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1.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125299, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896194

RESUMO

The physicochemical characteristics are different for suspended particles (SPS) with different sizes in rivers. Here, we studied the effect of SPS (1 g L-1) with three different sizes (63-106 µm, 20-63 µm, and <20 µm) on the bioaccumulation of deuterated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene-d10, anthracene-d10, fluoranthene-d10 and pyrene-d10) in zebrafish using passive dosing devices to maintain the freely dissolved concentrations of PAHs-d10 constant in water. The results showed that all the three grain size SPS could be ingested by zebrafish, and there was no significant difference in the amount of ingested SPS among the three grain sizes. The concentrations (lipid-normalized or not) of PAHs-d10 in zebrafish were promoted in the presence of the three different size SPS, and the PAH-d10 concentrations in zebrafish increased with decreasing particle size. Compared with the systems without SPS, the lipid-normalized concentrations of PAHs-d10 increased by 12%-72%, 34%-130%, and 60%-196%, respectively in zebrafish in systems with 63-106 µm, 20-63 µm, and <20 µm of SPS after exposure for 20 h. The stronger effect of SPS with smaller grain sizes was probably due to their lower organic carbon content, lower ratio of black carbon to organic carbon content, smaller particle size, and higher dissolved organic matter contents, which could promote the desorption of PAHs-d10 from ingested SPS and bioaccessibility of PAHs-d10 to zebrafish. This study suggests that in addition to SPS concentration, the suspended particle size should be considered in ecological risk assessment for hydrophobic organic compounds in aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Modelos Teóricos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
2.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124953, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574435

RESUMO

Chemical characterization of PM2.5 and PM10 is important to identify potential compounds that induce biological responses that translate into cardio-respiratory health problems. This study shows the reliability of the use of crystalline phases, identified in samples from receptor sites, as source markers, helping researchers to infer the main sources of air pollution, even without the use of receptor models. PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected at two sites in an urban industrialized region located at southeast of Brazil and analyzed by Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction to identify crystalline compounds. Results show 5 PM10 and PM2.5 species not previously reported in the literature. We propose reaction mechanisms for these species and identify specific sources for each crystalline phase found: BaTiO3 was found in PM10 receptor samples and proved to be a vehicular marker formed during brake action; maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), pyracmonite [(NH4)3Fe(SO4)3], ammonium perchlorate (NH3OHClO4) and potassium ferrate (K2Fe2O4) were found in PM2.5 proved to be markers of industrial activities. The crystalline phases found in PM samples from receptor sites and the mechanisms of reactions showed the reliability of the use of crystalline phases as source markers in the identification of potential sources of air pollution without misinterpretation of the likely source.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/química , Sulfato de Amônio/análise , Compostos de Bário/análise , Brasil , Compostos Férricos/análise , Indústrias , Compostos de Ferro/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Percloratos/análise , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Síncrotrons , Titânio/análise , Difração de Raios X/métodos
3.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124557, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422311

RESUMO

Field-collected chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soils and associated particulate matter (PM) were characterized for their total metal(loid)s content (As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and physicochemical properties. Copper, Ni, Pb and Zn fractionation (using sequential extraction) and inhalation bioaccessibility (using two lung fluids) of trace elements were assessed in PM samples. In Gamble's solution (GS), low average bioaccessibility (up to 12%) was observed for As, Cu, Mn, and Ni. A strong correlation (r = 0.92, p < 0.005, n = 9) between the soluble and exchangeable fraction (F1) and bioaccessibility in GS was observed for Cu. Inhalation bioaccessibility in artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) was higher for Cu (avg. 78.5 ± 4.2%), Mn (avg. 56.8 ± 12.1%), Zn (avg. 54.8 ± 24.5%) and As (avg. 45.4 ± 18.8%). Strong correlations between inhalation bioaccessibility in ALF and the mobile (i.e. F1+F2) metal fraction were observed for all tested metals (i.e. (Cu (r = 0.95, p < 0.005), Ni (r = 0.79, p < 0.05), Pb (r = 0.92, p < 0.005) and Zn (r = 0.98, p < 0.005)), n = 9). The oxidative potential (OP) of PM was also assessed using an ascorbate (AA) depletion assay (OPAA). Mobile Cu fractions were deemed to be the main factor influencing OPAA ((F1 (r = 0.99, p < 0.005), F2 (r = 0.97, p < 0.005)), n = 9) in PM samples. A strong correlation (r = 0.94, p < 0.005, n = 10) was also observed between Cu bioaccessibility in GS and OPAA.


