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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5213, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480023

RESUMO

Intervertebral disc degeneration is highly prevalent within the elderly population and is a leading cause of chronic back pain and disability. Due to the link between disc degeneration and senescence, we explored the ability of the Dasatinib and Quercetin drug combination (D + Q) to prevent an age-dependent progression of disc degeneration in mice. We treated C57BL/6 mice beginning at 6, 14, and 18 months of age, and analyzed them at 23 months of age. Interestingly, 6- and 14-month D + Q cohorts show lower incidences of degeneration, and the treatment results in a significant decrease in senescence markers p16INK4a, p19ARF, and SASP molecules IL-6 and MMP13. Treatment also preserves cell viability, phenotype, and matrix content. Although transcriptomic analysis shows disc compartment-specific effects of the treatment, cell death and cytokine response pathways are commonly modulated across tissue types. Results suggest that senolytics may provide an attractive strategy to mitigating age-dependent disc degeneration.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Dasatinibe/uso terapêutico , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , Agrecanas/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Anel Fibroso/efeitos dos fármacos , Anel Fibroso/metabolismo , Anel Fibroso/patologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibrose , Inflamação , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/metabolismo , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Núcleo Pulposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Pulposo/metabolismo , Núcleo Pulposo/patologia , Fenótipo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445538

RESUMO

Decellularized tissues are biocompatible materials that engraft well, but the age of their source has not been explored for clinical translation. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are chemical cross-links that accrue on skeletal muscle collagen in old age, stiffening the matrix and increasing inflammation. Whether decellularized biomaterials derived from aged muscle would suffer from increased AGE collagen cross-links is unknown. We characterized gastrocnemii of 1-, 2-, and 20-month-old C57BL/6J mice before and after decellularization to determine age-dependent changes to collagen stiffness and AGE cross-linking. Total and soluble collagen was measured to assess if age-dependent increases in collagen and cross-linking persisted in decellularized muscle matrix (DMM). Stiffness of aged DMM was determined using atomic force microscopy. AGE levels and the effect of an AGE cross-link breaker, ALT-711, were tested in DMM samples. Our results show that age-dependent increases in collagen amount, cross-linking, and general stiffness were observed in DMM. Notably, we measured increased AGE-specific cross-links within old muscle, and observed that old DMM retained AGE cross-links using ALT-711 to reduce AGE levels. In conclusion, deleterious age-dependent modifications to collagen are present in DMM from old muscle, implying that age matters when sourcing skeletal muscle extracellular matrix as a biomaterial.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/patologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361000

RESUMO

The recruitment of T cells is a crucial component in the inflammatory cascade of the body. The process involves the transport of T cells through the vascular system and their stable arrest to vessel walls at the site of inflammation, followed by extravasation and subsequent infiltration into tissue. Here, we describe an assay to study 3D T cell dynamics under flow in real time using a high-throughput, artificial membrane-free microfluidic platform that allows unimpeded extravasation of T cells. We show that primary human T cells adhere to endothelial vessel walls upon perfusion of microvessels and can be stimulated to undergo transendothelial migration (TEM) by TNFα-mediated vascular inflammation and the presence of CXCL12 gradients or ECM-embedded melanoma cells. Notably, migratory behavior was found to differ depending on T cell activation states. The assay is unique in its comprehensiveness for modelling T cell trafficking, arrest, extravasation and migration, all in one system, combined with its throughput, quality of imaging and ease of use. We envision routine use of this assay to study immunological processes and expect it to spur research in the fields of immunological disorders, immuno-oncology and the development of novel immunotherapeutics.


Assuntos
Microfluídica/métodos , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Migração Transendotelial e Transepitelial , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CXCL12/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360836

RESUMO

Lysyl oxidase-like 3 (LOXL3), belonging to the lysyl oxidase family, is responsible for the crosslinking in collagen or elastin. The cellular localization of LOXL3 is in the extracellular space by reason of its canonical function. In tumors, the presence of LOXL3 has been associated with genomic stability, cell proliferation, and metastasis. In silico analysis has shown that glioblastoma was among tumors with the highest LOXL3 expression levels. LOXL3 silencing of U87MG cells by siRNA led to the spreading of the tumor cell surface, and the transcriptome analysis of these cells revealed an upregulation of genes coding for extracellular matrix, cell adhesion, and cytoskeleton components, convergent to an increase in cell adhesion and a decrease in cell invasion observed in functional assays. Significant correlations of LOXL3 expression with genes coding for tubulins were observed in the mesenchymal subtype in the TCGA RNA-seq dataset of glioblastoma (GBM). Conversely, genes involved in endocytosis and lysosome formation, along with MAPK-binding proteins related to focal adhesion turnover, were downregulated, which may corroborate the observed decrease in cell viability and increase in the rate of cell death. Invasiveness is a major determinant of the recurrence and poor outcome of GBM patients, and downregulation of LOXL3 may contribute to halting the tumor cell invasion.


