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1.
Waste Manag ; 101: 44-53, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586876

RESUMO

A general approach to managing municipal solid waste is by incineration. Unfortunately, large amounts of municipal-solid-waste-incineration fly ash (MSWI FA) is produced in the process, with their heavy metals content posing further problems to the environment. One fundamental treatment of MSWI FA heavy metals is called solidification-stabilization, where MSWI FA is solidified in cement-based materials to cap hazardous elements from being released into the environment. Mortar formed from this cement mixed with MSWI FA suffer from decreased compressive strength due to their chloride and sulfate contents. Thus, pre-treatment of MSWI FA to remove these salts before producing mortar is desirable. This study investigated treating MSWI FA with deionized water, 0.01 M and 0.1 M nitric acid, and 0.1 M and 0.25 M sodium carbonate to remove chloride and sulfate. Physical and chemical structures of treated and untreated MSWI FA was studied to understand the chloride and sulfate removal mechanisms. Treated MSWI FA was used as cement replacement in mortar, and the compressive strength was tested. Results suggest that all of the treatment solutions tested in this study can equally remove chloride (around 250,000 mg/kg), but sodium carbonate can remove sulfate at the highest extent (15,821 mg/kg). In addition, mortar with deionized-water-treated MSWI FA gave the highest compressive strength. Heavy metals leaching was tested by the Toxicity Characterization Leaching Procedure (TCLP) method, with results passing the standard.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Eliminação de Resíduos , Carbono , Cinza de Carvão , Incineração , Material Particulado , Resíduos Sólidos , Sulfatos
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1152-1157, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683404

RESUMO

Objective: Using Meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the short-term exposure to fine particular matter (PM(2.5)) and the morbidity of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Methods: In this paper, "particulate matter" , "PM2.5" , "ischemic heart disease" , "coronary heart disease" , "coronary artery disease" , "atherosclerotic heart disease" , and "atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease" were used to systematically search for the literature on the association between the short-term exposure to PM(2.5) and the ischemic heart disease through China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Vip as well as Pubmed and Web of Science. The time was up to January 31(st) 2019. The quality of literature was evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis method was performed by using R3.5.0 software and was used to perform heterogeneity test, calculate combined risk of IHD with short-term exposure to PM(2.5) and carry out publication bias test. Results: A total of 1 424 literatures were retrieved. Of the 23 literatures included studies (2 literatures in Chinese and 21 literatures in English) according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 14 used a time-series design and 9 used a case-crossover design. The heterogeneity existed across all identified studies (I(2)=81%, P<0.05). The Random effect model showed that a 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) was associated with estimated relative risk of IHD morbidity at 1.007 (95%CI: 1.005-1.009); Publication bias was noted in the analysis (t=2.76, P<0.05), and the combined effect values of IHD morbidity was reduced to 1.005(95%CI: 1.004-1.007) after adjusting for asymmetry. Conclusion: Short-term exposure to PM(2.5) may lead to the increase of ischemic heart disease morbidity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Morbidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Risco
6.
N Engl J Med ; 381(21): 2074, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747736
8.
9.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 35(4): 293-296, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of vitamin E on the respiratory function impairment in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) after exposed to high temperature and PM2.5. METHODS: Fifty-four 7-week-old SPF male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 9 experimental groups (n=6). The rat COPD model was established by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and smoke exposure. After modeled, the rats were tracheal instilled with PM2.5 (0 mg/ml, 3.2 mg/ml) and intraperitoneally injected with vitamin E at the dose of 40 mg/kg (20 mg/ml). Part of rats (high temperature groups) were then exposed to high temperature (40℃), once (8 h) a day for three consecutive days. After the last exposure, the lung function of rats was detected. The expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were detected by corresponding ELISA kits. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, exposure of high temperature and PM2.5 could inhibit the lung function of COPD rats significantly (P<0.05); the level of MCP-1 was increased significantly in PM2.5-exposure groups (P<0.05); iNOS was increased significantly in the groups of high temperature (P<0.05). Compared with the single-PM2.5 exposure groups, TNF-α in lung was decreased in the normal temperature health group and high temperature COPD group (P<0.05) after treated with vitamin E; MCP-1 was decreased in all vitamin E-treated groups (P<0.05); the decreased iNOS only appeared in the group of high temperature with vitamin E treatment. CONCLUSION: High temperature and PM2.5 could aggravate the inflammation of COPD rats. As an antioxidant, vitamin E may protect the lung from the damage effects.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Animais , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(45): e17899, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702666

