Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 46
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
BMJ ; 367: l6258, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess risks and costs of hospital admission associated with short term exposure to fine particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) for 214 mutually exclusive disease groups. DESIGN: Time stratified, case crossover analyses with conditional logistic regressions adjusted for non-linear confounding effects of meteorological variables. SETTING: Medicare inpatient hospital claims in the United States, 2000-12 (n=95 277 169). PARTICIPANTS: All Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 or older admitted to hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of hospital admission, number of admissions, days in hospital, inpatient and post-acute care costs, and value of statistical life (that is, the economic value used to measure the cost of avoiding a death) due to the lives lost at discharge for 214 disease groups. RESULTS: Positive associations between short term exposure to PM2.5 and risk of hospital admission were found for several prevalent but rarely studied diseases, such as septicemia, fluid and electrolyte disorders, and acute and unspecified renal failure. Positive associations were also found between risk of hospital admission and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, and thromboembolism, confirming previously published results. These associations remained consistent when restricted to days with a daily PM2.5 concentration below the WHO air quality guideline for the 24 hour average exposure to PM2.5. For the rarely studied diseases, each 1 µg/m3 increase in short term PM2.5 was associated with an annual increase of 2050 hospital admissions (95% confidence interval 1914 to 2187 admissions), 12 216 days in hospital (11 358 to 13 075), US$31m (£24m, €28m; $29m to $34m) in inpatient and post-acute care costs, and $2.5bn ($2.0bn to $2.9bn) in value of statistical life. For diseases with a previously known association, each 1 µg/m3 increase in short term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an annual increase of 3642 hospital admissions (3434 to 3851), 20 098 days in hospital (18 950 to 21 247), $69m ($65m to $73m) in inpatient and post-acute care costs, and $4.1bn ($3.5bn to $4.7bn) in value of statistical life. CONCLUSIONS: New causes and previously identified causes of hospital admission associated with short term exposure to PM2.5 were found. These associations remained even at a daily PM2.5 concentration below the WHO 24 hour guideline. Substantial economic costs were linked to a small increase in short term PM2.5.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Poluição do Ar/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Cross-Over , Exposição Ambiental/economia , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/economia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970669

RESUMO

Haze control cost is hard to value by a crisp number because it is often affected by various factors such as regional uncertain meteorological conditions and topographical features. Furthermore, regions may be involved in different coalitions for haze control with different levels of effort. In this paper, we propose a PM2.5 cooperative control model with fuzzy cost and crisp coalitions or fuzzy coalitions based on the uncertain cross-border transmission factor. We focus on the Beijing­Tianjin­Hebei regions of China and obtain the following major findings. In the case of haze control in the Beijing­Tianjin­Hebei regions of China, local governments in the global crisp coalition can achieve their emission reduction targets with the lowest aggregated cost. However, Hebei fails to satisfy its individual rationality if there is no cost sharing. Therefore, the Hukuhara­Shapley value is used to allocate the aggregated cost among these regions so that the grand coalition is stable. However, the Beijing­Tianjin­Hebei regions cannot achieve their emission reduction targets in the global fuzzy coalition without government subsidies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/normas , Poluição do Ar/economia , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado/economia , Material Particulado/normas , Smog/prevenção & controle , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , China
3.
Int J Public Health ; 64(4): 561-572, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate avoidable mortality, potential years of life lost and economic costs associated with particulate matter PM2.5 exposure for 2 years (2013 and 2015) in Mexico using two scenarios of reduced concentrations (i.e., mean annual PM2.5 concentration < 12 µg/m3 and mean annual PM2.5 concentration < 10 µg/m3). METHODS: The health impact assessment method was followed. This method consists of: identification of health effects, selection of concentration-response functions, estimation of exposure, quantification of impacts quantification and economic assessment using the willingness to pay and human capital approaches. RESULTS: For 2013, we included data from 62 monitoring sites in ten cities, (113 municipalities) where 36,486,201 live. In 2015, we included 71 monitoring sites from fifteen cities (121 municipalities) and 40,479,629 inhabitants. It was observed that reduction in the annual PM2.5 average to 10 µg/would have prevented 14,666 deaths and 150,771 potential years of life lost in 2015, with estimated costs of 64,164 and 5434 million dollars, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing PM2.5 concentration in the Mexican cities studied would reduce mortality by all causes by 8.1%, representing important public health benefits.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/economia , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde/economia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/economia , Cidades/economia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , México , Material Particulado/análise
4.
Environ Int ; 124: 420-430, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682597