Assuntos
Aminoácido Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Adesão Celular , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/enzimologia , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/genética , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Simulação por Computador , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Endocitose , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Invasividade Neoplásica
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360868

RESUMO

Cancer is a multifaceted and complex pathology characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Most cancers are recognized by an inflammatory environment rich in a myriad of factors produced by immune infiltrate cells that induce host cells to differentiate and to produce a matrix that is more favorable to tumor cells' survival and metastasis. As a result, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is changed in terms of macromolecules content, degrading enzymes, and proteins. Altered ECM components, derived from remodeling processes, interact with a variety of surface receptors triggering intracellular signaling that, in turn, cancer cells exploit to their own benefit. This review aims to present the role of different aspects of ECM components in the tumor microenvironment. Particularly, we highlight the effect of pro- and inflammatory factors on ECM degrading enzymes, such as metalloproteases, and in a more detailed manner on hyaluronan metabolism and the signaling pathways triggered by the binding of hyaluronan with its receptors. In addition, we sought to explore the role of extracellular chaperones, especially of clusterin which is one of the most prominent in the extracellular space, in proteostasis and signaling transduction in the tumor microenvironment. Although the described tumor microenvironment components have different biological roles, they may engage common signaling pathways that favor tumor growth and metastasis.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Inflamação , Neoplasias , Proteostase , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia
6.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359873

RESUMO

Integrins belong to a group of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) which is a large group of membrane-bound proteins. They are responsible for cell attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and signal transduction from the ECM to the cells. Integrins take part in many other biological activities, such as extravasation, cell-to-cell adhesion, migration, cytokine activation and release, and act as receptors for some viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). They play a pivotal role in cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, tissue repair and are involved in the processes that are crucial to infection, inflammation and angiogenesis. Integrins have an important part in normal development and tissue homeostasis, and also in the development of pathological processes in the eye. This review presents the available evidence from human and animal research into integrin structure, classification, function and their role in inflammation, infection and angiogenesis in ocular diseases. Integrin receptors and ligands are clinically interesting and may be promising as new therapeutic targets in the treatment of some eye disorders.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Integrinas/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , Adesão Celular , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Oftalmopatias/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Integrinas/análise , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
7.
Postepy Biochem ; 67(2): 104-116, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378887

RESUMO

Changes in glycosylation pattern of cell surface, body fluids and extracellular matrix glycoconjugates is a characteristic feature of tumor cell malignancy. These changes are the result of mutations of tumor-associated genes as well as epigenetic changes in the tumor environment, including nutrient influx, hypoxia, cytokine expression and stimulation of chronic inflammation. The unique set of cell surface glycoantigens on neoplastic cells is recognized by endogenous lectins located in the extracellular matrix, vascular endothelium, on leukocytes or platelets, and has an impact on disrupting basic cellular processes, such as intercellular recognition, cell-cell adhesion or cell-ECM interaction. These changes have a critical impact on the migration, invasive and metastatic potential of neoplastic cells and modulate the immune response. This unique pattern of sugar antigens on the cancer cells can be a vaulable marker to identify them, determine the stage of the disease as well as be a target of anti-cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Adesão Celular , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360950

RESUMO

The Bruch's membrane (BrM) is a five-layered extracellular matrix (ECM) that supports the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Normal age-related changes in the BrM may lead to RPE cell damage and ultimately to the onset and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is the most common cause of visual loss among the elderly. A role for the complement system in AMD pathology has been established, but the disease mechanisms are poorly understood, which hampers the design of efficient therapies to treat millions of patients. In an effort to identify the mechanisms that lead from normal aging to pathology, we have developed a cell-based model using complement deficient human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived RPE cells cultured on an AMD-like ECM that mimics BrM. The data present evidence that changes in the ECM result in loss of differentiation and promote epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of healthy RPE cells. This pathological process is mediated by complement activation and involves the formation of a randomly oriented collagen meshwork that drives the dedifferentiation of the RPE monolayer. Genetic ablation of complement component 3 has a protective effect against EMT but does not prevent the abnormal deposition of collagens. These findings offer new insights into the sequence of events that initiate AMD and may guide the design of efficient therapies to treat this disease with unmet medical needs.