RESUMO

This survey was to investigate the short-term effect of particulate matters (PMs) exposure on clinical and microbiological variables, especially septic emboli, in infective endocarditis (IE). The study analyzed 138 IE patients in Far Eastern Memorial Hospital from 2005 to 2015 and clinical variables were retrospectively requested. The data of air quality were recorded and collected by a network of 26 monitoring stations spreading in Northern part of Taiwan. We found that IE patients with septic emboli were found to be exposed to a significantly higher level of PM2.5 (32.01 ±â€Š15.89 vs. 21.70 ±â€Š13.05 µg/m, P < .001) and PM10 (54.57 ±â€Š24.43 vs 40.98 ±â€Š24.81 µg/m, P = .002) on lag 0 day when compared to those without. Furthermore, multivariate regression analysis revealed that that ambient exposure to PM2.5 (odds ratio: 3.87, 95% confidence interval: 1.31-8.31; P = .001) and PM10 (odds ratio: 4.58, 95% confidence interval: 2.03-10.32; P < .001) significantly increased risk of septic emboli in IE patients. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that short-term exposure to PMs was associated with septic emboli in IE.


Assuntos
Endocardite/microbiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/envenenamento , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
J Environ Manage ; 252: 109603, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586746

RESUMO

Air pollution control has become one of the top priorities of China's "Ecological Civilization" development. As a quick response to the 2013 PM2.5 episodes, the Chinese Government issued the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan" as the national strategy and roadmap for air quality improvements consisting of phased quantitative targets and concrete measures. Taking this into account, this study explores the spatiotemporal variations of the five conventional pollutants-PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3-as well as the Air Quality Index and primary pollutants in 338 Chinese cities from 2013 to 2017 in order to comprehensively understand China's current air pollution situation and evaluate the effectiveness of the Action Plan. The results indicate that: (1) the overall air quality has been significantly improved, with the concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, and SO2 decreasing noticeably, although the still high PM level, the dramatically increasing O3 concentration, and the stagnant amounts of NO2 present further challenges, along with the intensification of regional compound air pollution problems; (2) in contrast to the three key regions under the Action Plan exhibiting significant decreases in PM and SO2, the Fen-Wei Plain (FWP) is suffering from serious compound pollution, suggesting that there is an urgent need for the development of a regional joint prevention and control mechanism in the FWP and similar areas; (3) with the exception of the common pollution hot spots mainly concentrated in the FWP as well as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) and its surrounding regions, the distribution of each pollutant exhibited remarkable spatial heterogeneity due to their distinctive emission sources, a finding that strongly indicates the need for regionally differentiated management; and (4) the most frequent primary pollutant at the national level was O3, followed by PM2.5 and PM10. In the Wuhan Metropolitan Area (WHM), Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Metropolitan Area (CZT), and Sichuan-Chongqing Region (CY), PM2.5 pollution is playing the dominant role, while in the FWP, BTH, Yangtze River Delta region (YRD), and Pearl River Delta region (PRD), the synergistic control of PM2.5 and O3 pollutants is urgently needed as soon as possible, which will require that more attention be paid to emission mitigation in the transportation sector, as well as the synergistic control of NOx and VOC emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Pequim , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado , Melhoria de Qualidade
12.
J Environ Manage ; 252: 109635, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610446