RESUMO

Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) caused an estimated 4.2 million deaths worldwide in 2015. However, PM emission standards for power plants vary widely. To explore if the current levels of these standards are sufficiently stringent in a simple cost-benefit framework, we compared the health benefits (avoided monetized health costs) with the control costs of tightening PM emission standards for coal-fired power plants in Northeast (NE) Brazil, where ambient PM concentrations are below World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. We considered three Brazilian PM10 (PMx refers to PM with a diameter under x micrometers) emission standards and a stricter U.S. EPA standard for recent power plants. Our integrated methodology simulates hourly electricity grid dispatch from utility-scale power plants, disperses the resulting PM2.5, and estimates selected human health impacts from PM2.5 exposure using the latest integrated exposure-response model. Since the emissions inventories required to model secondary PM are not available in our study area, we modeled only primary PM so our benefit estimates are conservative. We found that tightening existing PM10 emission standards yields health benefits that are over 60 times greater than emissions control costs in all the scenarios we considered. The monetary value of avoided hospital admissions alone is at least four times as large as the corresponding control costs. These results provide strong arguments for considering tightening PM emission standards for coal-fired power plants worldwide, including in regions that meet WHO guidelines and in developing countries.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Carvão Mineral , Material Particulado/química , Centrais Elétricas/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Poluição do Ar/economia , Brasil , Humanos , Material Particulado/economia , Centrais Elétricas/economia
5.
Eur J Health Econ ; 20(4): 501-511, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377849

RESUMO

The concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and 10 µm (PM10) is a widespread concern and has been demonstrated for 103 countries. During the past few years, the exposure-response function (ERf) has been widely used to estimate the health effects of air pollution. However, past studies are either based on the cost-of-illness or the willingness-to-pay approach, and therefore, either do not cover intangible costs or costs due to the absence of work. To address this limitation, a hybrid health effect and economic loss model is developed in this study. This novel approach is applied to a sample of environmental and cost data in China. First, the ERf is used to link PM2.5 concentrations to health endpoints of chronic mortality, acute mortality, respiratory hospital admission, cardiovascular hospital admission, outpatient visits-internal medicine, outpatient visits-pediatrics, asthma attack, acute bronchitis, and chronic bronchitis. Second, the health effect of PM2.5 is monetized into the economic loss. The mean economic loss due to PM2.5 was much heavier in the North than the South of China. Furthermore, the empirical results from 76 cities in China show that the health effects and economic losses were over 4.98 million cases and 382.30 billion-yuan in 2014 and decreased dramatically compared with those in 2013.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/economia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/economia , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Econômicos , Mortalidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Respiratórias/economia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30235898

RESUMO

Analyzing the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution and socio-economic factors has become a major concern in public health. Since traditional analysis methods (such as correlation analysis and geographically weighted regression) cannot provide a full assessment of this relationship, the quantile regression method was applied to overcome such a limitation at different spatial scales in this study. The results indicated that merely 3% of the population and 2% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) occurred under an annually mean value of 35 µg/m³ in mainland China, and the highest population exposure to PM2.5 was located in a lesser-known city named Dazhou in 2014. The analysis results at three spatial scales (grid-level, county-level, and city-level) demonstrated that the grid-level was the optimal spatial scale for analysis of socio-economic effects on exposure due to its tiny uncertainty, and the population exposure to PM2.5 was positively related to GDP. An apparent upward trend of population exposure to PM2.5 emerged at the 80th percentile GDP. For a 10 thousand yuan rise in GDP, population exposure to PM2.5 increases by 1.05 person/km² at the 80th percentile, and 1.88 person/km2 at the 95th percentile, respectively.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/economia , Produto Interno Bruto , Material Particulado/economia , Regressão Espacial , Poluentes Atmosféricos , China , Cidades , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Incerteza
7.
Environ Int ; 120: 443-455, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142582

RESUMO

Quantitating the health effects of air pollution is important for understanding the benefits of environmental regulations. Using the China Urban Household Survey (UHS) Database, this paper estimated the effect of air pollution exposure on household healthcare expenditure. To address potential endogeneity concerns, we performed household healthcare expenditure regressions using an instrumental variables (IV) strategy based on spatial air pollution spillovers. Our research revealed that a 1% increase in yearly exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) corresponds to a 2.942% (95% confidence interval: 1.084%, 4.799%) increase in household healthcare expenditure. The estimates suggest that the 13th Five-Year Plan for Ecological and Environmental Protection (the 13th FYP) would reduce annual national healthcare expenditure by 47.36 Billion Dollar (95% confidence interval: 17.45 Billion Dollar, 77.25 Billion Dollar), which accounts for 0.64% (95% confidence interval: 0.24%, 1.04%) of China's gross domestic product (GDP).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Gastos em Saúde , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Poluição do Ar/economia , China , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Material Particulado/economia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29914184