Assuntos
Complemento C3/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Degeneração Macular/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Colágeno/metabolismo , Ativação do Complemento , Complemento C3/genética , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia
9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 39135-39141, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374274

RESUMO

Many physiochemical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of muscle tissues, such as nanometer scale dimension, nanotopography, negative charge, and elasticity, must be carefully reproduced to fabricate scaffold materials mimicking muscle tissues. Hence, we developed a muscle tissue ECM-mimicking scaffold using Mo6S3I6 inorganic molecular wires (IMWs). Composed of bio-essential elements and having a nanofibrous structure with a diameter of ∼1 nm and a negative surface charge with high stability, Mo6S3I6 IMWs are ideal for mimicking natural ECM molecules. Once Mo6S3I6 IMWs were patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane surface with an elasticity of 1877.1 ± 22.2 kPa, that is, comparable to that of muscle tissues, the proliferation and α-tubulin expression of myoblasts enhanced significantly. Additionally, the repetitive one-dimensional patterns of Mo6S3I6 IMWs induced the alignment and stretching of myoblasts with enhanced α-tubulin expression and differentiation into myocytes. This study demonstrates that Mo6S3I6 IMWs are promising for mimicking the ECM of muscle tissues.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Nanofios/química , Tecidos Suporte/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Iodo/química , Molibdênio/química , Músculos/citologia , Mioblastos/citologia , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Enxofre/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Engenharia Tecidual , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 39142-39156, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433244

RESUMO

The reconstruction of the intra/interfibrillar mineralized collagen microstructure is extremely important in biomaterial science and regeneration medicine. However, certain problems, such as low efficiency and long period of mineralization, are apparent, and the mechanism of interfibrillar mineralization is often neglected in the present literature. Thus, we propose a novel model of biomimetic collagen mineralization that uses molecules with the dual function of cross-linking collagen and regulating collagen mineralization to construct the intrafibrillar and interfibrillar collagen mineralization of the structure of mineralized collagen hard tissues. In the present study completed in vitro, N-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acrylamide (DAA) is used to bind and cross-link collagen molecules and further stabilize the self-assembled collagen fibers. The DAA-collagen complex provides more affinity with calcium and phosphate ions, which can reduce the calcium phosphate/collagen interfacial energy to promote hydroxyapatite (HA) nucleation and accelerate the rate of collagen fiber mineralization. Besides inducing intrafibrillar mineralization, the DAA-collagen complex mineralization template can realize interfibrillar mineralization with the c-axis of the HA crystal on the surface of collagen fibers and between fibers that are parallel to the long axis of collagen fibers. The DAA-collagen complex, as a new type of mineralization template, may provide a new collagen mineralization strategy to produce a mineralized scaffold material for tissue engineering or develop bone-like materials.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Colágeno/química , Dopamina/química , Osso e Ossos , Cálcio/química , Cálcio/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Cristalização , Durapatita/química , Durapatita/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Polimerização , Medicina Regenerativa , Propriedades de Superfície , Engenharia Tecidual
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2350: 313-329, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331294

RESUMO

We describe a multiplexed imaging mass spectrometry approach especially suitable for fibrosis research. Fibrosis is a process characterized by excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion. Buildup of ECM impairs tissue and organ function to promote further progression of disease. It is an ongoing analytical challenge to access ECM for diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of fibrosis. Recently, we reported the use of the enzyme collagenase type III to target the ECM proteome in thin histological tissue sections of fibrotic diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer and aortic valve stenosis. Detection of collagenase type III peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) allows localization of ECM peptide sequences to specific regions of fibrosis. We have further identified that the ECM proteome accessed by collagenase type III has on average 3.7 sites per protein that may be differentially N-glycosylated. N-glycosylation is a major posttranslational modification of the ECM proteome, influencing protein folding, secretion, and organization. Understanding both N-glycosylation signaling and regulation of ECM expression significantly informs on ECM signaling in fibrosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Histocitoquímica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Glicosilação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteômica/métodos , Pesquisa , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Fluxo de Trabalho
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299089