RESUMO

Regional inequality has caused large social and economic problems in China. Numerous researchers have sought to understand the status of economic inequality in the past decades. However, studies are lacking on other aspects of regional inequality, particularly when multiple facets must be considered. In this study, we have innovatively proposed a Pareto law-based method that can help assess multiple dimensions of regional inequality simultaneously. With this approach, we can rank multiple aspects of inequality and provide robust, reasonable goals for different groups of administrative districts. The proposed approach was successfully implemented by using Chinese data for 2015 and 2016, a period during which China was experiencing both severe PM2.5 pollution and economic regional inequality. The results indicate that (1) Shanghai and Shenzhen represent the optimal condition of economic development; (2) different from the spatial distribution of economic inequality alone, inequality was higher in central China for both economic development and PM2.5 air quality; (3) in the context of severe economic inequality in China, the tradeoff between economic development and air quality will result in a relatively equitable condition. In addition, the proposed method is open-ended and can be extended to incorporate more aspects of regional inequality. This approach appears to possess substantial potential for integration into decision-making regarding regional inequality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
J Environ Manage ; 252: 109681, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629177

RESUMO

Solid Waste Management (SWM) in high altitude regions is critically phased because of the non-availability of suitable facilities for the treatment and handling of large quantities of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Open burning practices at hill slopes were noticed which affect the surrounding environment. Hence, it became essential to measure the environmental components around the dumpsites to examine the impacts and suggest new technological solutions. The pollution parameters were monitored in and around the dumpsites, and the data was analysed using statistical tools. The assessment of air quality indicated maximum fine suspended particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration of 206.66 µg/m3 followed by respairable particulate matter (PM10), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Among the gaseous emissions, methane (CH4) concentration was very high (38.53 mg/L) followed by carbon monoxide (CO) concentration (0.96 mg/L). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also detected at few dumpsites with highest observed benzene (C6H6) concentration of 157.53 µg/m3. The soil sample analysis indicated that iron (Fe) concentration dominates followed by manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni). For evaluation of different alternatives for the SWM system, Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) was applied.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Altitude , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado , Resíduos Sólidos
15.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(5): 822-833, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To introduce the application of COBRA in health risk assessment of air pollution, and provide reference for the development of similar tools in China. METHODS: The software overview, scope of application and application literature, data requirements and software operation, calculation principles, model construction was introduced, and put forward the reference significance to China. RESULTS: Health and economic benefits can be quickly obtained by entering the type and value of change in pollutant concentration into the software. CONCLUSION: COBRA can be used to quickly evaluate the health effects and economic benefits of pollutant changes, and provide reference for the development of relevant tools in China, applied in many ways, such as rapid assessment of health benefits of pollution prevention and control programs in different cities, regions or nationwide, and screening the policies and measures with lower costs and greater benefits.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Material Particulado/análise , China , Cidades , Humanos , Medição de Risco
16.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(3): 362-366, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631604

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the association between daily particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5) mass and emergency calls for help with respiratory diseases. Methods: Semi-parametric generalized additive model was established to determine the association between daily PM 2.5 and emergency calls for help with respiratory diseases in 2017 in Chengdu, after adjustments for time trend and variations in the days of the week and weather conditions. Results: In 2017, a total of 9 309 emergency calls for help with respiratory diseases were recorded in Chengdu: on average 26 calls a day. Over the year, Chengdu reported a mean PM 2.5 mass concentration of 53.6 µg/m 3, an average temperature of 16.6 ℃, and an average relative humidity of 81.2%. The single pollutant model with lag time effect showed that a 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 was associated with an increase of 1.26% (95% confidence interval ( CI) 0.56%-1.97%) emergency calls for help with respiratory diseases. The exposure-response was almost in a direct line. The dual pollutant model found that O 3 8-hour sliding average (O 3-8 h) enhanced the effect of PM 2.5 on emergency calls for help with respiratory diseases. Conclusion: Outdoor PM 2.5 is a significant predictor of emergency calls for help with respiratory diseases in Chengdu.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , China , Humanos , Temperatura Ambiente
18.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 27-34, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that is closely associated with long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5). CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in the regulation of T cell-mediated immune responses, and the depletion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs has been thought to play a prominent role in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we investigated the association between the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs population and atherosclerotic development in ApoE-/- mice exposed to PM2.5. METHODS: We employed a real-world system to subject 40 ApoE-/- mice to ambient inhalation of PM2.5 (PM2.5 group, n = 20) or filtered air (FA group, n = 20) for 12 weeks. PM2.5 source apportionment, atherosclerotic lesions within aorta, lipid deposition and plaque accumulation in whole artery, serum level of inflammatory factors and lipid profiles, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs population in splenocytes, Foxp3 protein and mRNA expressions in descending aorta and spleen were quantified, respectively. RESULTS: The daily average concentration of PM2.5 was 57.4 ± 25.6 µg/m3. Atherosclerotic lesions within aorta, lipid deposition and plaque accumulation in whole artery, serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, TC and LDL-C in the PM2.5 group increased significantly compared to the FA group. Whereas, serum levels of IL-10 and TGF-ß, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs population in splenocytes, Foxp3 protein and mRNA expressions in descending aorta and spleen in the PM2.5 group decreased significantly compared to the FA group. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PM2.5 could accelerate the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice, which is related to CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs down-regulation, as well as lipid deposition and systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Aorta/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta/imunologia , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/sangue , Doenças da Aorta/imunologia , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenótipo , Placa Aterosclerótica , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 49-59, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520698