RESUMO

Background: Particulate air pollution, especially PM2.5, is highly correlated with various adverse health impacts and, ultimately, economic losses for society, however, few studies have undertaken a spatiotemporal assessment of PM2.5-related economic losses from health impacts covering all of the main cities in China. Methods: PM2.5 concentration data were retrieved for 190 Chinese cities for the period 2014⁻2016. We used a log-linear exposure⁻response model and monetary valuation methods, such as value of a statistical life (VSL), amended human capital (AHC), and cost of illness to evaluate PM2.5-related economic losses from health impacts at the city level. In addition, Monte Carlo simulation was used to analyze uncertainty. Results: The average economic loss was 0.3% (AHC) to 1% (VSL) of the total gross domestic product (GDP) of 190 Chinese cities from 2014 to 2016. Overall, China experienced a downward trend in total economic losses over the three-year period, but the Beijing⁻Tianjin⁻Hebei, Shandong Peninsula, Yangtze River Delta, and Chengdu-Chongqing regions experienced greater annual economic losses. Conclusions: Exploration of spatiotemporal variations in PM2.5-related economic losses from long-term health impacts could provide new information for policymakers regarding priority areas for PM2.5 pollution prevention and control in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Saúde da População Urbana/economia , Valor da Vida/economia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/economia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Cidades/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Método de Monte Carlo , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/economia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649153

RESUMO

Air pollution has been estimated to be one of the leading environmental health risks in Finland. National health impact estimates existing to date have focused on particles (PM) and ozone (O3). In this work, we quantify the impacts of particles, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in 2015, and analyze the related uncertainties. The exposures were estimated with a high spatial resolution chemical transport model, and adjusted to observed concentrations. We calculated the health impacts according to Word Health Organization (WHO) working group recommendations. According to our results, ambient air pollution caused a burden of 34,800 disability-adjusted life years (DALY). Fine particles were the main contributor (74%) to the disease burden, which is in line with the earlier studies. The attributable burden was dominated by mortality (32,900 years of life lost (YLL); 95%). Impacts differed between population age groups. The burden was clearly higher in the adult population over 30 years (98%), due to the dominant role of mortality impacts. Uncertainties due to the concentration-response functions were larger than those related to exposures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Poluição do Ar/economia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/economia , Ozônio/economia , Material Particulado/economia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/economia , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Químicos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Risco , Análise Espacial
10.
Environ Int ; 115: 220-229, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604538