RESUMO

The cytoskeletal protein vimentin is secreted under various physiological conditions. Extracellular vimentin exists primarily in two forms: attached to the outer cell surface and secreted into the extracellular space. While surface vimentin is involved in processes such as viral infections and cancer progression, secreted vimentin modulates inflammation through reduction of neutrophil infiltration, promotes bacterial elimination in activated macrophages, and supports axonal growth in astrocytes through activation of the IGF-1 receptor. This receptor is overexpressed in cancer cells, and its activation pathway has significant roles in general cellular functions. In this study, we investigated the functional role of extracellular vimentin in non-tumorigenic (MCF-10a) and cancer (MCF-7) cells through the evaluation of its effects on cell migration, proliferation, adhesion, and monolayer permeability. Upon treatment with extracellular recombinant vimentin, MCF-7 cells showed increased migration, proliferation, and adhesion, compared to MCF-10a cells. Further, MCF-7 monolayers showed reduced permeability, compared to MCF-10a monolayers. It has been shown that the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein can alter blood-brain barrier integrity. Surface vimentin also acts as a co-receptor between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the cell-surface angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Therefore, we also investigated the permeability of MCF-10a and MCF-7 monolayers upon treatment with extracellular recombinant vimentin, and its modulation of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain. These findings show that binding of extracellular recombinant vimentin to the cell surface enhances the permeability of both MCF-10a and MCF-7 monolayers. However, with SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain addition, this effect is lost with MCF-7 monolayers, as the extracellular vimentin binds directly to the viral domain. This defines an influence of extracellular vimentin in SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mama/patologia , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Vimentina/metabolismo , Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Domínios Proteicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Vimentina/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298915

RESUMO

Retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. There is a critical need to understand the structural and cellular components that play a vital role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases. One potential component is the family of structural proteins called small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs). SLRPs are crucial in many fundamental biological processes involved in the maintenance of retinal homeostasis. They are present within the extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective and vascular tissues and contribute to tissue organization and modulation of cell growth. They play a vital role in cell-matrix interactions in many upstream signaling pathways involved in fibrillogenesis and angiogenesis. In this comprehensive review, we describe the expression patterns and function of SLRPs in the retina, including Biglycan and Decorin from class I; Fibromodulin, Lumican, and a Proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP) from class II; Opticin and Osteoglycin/Mimecan from class III; and Chondroadherin (CHAD), Tsukushi and Nyctalopin from class IV.


Assuntos
Leucina/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Proteoglicanos Pequenos Ricos em Leucina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteoglicanas de Sulfatos de Condroitina/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos
14.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200590

RESUMO

The aim of the presented research was to obtain reconstituted atelocollagen fibers after extraction from poultry cartilage using the pepsin-acidic method in order to remove telopeptides from the tropocollagen. Firstly, we examined the extraction of collagen from the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) after proteoglycans (PG) had been removed by the action of salts, i.e., NaCl or chaotropic MgCl2. Additionally, the effects of the salt type used for PG and hyaluronic acid removal on the properties of self-assembled fibers in solutions at pH 7.4 and freeze-dried matrices were investigated. The basic features of the obtained fibers were characterized, including thermal properties using scanning calorimetry, rheological properties using dynamic oscillatory rheometry, and the structure by scanning electron microscopy. The fibers obtained after PG removal with both analyzed types of salts had similar thermal denaturation characteristics. However, the fibers after PG removal with NaCl, in contrast to those obtained after MgCl2 treatment, showed different rheological properties during gelatinization and smaller diameter size. Moreover, the degree of fibrillogenesis of collagens after NaCl treatment was complete compared to that with MgCl2, which was only partial (70%). The structures of fibers after lyophilization were fundamentally different. The matrices obtained after NaCl pretreatment form regular scaffolds in contrast to the thin, surface structures of the cartilage matrix after proteoglycans removal using MgCl2.