Assuntos
Arseniatos/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Pulmão/metabolismo , Metais/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Arseniatos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Oxirredução , Material Particulado/química
4.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124776, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526988

RESUMO

Modern microscopy studies are capable of revealing ultra-fine particles (UFPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) that are produced in the processes related to traffic vehicular, industrial, metropolitan, and marine aerosol dry deposition in the coastal zones. Especially, secondary aerosol passages complexes categories of NPs and UFPs, which can be accumulated on construction compounds and by dry deposition, encourages multiples monuments deterioration routes. The advanced electron microscopies method is one of the most utilized in environmental studies. Between the different industrial areas in the world, the Caribbean area is the most relevant symbols of air quality due to climatic conditions with strong winds, but this study shows that regionally the most industrialized region does not have an adequate air quality. In the present work, electron microscopy analyses are used to describe of the extent of ultra-fine particle and nanoparticles in walls in contact to weathering. Numerous phases were recognized by advanced mineralogy methods. Thanks to the new analytical procedure it was feasible to understand NPs and UFPs; the occurrence of potential hazardous elements (PHEs), most of them as minerals but also combined in multiple accumulations with Al-Cr-Fe-K-Mg-Pb-Si-Ti-Zn amorphous; and carbonaceous phases.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Nanopartículas/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar/análise , Atmosfera , Região do Caribe , Colômbia , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Desenvolvimento Industrial , Minerais/análise , Veículos Automotores , Material Particulado/química , Vento
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109740, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655327

RESUMO

To comparatively analyze source-specific risks of atmospheric particulate matter (PM), PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (HMs) were synchronously detected in a megacity (Chengdu, China) from 2009 to 2016. Non-cancer risk (assessed by hazard quotient, HQ) of PAHs and HMs was within the acceptable level, while cancer risk (assessed by incremental life cancer risk (ILCR), R) of PAHs and HMs were 1.01 × 10-4 and 9.40 × 10-5 in DP and WP, which showed low risk. HMs dominated cancer (92.12%) and non-cancer (99.99%) risks. An advanced method named as joint source-specific risk assessment of HMs and PAHs (HP-SRA model) was developed to assess comprehensive source-specific risks. Gasoline combustion (contributed 9.6% of PM10, 0.3% of HQ and 10.0% of R), diesel combustion (6.2% of PM10, 0.2% of HQ and 10.7% of R), coal combustion (17.5% of PM10, 1.8% of HQ and 13.4% of R), industrial source (9.1% of PM10, 80.7% of HQ and 35.0% of R), crustal dust (28.1% of PM10, 9.0% of HQ and 1.6% of R), nitrate (7.5% of PM10, 1.1% of HQ and 6.2% of R) and sulphate & secondary organic carbon & adsorption (SSA, 19.6% of PM10, 6.9% of HQ and 23.1% of R) were identified as main sources. For cancer risk, industrial sources and SSA posed the highest proportion. Higher levels of Co and Ni generated from industrial sources and Cr (Ⅵ), Cd and Ni absorbed in the SSA can result in high-risk contributions. Thus, controlling HMs levels in industrial emissions is essential to protecting human health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , China , Cidades , Humanos , Metais Pesados/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Medição de Risco
7.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113087, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541815

RESUMO

Humic-like substances (HULIS) account for a considerable fraction of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) in ambient fine particulates (PM2.5) over the world. However, systemic studies regarding the chemical characteristics, sources and redox activity of HULIS are still limited. In this study, the mass concentration, optical properties, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generation potential of HULIS were investigated in PM2.5 samples collected in Hong Kong during 2011-2012, and they all showed higher levels on days under regional pollution than on days under long range transport (LRT) pollution and local emissions. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis was conducted regarding the mass concentration and dithiothreitol (DTT) activity of HULIS. Four primary sources (i.e. marine vessels, industrial exhaust, biomass burning, and vehicle emissions), and two secondary sources (i.e. secondary organic aerosol formation and secondary sulfate) were identified. Most sources showed higher contributions to both the mass concentration and DTT activity of HULIS on regional days than on LRT and local days, except that marine vessels had a higher contribution on local days than the other two synoptic conditions. Secondary processes were the major contributor to HULIS (54.9%) throughout the year, followed by biomass burning (27.4%) and industrial exhaust (14.7%). As for the DTT activity of HULIS, biomass burning (62.9%) and secondary processes (25.4%) were found to be the top two contributors. Intrinsic ROS-generation potential of HULIS was also investigated by normalizing the DTT activity by HULIS mass in each source. HULIS from biomass burning were the most DTT-active, followed by marine vessels; while HULIS formed through secondary processes were the least DTT-active. For the optical properties of HULIS, multiple linear regression model was adopted to evaluate the contributions of various sources to the light absorbing ability of HULIS. Biomass burning was found to be the only source significantly associated with the light absorbing property of HULIS.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Material Particulado/química , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carvão Mineral/análise , Poeira/análise , Hong Kong , Oxirredução , Material Particulado/análise , Solubilidade , Água/química
8.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124530, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549650