RESUMO

Economic impact assessments of air pollution-related health effects from a sectoral perspective in China is still deficient. This study evaluates the PM2.5 pollution-related health impacts of the road transport sector on China's economy at both national and provincial levels in 2030 under various air mitigation technologies scenarios. Health impacts are estimated using an integrated approach that combines the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model, a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and a health model. Results show that at a national level, the road transport sector leads to 163.64 thousand deaths per year, increases the per capita risk of morbidity by 0.37% and accounts for 1.43 billion Yuan in health care expenditures. We estimate 442.90 billion Yuan of the value of statistical life loss and 2.09 h/capita of work time loss in 2015. Without additional control measures, air pollution related to the transport sector will cause 177.50 thousand deaths in 2030, a 0.40% per capita increase in the risk of morbidity, accounting for 4.12 billion Yuan in health care expenditures, 737.15 billion Yuan of statistical life loss and 2.23 h/capita of work time loss. Based on our model, implementing the most strict control strategy scenario would decrease mortality by 42.14%, morbidity risk by 42.14%, health care expenditures by 41.94%, statistical life loss by 26.22% and hours of work time loss by 42.65%, comparing with the no control measure scenario. In addition, PM2.5 pollution from the road transport sector will cause 0.68% GDP loss in 2030. At a provincial level, GDP losses in 14 out of 30 provinces far exceed the national rate. Henan (1.20%), Sichuan (1.07%), Chongqing (0.99%), Hubei (0.94%), and Shandong (0.90%) would experience the highest GDP loss in 2030. Implementing control strategies to reduce PM2.5 pollution in the road transport sector could bring positive benefits in half of the Chinese provinces especially in provinces that suffer greater health impacts from the road transport sector (such as Henan and Sichuan).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Saúde Ambiental , Veículos Automotores , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , China , Saúde Ambiental/economia , Saúde Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Morbidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/economia , Transportes
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29596347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urban outdoor air pollution, especially particulate matter, remains a major environmental health problem in Skopje, the capital of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Despite the documented high levels of pollution in the city, the published evidence on its health impacts is as yet scarce. METHODS: we obtained, cleaned, and validated Particulate Matter (PM) concentration data from five air quality monitoring stations in the Skopje metropolitan area, applied relevant concentration-response functions, and evaluated health impacts against two theoretical policy scenarios. We then calculated the burden of disease attributable to PM and calculated the societal cost due to attributable mortality. RESULTS: In 2012, long-term exposure to PM2.5 (49.2 µg/m³) caused an estimated 1199 premature deaths (CI95% 821-1519). The social cost of the predicted premature mortality in 2012 due to air pollution was estimated at between 570 and 1470 million euros. Moreover, PM2.5 was also estimated to be responsible for 547 hospital admissions (CI95% 104-977) from cardiovascular diseases, and 937 admissions (CI95% 937-1869) for respiratory disease that year. Reducing PM2.5 levels to the EU limit (25 µg/m³) could have averted an estimated 45% of PM-attributable mortality, while achieving the WHO Air Quality Guidelines (10 µg/m³) could have averted an estimated 77% of PM-attributable mortality. Both scenarios would also attain significant reductions in attributable respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions. CONCLUSIONS: Besides its health impacts in terms of increased premature mortality and hospitalizations, air pollution entails significant economic costs to the population of Skopje. Reductions in PM2.5 concentrations could provide substantial health and economic gains to the city.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/economia , Exposição Ambiental/economia , Nível de Saúde , Hospitalização/economia , Mortalidade Prematura , Material Particulado/economia , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Medição de Risco
12.
Environ Pollut ; 236: 49-59, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29414374

RESUMO

China established Domestic Emission Control Area (DECA) for sulphur since 2015 to constrain the increasing shipping emissions. However, future DECA policy-makings are not supported due to a lack of quantitive evaluations. To investigate the effects of current and possible Chinese DECAs policies, a model is presented for the forecast of shipping emissions and evaluation of potential costs and benefits of an DECA policy package set in 2020. It includes a port-level and regional-level projection accounting for shipping trade volume growth, share of ship types, and fuel consumption. The results show that without control measures, both SO2 and particulate matter (PM) emissions are expected to increase by 15.3-61.2% in Jing-Jin-Ji, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta from 2013 to 2020. However, most emissions can be reduced annually by the establishment of a DECA that depends on the size of the control area and the fuel sulphur content limit. Costs range from 0.667 to 1.561 billion dollars (control regional shipping emissions) based on current fuel price. A social cost method shows the regional control scenarios benefit-cost ratios vary from 4.3 to 5.1 with large uncertainty. Chemical transportation model combined with health model method is used to get the monetary health benefits and then compared with the results from social cost method. This study suggests that Chinese DECAs will reduce the projected emissions at a favorable benefit-cost ratio, and furthermore proposes policy combinations that provide high cost-effective benefits as a reference for future policy-making.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/economia , Navios/economia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/economia , Navios/estatística & dados numéricos , Enxofre/análise
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1017: 233-242, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177965

RESUMO

As the largest developing country in the world, China is now facing one of the severest air pollution problems. The objective of this section is to evaluate the disease burden and corresponding economic loss attributable to ambient air pollution in China. We reviewed a series of studies by Chinese or foreign investigators focusing on the disease burden and economic loss in China. These studies showed both the general air pollution and haze episodes have resulted in substantial disease burden in terms of excess number of premature deaths, disability-adjusted life-year loss, and years of life lost. The corresponding economic loss has accounted for an appreciable proportion of China's national economy. Overall, the disease burden and health economic loss due to ambient air pollution in China is greater than in the remaining parts of the world, for one of the highest levels of air pollution and the largest size of exposed population. Consideration of both health and economic impacts of air pollution can facilitate the Chinese government to develop environmental policies to reduce the emissions of various air pollutants and protect the public health.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Poluição do Ar/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Exposição Ambiental/economia , Seguro por Invalidez/economia , Material Particulado/economia , Saúde Pública/economia , Licença Médica/economia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Causas de Morte , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Modelos Econômicos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco
14.
Nature ; 545(7655): 467-471, 2017 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28505629

