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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562467

RESUMO

Introduction: Children are widely recognized as a vulnerable population during disasters and emergencies. The COVID-19 pandemic, like a natural disaster, brought uncertainties and instability to the economic development of the society and social distancing, which might lead to child maltreatment. This study aims to investigate whether job loss, income reduction and parenting affect child maltreatment. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of 600 randomly sampled parents aged 18 years or older who had and lived with a child under 10 years old in Hong Kong between 29 May to 16 June 2020. Participants were recruited from a random list of mobile phone numbers of a panel of parents. Of 779 recruited target parents, 600 parents completed the survey successfully via a web-based system after obtaining their online consent for participating in the survey. Results: Income reduction was found significantly associated with severe (OR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.06, 10.25) and very severe physical assaults (OR = 7.69, 95% CI = 2.24, 26.41) towards children. Job loss or large income reduction were also significantly associated with severe (OR= 3.68, 95% CI = 1.33, 10.19) and very severe physical assaults (OR = 4.05, 95% CI = 1.17, 14.08) towards children. However, income reduction (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.15, 0.53) and job loss (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.28, 0.76) were significantly associated with less psychological aggression. Exposure to intimate partner violence between parents is a very strong and significant factor associated with all types of child maltreatment. Having higher levels of difficulty in discussing COVID-19 with children was significantly associated with more corporal punishment (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.34), whereas having higher level of confidence in managing preventive COVID-19 behaviors with children was negatively associated with corporal punishment (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76, 0.99) and very severe physical assaults (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58, 0.93). Conclusions: Income instability such as income reduction and job loss amplified the risk of severe and very severe child physical assaults but protected children from psychological aggression. Also, confidence in teaching COVID-19 and managing preventive COVID-19 behaviors with children was significantly negatively associated with corporal punishment during pandemic.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda , Pandemias , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Poder Familiar , Punição , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 219: 108459, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experience of childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for opioid use disorder (OUD). CM is also associated with comorbid mental disorders and poor treatment outcomes among people with OUD. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of CM among people with OUD. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO to identify observational studies that evaluated CM among people with OUD from January 1990 to June 2020. Prevalence of each CM type, sample characteristics, and methodological factors were extracted from each eligible study. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool prevalence estimates. Stratified meta-analyses were used to assess heterogeneity. RESULTS: Of the 6,438 publications identified, 113 studies reported quantitative CM data among people with OUD and 62 studies (k = 62; N = 21,871) were included in primary analyses. Among people with OUD, the estimated prevalence of sexual abuse was 41% (95% CI 36-47%; k = 38) among women and 16% (95% CI 12-20%; k = 25) among men. Among all people with OUD, prevalence estimates were 38% (95% CI 33-44%; k = 48) for physical abuse, 43% (95% CI 38-49%; k = 31) for emotional abuse, 38% (95% CI 30-46%; k = 17) for physical neglect, and 42% (95% CI 32-51%; k = 17) for emotional neglect. Sex, history of injecting drug use, recruitment methods, and method of assessing CM were associated with substantial heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: People with OUD frequently report the experience of CM, supporting the need for trauma-informed interventions among this population. Future research should consider the impact of CM on OUD presentations and when assessment is appropriate, use of validated instruments.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
5.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(1): 64-83, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459220

RESUMO

Protection Against Violence and Abuse in Medical Institutions - Reasons, Prevalence and Implications for Practice Reported cases of (sexual) abuse in institutions as well as the results of surveys show that violence against children and adolescents, but also against adults, occurs also in medical institutions. There are still few studies on the frequency of these cases. However, the cases that have come to public attention show that medical institutions bear systemic risk factors for such assaults. On the other hand, medical institutions also play an important role in child protection, since many children and adolescents affected by maltreatment including sexual abuse come into contact with the medical system. It is necessary that medical institutions deal with this problem and develop respective institutional protection concepts. A protection concept is a system of measures that ensure better protection against assaults within an organisation. Important steps are analysis of risk factors, structural changes, the creation of plan of procedures and the development of an institutional attitude that assaults are not tolerated. Although the development of protection concepts takes time and resources, it has many advantages for institutions, such as an increased sense of security for professionals, because they know how to proceed in such situation. Now that the obligation to draw up protection concepts is anchored in the quality management guideline of the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA), all hospitals and practices must set out to develop appropriate concepts.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Saúde , Violência/prevenção & controle , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/prevenção & controle , Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
6.
Child Maltreat ; 26(2): 139-151, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353380