Assuntos
Cartilagem/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Animais , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Pepsina A/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203791

RESUMO

For in vitro modeling of human joints, osteochondral explants represent an acceptable compromise between conventional cell culture and animal models. However, the scarcity of native human joint tissue poses a challenge for experiments requiring high numbers of samples and makes the method rather unsuitable for toxicity analyses and dosing studies. To scale their application, we developed a novel method that allows the preparation of up to 100 explant cultures from a single human sample with a simple setup. Explants were cultured for 21 days, stimulated with TNF-α or TGF-ß3, and analyzed for cell viability, gene expression and histological changes. Tissue cell viability remained stable at >90% for three weeks. Proteoglycan levels and gene expression of COL2A1, ACAN and COMP were maintained for 14 days before decreasing. TNF-α and TGF-ß3 caused dose-dependent changes in cartilage marker gene expression as early as 7 days. Histologically, cultures under TNF-α stimulation showed a 32% reduction in proteoglycans, detachment of collagen fibers and cell swelling after 7 days. In conclusion, thin osteochondral slice cultures behaved analogously to conventional punch explants despite cell stress exerted during fabrication. In pharmacological testing, both the shorter diffusion distance and the lack of need for serum in the culture suggest a positive effect on sensitivity. The ease of fabrication and the scalability of the sample number make this manufacturing method a promising platform for large-scale preclinical testing in joint research.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/economia , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Agrecanas/genética , Agrecanas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Condrócitos/citologia , Colágeno Tipo II/genética , Colágeno Tipo II/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose , Sobrevivência de Tecidos , Transcrição Genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
16.
FASEB J ; 35(8): e21738, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245615

RESUMO

The heavy metal Cadmium (Cd), a widespread environmental contaminant, poses serious hazards to human health and is considered a metallohormone and carcinogen. In women with uterine fibroids, there is a significant association between blood Cd levels and increased fibroid tumor size. The aim of this study was to determine if benign human uterine leiomyoma (fibroid) cells could be malignantly transformed in vitro by continuous Cd exposure and, if so, explore a molecular mechanism by which this could occur. We found when fibroid cells were exposed to 10 µM CdCl2 for 8 weeks, a robust and fast-growing Cd-Resistant Leiomyoma (CR-LM) cell culture was established. The CR-LM cells formed viable colonies in soft agar and had increased cytoplasmic glycogen aggregates, enhanced cell motility, a higher percentage of cells in G2/M phase, and increased expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67. NanoString analysis showed downregulation of genes encoding for extracellular matrix (ECM) components, such as collagens, fibronectins, laminins, and SLRP family proteins, whereas genes involved in ECM degradation (MMP1, MMP3, and MMP10) were significantly upregulated. A volcano plot showed that the top differentially genes favored cancer progression. Functional analysis by ingenuity pathway analysis predicted a significant inhibition of TGFB1 signaling, leading to enhanced proliferation and attenuated fibrosis. Prolonged Cd exposure altered phenotypic characteristics and dysregulated genes in fibroid cells predicative of progression towards a cancer phenotype. Therefore, continuous Cd exposure alters the benign characteristics of fibroid cells in vitro, and Cd exposure could possibly pose a health hazard for women with uterine fibroids.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Leiomioma/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Neoplasias Uterinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Leiomioma/patologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 551-561, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216657

RESUMO

Advanced melanoma patients that are not included in common genetic classificatory groups lack effective and safe therapeutic options. Chemotherapy and immunotherapy show unsatisfactory results and devastating adverse effects for these called triple wild-type patients. New approaches exploring the intrinsic antitumor properties of gold nanoparticles might reverse this scenario as a safer and more effective alternative. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a composite made of gum arabic-functionalized gold nanorods (GA-AuNRs) against triple wild-type melanoma. The natural polymer gum arabic successfully stabilized the nanorods in the biological environment and was essential to improve their biocompatibility. In vivo results obtained from treating triple wild-type melanoma-bearing mice showed that GA-AuNRs remarkably reduced primary tumor growth by 45%. Furthermore, GA-AuNRs induced tumor histological features associated with better prognosis while also reducing superficial lung metastasis depth and the incidence of intrapulmonary metastasis. GA-AuNRs' efficacy comes from their capacity to reduce melanoma cells ability to invade the extracellular matrix and grow into colonies, in addition to a likely immunomodulatory effect induced by gum arabic. Additionally, a broad safety investigation found no evidence of adverse effects after GA-AuNRs treatment. Therefore, this study unprecedentedly reports GA-AuNRs as a potential nanomedicine for advanced triple wild-type melanomas.