RESUMO

There is growing evidence suggesting the enhancement of brown carbon (BrC) in severe haze episodes. In this study, hourly measurements of BrC in PM2.5 were conducted in Xi'an, a typical city in northwestern China during winter and summer. The absorption coefficient for methanol exacts at 365 nm (babs365, methanol, which is typically used as a proxy of methanol-soluble BrC) in the winter sampling period was over 7 times than that in summer. The mass absorption cross-section for methanol extracts (MAC365, methanol, normalized by babs365, methanol to organic carbon, OC) in winter sampling period was nearly 1.5 times of that in the summer. During the winter haze days, the average babs365,methanol peaked at midnight and the lowest values in the morning, in contrast to high levels in afternoon and low levels at night in non haze days. Unlike the diurnal patterns in winter, summer babs365, methanol diurnal variation presented high midday and low afternoon levels in haze days. However, in non haze days, the pattern showed high morning levels and night low levels. Haze and non haze variations of chemical species levels, babs365, methanol, and MAC365, methanol during winter and summer sampling time showed that the effects of atmospheric aging were complex and could either enhance or reduce light absorption of BrC. Source apportionment based on positive matrix factorization receptor model and multiple linear regressions showed that primary emission was an important contributor to BrC emissions during the winter sampling period, whereas secondary formation played an important role in summer.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Carbono/análise , China , Cidades , Metanol , Material Particulado/química , Estações do Ano
9.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 113113, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484101

RESUMO

Rapid industrialization and urbanization have resulted in widespread pollution of airborne particulate matter (PM) containing various heavy metals with adverse human-health effects. Health risk assessment of PM calls for accurate evaluation of the bioaccessibility, instead of the total content, of heavy metals in PM. Here, we demonstrated that the leachable fraction of particle-bound As, Pb, Cr, Mn, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in lung fluid within the typical retention duration of particles in human lungs varied drastically among particles originated from different air pollution sources, including coal combustion, biomass combustion, fugitive dust, road dust, construction dust, cement and soil. Moreover, bioaccessibility of heavy metals, particularly in biomass combustion, cement and soil particles, was strongly dependent on pollution sources, and the particulate Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd appeared to be the primary indicators of the source dependence of heavy metal bioaccessibility. Using total rather than bioaccessible concentrations of particle-bound heavy metals not only led to overestimation of the health risk of source particles, but more importantly, inaccurate identification of the high-risk pollution sources and the priority metal pollutants in the source particles. When considering bioaccessibility of particle-bound heavy metals examined in this study, coal combustion products exhibited the highest carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks among all source particles, whereas cement particles would be the source with highest risk based on total metal content. As and Mn appeared to be the main drivers for the noncarcinogenic risks of source particles, while As, Ni and Cr were the major contributors to the carcinogenic risks of source particles, significantly different from those based on total contents. This research underlines the importance of incorporating bioaccessibility into health risk indexes of frequently occurring particle-bound heavy metals from specific air pollution sources, which will facilitate risk-based assessment of source contribution and hence effective source regulation of airborne PM.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Carvão Mineral , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Material Particulado/química , Medição de Risco , Solo
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(33): 34357-34367, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493079