RESUMO

Vehicle emissions contribute to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and tropospheric ozone air pollution, affecting human health, crop yields and climate worldwide. On-road diesel vehicles produce approximately 20 per cent of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are key PM2.5 and ozone precursors. Regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, but current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. Here we show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80 per cent of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These excess emissions (totalling 4.6 million tons) are associated with about 38,000 PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths globally in 2015, including about 10 per cent of all ozone-related premature deaths in the 28 European Union member states. Heavy-duty vehicles are the dominant contributor to excess diesel NOx emissions and associated health impacts in almost all regions. Adopting and enforcing next-generation standards (more stringent than Euro 6/VI) could nearly eliminate real-world diesel-related NOx emissions in these markets, avoiding approximately 174,000 global PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths in 2040. Most of these benefits can be achieved by implementing Euro VI standards where they have not yet been adopted for heavy-duty vehicles.


Assuntos
União Europeia/economia , Gasolina/análise , Gasolina/economia , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Óxido Nítrico/envenenamento , Emissões de Veículos/prevenção & controle , Emissões de Veículos/envenenamento , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , União Europeia/estatística & dados numéricos , Gasolina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mortalidade Prematura , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/economia , Ozônio/envenenamento , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/economia , Material Particulado/envenenamento , Emissões de Veículos/análise
15.
Environ Int ; 104: 14-24, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28395145

RESUMO

An evaluation of the socio-economic costs of indoor air pollution can facilitate the development of appropriate public policies. For the first time in France, such an evaluation was conducted for six selected pollutants: benzene, trichloroethylene, radon, carbon monoxide, particles (PM2.5 fraction), and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The health impacts of indoor exposure were either already available in published works or were calculated. For these calculations, two approaches were followed depending on the available data: the first followed the principles of quantitative health risk assessment, and the second was based on concepts and methods related to the health impact assessment. For both approaches, toxicological data and indoor concentrations related to each target pollutant were used. External costs resulting from mortality, morbidity (life quality loss) and production losses attributable to these health impacts were assessed. In addition, the monetary costs for the public were determined. Indoor pollution associated with the selected pollutants was estimated to have cost approximately €20 billion in France in 2004. Particles contributed the most to the total cost (75%), followed by radon. Premature death and the costs of the quality of life loss accounted for approximately 90% of the total cost. Despite the use of different methods and data, similar evaluations previously conducted in other countries yielded figures within the same order of magnitude.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Benzeno/análise , Benzeno/economia , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade , Mortalidade Prematura , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/economia , Qualidade de Vida , Radônio/análise , Radônio/economia , Medição de Risco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/economia , Tricloroetileno/análise , Tricloroetileno/economia
16.
Environ Int ; 98: 160-170, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27839853

RESUMO

As the major engine of economic growth in China, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region is one of the most urbanized regions in the world. Rapid development has brought great wealth to its citizens; however, at the same time, increasing emissions of ambient pollutants from vehicles and industrial combustions have caused considerable air pollution and negative health effects for the region's residents. In this study, the concentration response function method was applied together with satellite-retrieved particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) concentration data to estimate the health burden caused by this pollutant from 2004 to 2013. The value of statistical life was used to calculate the economic loss due to the negative health effects of particulate matter pollution. Our results show that in the whole PRD region, the estimated number of deaths from the four diseases attributable to PM2.5 was the highest in 2012, at 45,000 (19,000-61,000); the number of all-cause hospital admissions due to PM10 was the highest in 2013, reaching up to 91,000 (0-270,000) (excluding Hong Kong). Among the 10 cities, the capital city Guangzhou suffered the most from ambient particulate matter pollution and had the highest mortality and morbidity over the 10years. The cost of mortality in this region was the highest in 2012, at 46,000 million USD, or around 6.1% of local total gross domestic product (GDP). The positive spatial relationship between the degree of urbanization and the particulate matter concentration proves that the urbanization process does worsen air quality and hence increases the health risks of local urban citizens. It is recommended that local governments further enhance their control policies to better guarantee the health and wealth benefits of local residents.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Urbanização , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/economia , Causas de Morte , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/economia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/economia , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/economia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/economia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Rios , Imagens de Satélites , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/economia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Incerteza
17.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 134(4): 315-21, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27581332