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have established the correlations between PM2.5 and a wide variety of pulmonary diseases. However, their underlying pathogeneses have not been clearly elucidated yet. In the present study, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype with enhanced proliferation and migration activity of human pulmonary epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was observed after exposure to low dose PM2.5 exposure (50 µg/ml) for 30 passages. Then, epithelial cells derived-exosomal micro-RNA (miRNA) and intracellular total RNA were extracted, and the differentially expressed exosomal miRNAs (DE-Exo-MiRs) as well as differentially expressed protein coding genes (DEGs) were identified by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and transcriptome analysis. We found that chronic PM2.5 exposure stimulated the release of pulmonary epithelium derived exosomes. 45 DE-Exo-MiRs including 32 novelly predicted miRNAs and 843 DEGs between PM2.5 exposed group and the normal control were detected. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in extracellular matrix organization, focal adhesion and cancer related terms. Besides, the enrichment analyses on 7774 mRNA targets of 27 DE-Exo-MiRs predicted by MiRanda software also revealed the potential regulatory role of exosomal miRNAs in pathways in cancer, Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) signaling pathway, focal adhesion related genes and other multiple pathogenic pathways. Moreover, the interactive exosomal miRNA-mRNA pair networks were constructed using Cytoscape software. Our results provided a novel basis for a better understanding of the mechanisms of chronic PM2.5 exposure induced pulmonary disorders including pulmonary fibrosis and cancer, in which exosomal miRNAs (Exo-MiRs) potentially functions by dynamically regulating gene expressions.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Exossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , Material Particulado/toxicidade , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/ultraestrutura , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/patologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/ultraestrutura , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica
20.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 147-153, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520700

RESUMO

Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease which severely reduces the quality of life in patients. Studies have demonstrated that both PM2.5 and cold stress contribute to the development of asthma. However, the combined effects of these two risking factors are unknown. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of PM2.5 exposure and cold stress (PMCS) on asthma, as well as the underlying mechanisms by using a murine model. After different exposures, the immune-pathological changes and redox states in groups were evaluated. Besides, the balance of TH1/TH2 cells and the acetylation levels of H3K9 and H3K14 in IL-4 gene promotor were detected. Our results showed that, compared with other exposures, PMCS led to an increased inflammation and redox levels in mice. It also significantly increased the percentage of TH2 T cells, which was correlated with hyperacetylation of H3K9 and H3K14 in IL-4 gene promoter in CD4+T cells. Furthermore, a significantly increased P300 and decreased HDAC1 were detected in CD4 + T cells in PMCS group. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that PMCS exacerbated asthma in mice by increasing H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation in IL-4 gene promoter in CD4 + T cells, and P300 and HDAC1 might contribute to their combined effects.


Assuntos
Asma/induzido quimicamente , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Histonas/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilação , Animais , Asma/genética , Asma/imunologia , Asma/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina , Tamanho da Partícula , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo
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