RESUMO

To investigate the acid-extractable heavy metals in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) over Xi'an, China, 24-h PM2.5 samples were collected every 3 days from December 2015 through November 2016. The bioavailable fraction, termed here the bioavailability index (BI), of PM2.5-bound metal (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn) and potential influencing factors, including relative humidity, temperature, air pressure, wind speed, visibility, PM2.5, and SO2 concentrations, were assessed in this study. The annual average PM2.5 concentration was 50.6 ± 35.6 µg m-3, 1.5 times higher than the Chinese national secondary standard. Zn, Ti, and As were the most abundant elements of those analyzed in the PM2.5 samples, accounting for 72.1% of total quantity. The seasonal variations and enrichment factor analysis of heavy metals revealed that coal combustion in winter was a crucial source of Pb, Co, Cu, and Zn; and dust resuspension in spring contributed considerable Mn, Ti, and V. The acid-extractable fractions of the measured metals varied. Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn exhibited relatively high acid-extractable concentrations and BI values. Pb was mostly in the acid-extractable fraction in PM2.5, with a mean BI value of 66.7%, the highest in summer (69.8%) and lowest in winter (63.7%). Moreover, the BIs of PM2.5-bound heavy metals were inversely related to temperature and wind speed, whereas positively correlated with relative humidity, SO2, and PM2.5 concentration in this study. This study assessed the seasonal distribution and meteorological influence of acid-extractable heavy metals, providing a deeper understanding of atmospheric heavy metal pollution in Xi'an, China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/química , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Material Particulado/química , Ácidos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , China , Poeira/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Meteorologia , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405250

RESUMO

Association between short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mortality or morbidity varies geographically, and this variation could be due to different chemical composition affected by local sources. However, there have been only a few Asian studies possibly due to limited monitoring data. Using nationwide regulatory monitoring data of PM2.5 chemical components in South Korea, we aimed to compare the associations between daily exposure to PM2.5 components and mortality across six major cities. We obtained daily 24-h concentrations of PM2.5 and 11 PM2.5 components measured from 2013 to 2015 at single sites located in residential areas. We used death certificate data to compute the daily counts of nonaccidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths. Using the generalized additive model, we estimated relative risks of daily mortality for an interquartile range increase in each pollutant concentration, while controlling for a longer-term time trend and meteorology. While elemental carbon was consistently associated with nonaccidental mortality across all cities, nickel and vanadium were strongly associated with respiratory or cardiovascular mortality in Busan and Ulsan, two large port cities. Our study shows that PM2.5 components responsible for PM2.5-associated mortality differed across cities depending on the dominant pollution sources, such as traffic and oil combustion.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/efeitos adversos , Carbono/análise , Cidades , Humanos , Material Particulado/química , República da Coreia
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 148: 156-167, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425858

RESUMO

Spatial-temporal variations of macrofouling organisms that attach to ecological floating beds (EFBs) in the Yundang Lagoon were investigated to identify factors that influence the appearance of macrofouling organisms. Results show that the composition, abundance, biomass, and dominance of macrofouling organisms on EFBs exhibited significant seasonal variation. Pearson correlation analysis indicates that the abundance and biomass of the bivalve Mytilopsis sallei showed negative correlation with root biomass (p < 0.05) and particulate matter (p < 0.05). Environmental (temperature and salinity, p < 0.05) and biological (bottom-up control) factors are the main drivers of population turnover. There were significant species differences of macrofouling organisms within the different parts of the lagoon, which were attributed to environmental characteristics such as hydrodynamics, dissolved oxygen, and the degree of eutrophication. Results of this study provide a basis for controlling macrofouling organisms, while improving the stability of EFBs and the efficiency of ecological restoration.


Assuntos
Bivalves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Biomassa , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Material Particulado/química , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar/química
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(30): 30826-30835, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444729

RESUMO

The sequential extraction method was used to determine the fraction of arsenic (As) in different-sized particulate matters (PMs) (i.e., PM2.5, PM10, and total suspended particles (TSP)). Samples were collected from Baoding, a typical medium-sized city with the serious haze pollution in China. The bioavailabilities of As in the samples were estimated based on the fraction results. A large percentage of fine particles were detected in TSP, with the average PM2.5/PM10 and PM10/TSP ratios all above 0.69. The total concentrations of As in PM2.5, PM10, and TSP samples were in the range of 4.5-296.4, 14.1-708.0, and 32.8-798.0 ng m-3, respectively. The mass percentages of As in PM2.5, PM2.5-10, and PM10-100 were calculated; the results indicated that As tended to concentrate in fine particles. PM-bound As mainly presented in the nonspecifically sorbed fraction (F1) during all of the sampling periods. The percentages of F1-As and bioavailability of As were higher in PM2.5, followed by PM10 and TSP. By contrast, the residual fraction (F5-As) contents declined in the order of TSP > PM10 > PM2.5. Significant differences in the speciation and bioavailability of As in different-sized PMs were found, and the influence of particle size on the speciation and bioavailability of As in PMs was verified. Fine particles adsorbed more As with higher bioavailability, and potentially led to more serious adverse effects on human health than the larger ones.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Arsênico/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/farmacocinética , Arsênico/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/química
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 528, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367959