RESUMO

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Exposure to air pollutants is one of the factors responsible for hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases. The objective here was to estimate the effect of exposure to particulate matter (such as PM2.5) on hospitalizations due to certain respiratory diseases among residents in Volta Redonda (RJ). DESIGN AND SETTING: Ecological time series study using data from Volta Redonda (RJ). METHODS: Data on hospital admissions among residents of Volta Redonda (RJ), between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2012, due to pneumonia, acute bronchitis, bronchiolitis and asthma, were analyzed. Daily data on PM2.5 concentrations were estimated through the CCATT-BRAMS model. The generalized additive Poisson regression model was used, taking the daily number of hospitalizations to be the dependent variable and the PM2.5 concentration to be the independent variable, with adjustment for temperature, relative humidity, seasonality and day of the week, and using lags of zero to seven days. Excess hospitalization and its cost were calculated in accordance with increases in PM2.5 concentration of 5 µg/m3. RESULTS: There were 752 hospitalizations in 2012; the average concentration of PM2.5 was 17.2 µg/m3; the effects of exposure were significant at lag 2 (RR = 1.017), lag 5 (RR = 1.022) and lag 7 (RR = 1,020). A decrease in PM2.5 concentration of 5 µg/m3 could reduce admissions by up to 76 cases, with a decrease in spending of R$ 84,000 a year. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study provide support for implementing public health policies in this municipality, which is an important steelmaking center.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/economia , Masculino , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/economia , Admissão do Paciente/economia , Distribuição de Poisson , Valores de Referência , Doenças Respiratórias/economia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo (Meteorologia)
18.
Environ Technol ; 37(24): 3131-8, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27143216

RESUMO

Assessment of the health and economic impacts of PM2.5 pollution is of great importance for urban air pollution prevention and control. In this study, we evaluate the damage of PM2.5 pollution using Beijing as an example. First, we use exposure-response functions to estimate the adverse health effects due to PM2.5 pollution. Then, the corresponding labour loss and excess medical expenditure are computed as two conducting variables. Finally, different from the conventional valuation methods, this paper introduces the two conducting variables into the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the impacts on sectors and the whole economic system caused by PM2.5 pollution. The results show that, substantial health effects of the residents in Beijing from PM2.5 pollution occurred in 2013, including 20,043 premature deaths and about one million other related medical cases. Correspondingly, using the 2010 social accounting data, Beijing gross domestic product loss due to the health impact of PM2.5 pollution is estimated as 1286.97 (95% CI: 488.58-1936.33) million RMB. This demonstrates that PM2.5 pollution not only has adverse health effects, but also brings huge economic loss.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/economia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/economia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/economia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Pequim , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Tamanho da Partícula
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 23(12): 11716-28, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26944425

RESUMO

Aggravated air pollution in Beijing, China has caused serious health concern. This paper comprehensively evaluates the health losses from illness and premature death caused by air pollution in monetary terms. We use the concentration of PM10 as an indicator of the pollution since it constitutes the primary pollutant in Beijing. By our estimation, air pollution in Beijing caused a health loss equivalent to Ò°583.02 million or 0.03 % of its GDP. Most of the losses took the form of depreciation in human capital that resulted from premature death. The losses from premature deaths were most salient for people of either old or young ages, with the former group suffering from the highest mortality rates and the latter group the highest per capital losses of human capitals from premature death. Policies that target on PM10 emission reduction, urban vegetation expansion, and protection of vulnerable groups are all proposed as possible solutions to air pollution risks in Beijing.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública/economia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Poluição do Ar/economia , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pequim , China , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Modelos Econômicos , Material Particulado/economia
20.
Int J Public Health ; 60(5): 619-27, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26024815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Quantitative estimates of air pollution health impacts have become an increasingly critical input to policy decisions. The WHO project "Health risks of air pollution in Europe--HRAPIE" was implemented to provide the evidence-based concentration-response functions for quantifying air pollution health impacts to support the 2013 revision of the air quality policy for the European Union (EU). METHODS: A group of experts convened by WHO Regional Office for Europe reviewed the accumulated primary research evidence together with some commissioned reviews and recommended concentration-response functions for air pollutant-health outcome pairs for which there was sufficient evidence for a causal association. RESULTS: The concentration-response functions link several indicators of mortality and morbidity with short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide. The project also provides guidance on the use of these functions and associated baseline health information in the cost-benefit analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The project results provide the scientific basis for formulating policy actions to improve air quality and thereby reduce the burden of disease associated with air pollution in Europe.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Nível de Saúde , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Poluição do Ar/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Exposição Ambiental/economia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/economia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Tempo , Organização Mundial da Saúde
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA