is also a causal factor of increasing pathogen infection after nitrogen deposition. Biochemical defenses of plants are mainly achieved through nutrient elements, secondary metabolites, defense-related enzymes and proteins. Nutritional level of CMM and various antioxidant enzymes and resistance-related protein activities are elevated along with nitrogen deposition. These antioxidant enzymes can reduce the damage of reactive oxygen species content produced by plant in response to adversity and therefore enhance stress resistance of CMM. Researches showed that nitrogen application could also cause an increase in nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content and a decrease in non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content respectively. Nitrogen-mediated molecular defense mechanisms includes multiple plant hormones and nitric oxide signals. Plant hormones related to plant defense like salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and abscisic acid can be modulated by nitrogen application. Negative effect of nitrogen deposition was found on salicylic acid accumulation and the expression of related plant disease resistance genes. However, jasmonic acid level can be elevated by nitrogen. Nitric oxide signals constitute an important part of nitrogen mediated defense mechanisms. Nitric oxide signaling is related to many aspects of plant immunity. The roles of nitrogen fertilizers in CMM stress resistance are complex and may vary with different CMM varieties and environments. Further studies are urgently needed to provide a comprehensive understanding of how to improve stress resistance of CMM by using fertilizers.


Assuntos
Materia Medica , Ácido Abscísico , China , Nitrogênio , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas
19.
Microb Pathog ; 156: 104936, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951540

RESUMO

Motivated by conventional medicines' ineffectiveness and the appearance of bacterial resistance, homeopathic medicines are being increasingly demanded by the veterinary market. Dog feces contain high bacterial and pathogenic loads, which can cause diseases in animals and facilitate zoonotic transmission. Adequate animal immunity contributes to the elimination of potential pathogens. This work's objective was to evaluate the effects of using a homeopathic medication on blood cell counts, serum protein levels, and fecal bacterial counts in dogs. Two groups were used, each including five 19-month-old Beagle dogs. The homeopathic product Orgainfecto® was sprayed on the two daily meals in the treated group (T), at 0.5 mL/animal/day for 60 days; the group that did not receive the homeopathic was considered the control (C), who were fed only the vehicle used in the production of the homeopathic as a placebo. On days 1, 30, and 60, individual stool samples were collected for bacterial counts in the stool, blood samples for blood counts, and serum for biochemical tests. Total bacterial counts in feces were lower in group T on days 30 and 60 of the experiment, while total coliforms and E coli. were lower in this group on day 60. Total leukocyte counts were lower on day 60 in group T, unlike the neutrophil count, higher in group T on day 30, and eosinophils on day 60. However, the lymphocyte count was lower in group T on days 30 and 60. There was an increase in globulin and total protein in group T on day 60. We conclude that the tested homeopathic causes neutrophils and eosinophils' stimulation and increases globulins levels even with reduced lymphocytes. The daily consumption of homeopathic by dogs decreases the intestinal bacterial load, resulting in less environmental contamination and animal and human colibacillosis risks.


Assuntos
Homeopatia , Materia Medica , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Cães , Escherichia coli , Fezes
20.
Homeopathy ; 110(3): 186-193, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by various clinical presentations such as ovulatory dysfunction, polycystic ovaries, and hyperandrogenism. Considering the side effects associated with conventional treatment and the patients who fail to respond to these measures, there is a demand for a complementary therapy that would alleviate symptoms of PCOS without side effects. Homeopathy is a complementary system of medicine that has been successfully used in different disease conditions, including PCOS. A case series of PCOS is hereby presented, to demonstrate some positive results of individualized homeopathic treatment. METHODS: Seven cases of young women with PCOS were treated with individualized homeopathic medicines. Each case was followed up with clinical and ultrasonographic evidence and was reported according to the criteria set out in the HOM-CASE guidelines. The assessment of causal attribution of homeopathic treatment effect was carried out using the Modified Naranjo Criteria. RESULTS: Marked improvement was observed in all seven cases of PCOS. The irregular menstrual cycles and other associated symptoms became normal, along with a resolution of cysts in ovaries as evidenced by ultrasonography. All cases improved within 4 to 12 months of treatment. The Modified Naranjo Criteria total score was +9/13 for each case, which indicates a positive causal attribution of homeopathy in relieving the symptoms of PCOS. CONCLUSION: This case series suggests a significant role of individualized homeopathic medicines in PCOS by regularizing the menstrual cycle along with the resolution of cysts and associated symptoms.


Assuntos
Materia Medica/normas , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Amenorreia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Materia Medica/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/psicologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...