RESUMO

The distribution and bioavailability of arsenic (As) in indoor/outdoor total suspended particulates (TSP), inhalable particulate matters (PM10), and fine particulate matters (PM2.5) in Baoding, China were investigated. The average I/O ratios for TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 were 0.52, 0.66, and 0.96, respectively. There was no significant correlation between indoor/outdoor TSP, PM10, and PM2.5. The indoor/outdoor concentrations of As surpassed the limited value of As. I/O ratios of arsenic in TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 were 0.52, 0.58, and 0.55, respectively. The contents of arsenic in different fractions were mainly affected by the total concentrations of arsenic in particulate matters (PM) rather than the particle sizes for TSP and PM10. Arsenic was mainly in non-specifically sorbed fraction (F1) in both indoor and outdoor PM2.5. The evaluated carcinogenic risk (CR) was within the safe level. The bioavailability of As increased with particle size decreasing for both indoor and outdoor PM. The potential bioavailability of As in outdoor particles was higher than that of indoor particles with the same size, especially PM2.5.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Arsênico/análise , Material Particulado/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Arsênico/química , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362448

RESUMO

Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, located in the southwest of China, has rapidly developed since the late 2000s. Similar to other regions, economic development has been accompanied by environmental problems, especially air pollution, which can adversely affect the health of residents in the area. In this study, we estimated the negative health effects of three major ambient pollutants, Particulate Matter with a diameter of 10 µm or less (PM10), Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) in Guangxi from 2011 to 2016 using a log-linear exposure-response function. We monetarized the economic loss using the value of statistical life (VSL) and the cost of illness (COI) methods. The results show that the total possible short-term all-cause mortality values due to PM10, SO2, and NO2 were 28,396, with the confidence intervals from 14,664 to 42,014 (14,664-42,014), 24,618 (15,480-33,371), and 46,365 (31,158-61,423), respectively. The mortality from the three pollutants was 48,098 (19,972-75,973). The economic loss of the health burden from the three pollutants was 40,555 (24,172-57,585), which was 2.86% (1.70-4.06%) of the regional gross domestic product. The result of the comparative analysis among different cities showed that urbanization, industrialization, and residents' income are important factors in air-pollution-caused health damage and subsequent economic loss. We conclude that the health burden caused by ambient pollutants in developing regions, accompanied by its rapid socio-economic growth, is significant and tighter regulation is needed in the future to alleviate air pollution and mitigate the related health damage.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/química , Material Particulado/química , Dióxido de Enxofre/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Urbanização
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(27): 28202-28209, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363974

RESUMO

In order to further explore the relationship between water body eutrophication of some reaches of Yellow River and phosphorus species in sediments, and evaluate phosphorus release potential from sediments to overlying water, we investigated the distribution of P species and their release risk in the surface sediments from different reaches along Yellow River, as well as the influence of artificial dam on phosphorus cycle in Yellow River. The results show that the content of calcium phosphorus (PCa) is higher than the content of bioavailable phosphorus (BP) (BP = Pex + PFe; in the formula, Pex means exchangeable phosphorus and PFe means iron phosphorus) in the surface sediments from Yellow River. Among all the surface sediment samples from 21 stations, only Dayudu section (H15) has a ratio of W (BP)/W (PCa) higher than 0.5; the results show that the intensity of phosphorus release from H15 is high, and there is a potential risk of eutrophication in water, while the phosphorus release level of water sediment in other reaches of Yellow River is low. The content of BP and total phosphorus (∑P) in surface sediments along the Yellow River is in descending order: middle reaches of Yellow River > upper reaches of Yellow River > Yellow River downstream, while the content order of total phosphorus (TP) in the overlying water is as follows: Yellow river downstream > middle reaches of Yellow River > upper reaches of Yellow River (except the H7 station), indicating that extensive artificial corresponding damming in Yellow River basin makes the concentration of TP increasing significantly in overlying from upstream to downstream. The establishment of Haibowan water conservancy project in Yellow River makes the total particulate matter (TPM) concentration in the water to reduce to very low lever in Wuhai H7 section, and the phosphorus concentration in the overlying water reaches 0.136 mg L-1.


Assuntos
Material Particulado/química , Fósforo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Eutrofização , Fósforo/química , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
17.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124266, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326756

RESUMO

PM2.5 is one of the most notorious ambient pollutants in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region during episodic conditions. In this work, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extension (CAMx) was used together with the Particulate Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) module to analyze the influences of different sources on PM2.5 concentration in the PRD region under different synoptic patterns (sea high pressure, sub-tropical high pressure and equalizing pressure field). The result shows that the PM2.5 concentration increases to different degrees under the three synoptic patterns. The emissions outside the PRD region contribute more than 54% under episodic conditions. The source category contribution varies little under different synoptic patterns. Area (46%), mobile (21%) and industry point source (16%) are the major contributors over the three episodic cases. The regional source contributions (from other cities within the PRD) to Foshan, Zhongshan and Zhaoqing are larger and can reach up to 33%. People living in the PRD region are more exposed to pollutants produced from the area and mobile sources. About 80% of the population is exposed to PM2.5 levels exceeding the IT-3 standard during the pollution episodes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/química , Rios/química
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 27444-27456, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327144

RESUMO

Air pollution represents a major health problem in megacities, bringing about 8 million deaths every year. The aim of the study was to evaluate in vivo the ocular and respiratory mucosa biological response after chronic exposure to urban air particles from Buenos Aires (UAP-BA). BALB/c mice were exposed to UAP-BA or filtered air for 1, 6, 9, and 12 months. After exposure, histology, histomorphometry, and IL-6 proinflammatory cytokine level were evaluated in the respiratory and ocular mucosa. Total cell number and differential cell count were determined in the brochoalveolar lavage fluid. In the lung, chronic exposure to UAP-BA induced reduction of the alveolar space, polymorhonuclear cell recruitment, and goblet cell hyperplasia. In the ocular surface, UAP-BA induced an initial mucin positive cells rise followed by a decline through time, while IL-6 level increased at the latest point-time assayed. Our results showed that the respiratory and the ocular mucosas respond differently to UAP-BA. Being that lung and ocular mucosa diseases may be triggered and/or exacerbated by chronic exposure to urban air PM, the inhabitants of Buenos Aires whom are chronically exposed to environmental urban air pollution may be considered a subpopulation at risk. Based on our results, we propose the ocular mucosa as a reliable and more accessible surrogate for pulmonary mucosa environmental toxicity that might also serve as an earlier biomarker for air pollution adverse impact on health.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Animais , Argentina , Biomarcadores/análise , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Olho/patologia , Feminino , Interleucina-6/análise , Interleucina-6/genética , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/química , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica , Urbanização
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342848

RESUMO

In vitro studies are a first step toward understanding the biological effects of combustion-derived particulate matter (cdPM). A vast majority of studies expose cells to cdPM suspensions, which requires a method to collect cdPM and suspend it in an aqueous media. The consequences of different particle collection methods on particle physiochemical properties and resulting biological responses are not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of two common approaches (collection on a filter and a cold plate) and one relatively new (direct bubbling in DI water) approach to particle collection. The three approaches yielded cdPM with differences in particle size distribution, surface area, composition, and oxidative potential. The directly bubbled sample retained the smallest sized particles and the bimodal distribution observed in the gas-phase. The bubbled sample contained ∼50% of its mass as dissolved species and lower molecular weight compounds, not found in the other two samples. These differences in the cdPM properties affected the biological responses in THP-1 cells. The bubbled sample showed greater oxidative potential and cellular reactive oxygen species. The scraped sample induced the greatest TNFα secretion. These findings have implications for in vitro studies of air pollution and for efforts to better understand the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Cinza de Carvão/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Cinza de Carvão/química , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células THP-1
20.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124373, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336238

RESUMO

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from livestock houses is harmful not only to the health and welfare of animals but also to the farmers working inside. As an important pollution source in the atmosphere environment, PM2.5 can threaten public health. PM2.5 collected from nursery pig house was studied. It included particulates of various morphologies, and the concentration of endotoxin was as high as to 681.80 EU/mg. To investigate the ability of PM2.5 from the nursery pig house to induce an immune response, porcine alveolar macrophages 3D4/21 cells were studied. The results showed that PM2.5 can induce cell death, ROS production and inflammatory cytokines release (IL-1ß, IL-18, TNF-α and COX-2) by activating TLR4/MyD88 pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome. Furthermore, the downstream signaling pathways of TLR4/MyD88, MAPK and NF-κB, participated in NLRP3 inflammasome activation. To further study the role of endotoxin present in PM2.5 and the oxidative stress induced by PM2.5, polymyxin B (PMB) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were used to neutralize the effect of the endotoxin and inhibit the production of ROS, respectively. The results showed endotoxin and ROS played important roles in PM2.5-induced immune response. This study suggests that PM2.5 from pig house is a significant risk for immune response in alveolar macrophages.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Material Particulado/química , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Suínos
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