Assuntos
Ouro/administração & dosagem , Goma Arábica/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Células 3T3 BALB , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Ouro/química , Ouro/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Camundongos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4118, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226542

RESUMO

Living cells actively migrate in their environment to perform key biological functions-from unicellular organisms looking for food to single cells such as fibroblasts, leukocytes or cancer cells that can shape, patrol or invade tissues. Cell migration results from complex intracellular processes that enable cell self-propulsion, and has been shown to also integrate various chemical or physical extracellular signals. While it is established that cells can modify their environment by depositing biochemical signals or mechanically remodelling the extracellular matrix, the impact of such self-induced environmental perturbations on cell trajectories at various scales remains unexplored. Here, we show that cells can retrieve their path: by confining motile cells on 1D and 2D micropatterned surfaces, we demonstrate that they leave long-lived physicochemical footprints along their way, which determine their future path. On this basis, we argue that cell trajectories belong to the general class of self-interacting random walks, and show that self-interactions can rule large scale exploration by inducing long-lived ageing, subdiffusion and anomalous first-passage statistics. Altogether, our joint experimental and theoretical approach points to a generic coupling between motile cells and their environment, which endows cells with a spatial memory of their path and can dramatically change their space exploration.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Células CACO-2 , Simulação por Computador , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , RNA Interferente Pequeno
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4148, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230481

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common aging-related joint disease, is caused by an imbalance between extracellular matrix synthesis and degradation. Here, we discover that both strands of microRNA-455 (miR-455), -5p and -3p, are up-regulated by Sox9, an essential transcription factor for cartilage differentiation and function. Both miR-455-5p and -3p are highly expressed in human chondrocytes from normal articular cartilage and in mouse primary chondrocytes. We generate miR-455 knockout mice, and find that cartilage degeneration mimicking OA and elevated expression of cartilage degeneration-related genes are observed at 6-months-old. Using a cell-based miRNA target screening system, we identify hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α), a catabolic factor for cartilage homeostasis, as a direct target of both miR-455-5p and -3p. In addition, overexpression of both miR-455-5p and -3p protect cartilage degeneration in a mouse OA model, demonstrating their potential therapeutic value. Furthermore, knockdown of HIF-2α in 6-month-old miR-455 knockout cartilage rescues the elevated expression of cartilage degeneration-related genes. These data demonstrate that both strands of a miRNA target the same gene to regulate articular cartilage homeostasis.


Assuntos
Cartilagem/metabolismo , Homeostase , Hipóxia/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Osteoartrite/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9
20.
FASEB J ; 35(8): e21762, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246197

RESUMO

Phase II clinical trials have reported that acute treatment of surgical skin wounds with the therapeutic peptide alpha Connexin Carboxy-Terminus 1 (αCT1) improves cutaneous scar appearance by 47% 9-month postsurgery. While Cx43 and ZO-1 have been identified as molecular targets of αCT1, the mode-of-action of the peptide in scar mitigation at cellular and tissue levels remains to be further characterized. Scar histoarchitecture in αCT1 and vehicle-control treated skin wounds within the same patient were compared using biopsies from a Phase I clinical trial at 29-day postwounding. The sole effect on scar structure of a range of epidermal and dermal variables examined was that αCT1-treated scars had less alignment of collagen fibers relative to control wounds-a characteristic that resembles unwounded skin. The with-in subject effect of αCT1 on scar collagen order observed in Phase I testing in humans was recapitulated in Sprague-Dawley rats and the IAF hairless guinea pig. Transient increase in histologic collagen density in response to αCT1 was also observed in both animal models. Mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and primary human dermal fibroblasts treated with αCT1 in vitro showed more rapid closure in scratch wound assays, with individual cells showing decreased directionality in movement. An agent-based computational model parameterized with fibroblast motility data predicted collagen alignments in simulated scars consistent with that observed experimentally in human and the animal models. In conclusion, αCT1 prompts decreased directionality of fibroblast movement and the generation of a 3D collagen matrix postwounding that is similar to unwounded skin-changes that correlate with long-term improvement in scar appearance.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatriz/metabolismo , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Derme/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Cicatriz/patologia , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Cobaias , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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