RESUMO

The Covid-19 pandemic upended the country, with enormous economic and social shifts. Given the increased contact from families living in virtual confinement coupled with massive economic disarray, the Covid-19 pandemic may have created the ideal conditions to witness a rise in children's experience of abuse and neglect. Yet such a rise will be difficult to calculate given the drop in official mechanisms to track its incidence. The current investigation utilized two studies conducted early in the pandemic to evaluate maltreatment risk. In the first cross-sectional study, parents (n = 405) reported increased physical and verbal conflict and neglect which were associated with their perceived stress and loneliness. In the second study, parents (n = 106) enrolled in a longitudinal study reported increased parent-child conflict, which was associated with concurrent child abuse risk, with several links to employment loss, food insecurity, and loneliness; findings also demonstrated increases in abuse risk and psychological aggression relative to pre-pandemic levels. Findings are discussed in the context of a reactive welfare system rather than a pro-active public-health oriented approach to child maltreatment, connecting with families through multiple avenues. Innovative approaches will be needed to reach children faced with maltreatment to gauge its scope and impact in the pandemic's aftermath.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , /prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Forensic Nurs ; 17(1): E1-E8, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350664

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to determine retrospectively the demographic characteristics of forensic cases aged 0-18 years who were admitted to the emergency department. METHOD: A total of 14,352 pediatric forensic cases aged 0-18 years, who were admitted to the emergency department of a hospital, were analyzed retrospectively in terms of the date of presentation, age, gender, and type of case. RESULTS: Among the pediatric cases presenting to the emergency department, 56% were due to falling, 19% were due to burns, 8.5% were due to poisoning, 7.4% were due to animal bites, 5.3% were due to traffic accidents, 3.4% were due to battery, and 0.4% were due to other phenomena (electric shock and sexual abuse). Examination of the distribution of cases in terms of age showed that falling (16.4%), burns (25.7%), and poisoning (28%) were more frequent in boys in the age group of 15-18 months and in girls in the age group of 0-12 months. Presenting to the emergency department because of sexual abuse was observed to be more frequent in girls in the age groups of 10-14 years (40%) and 15-18 years (26.7%). CONCLUSION: The high rates of falling, burns, and poisoning cases among children observed in this study suggest that child neglect and abuse were high and reveal the necessity of the presence of forensic nurses in the emergency departments.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Queimaduras/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Turquia/epidemiologia
8.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(2): e20200206, 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1142952

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo caracterizar a violência notificada contra crianças no município de Porto Alegre. Método estudo retrospectivo, incluindo 5308 casos de violência contra crianças de zero a doze anos registrados no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação no município de Porto Alegre. Resultados idade média foi de 5,95 ± 3,86 anos, com predomínio de crianças do sexo feminino (61%). A violência sexual foi a mais notificada (53%). A maioria dos agressores eram do sexo masculino (68%) e 72% dos casos ocorreram no domicílio da vítima. As meninas são mais suscetíveis à violência sexual. Crianças do sexo masculino sofrem mais violência física e negligência. Conclusão e implicações para a prática os resultados demonstram a importância do conhecimento do perfil das violências para intervenção e elaboração de políticas públicas intersetoriais, assim como para a capacitação da equipe multiprofissional para o reconhecimento do problema no momento da assistência e o devido encaminhamento.


RESUMEN Objetivo caracterizar la violencia notificada contra los niños en la ciudad de Porto Alegre. Método estudio retrospectivo, incluyendo 5308 casos de violencia contra niños de cero a doce años registrados en el Sistema de Información de Incidentes Notificables en el municipio de Porto Alegre. Resultados la edad media fue de 5,95 ± 3,86 años, con predominio de niños de sexo femenino (61%). La violencia sexual fue la más notificada (53%). La mayoría de los agresores eran del sexo masculino (68%) y el 72% de los casos ocurrieron en el domicilio de la víctima. Las niñas son más susceptibles a la violencia sexual. Los niños varones sufren más violencia física y negligencia. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica los resultados demuestran la importancia de conocer el perfil de la violencia para intervenir y elaborar políticas públicas intersectoriales, así como para disponer la capacitación del equipo multiprofesional a fin de reconocer el problema al momento de prestar la asistencia y la derivación adecuada.


ABSTRACT Objective to characterize violence against children notified in the city of Porto Alegre. Method a retrospective study, including 5,308 cases of violence against children from zero to twelve years of age registered in the Notifiable Diseases Information System in the city of Porto Alegre. Results the mean age was 5.95 ± 3.86 years old, with predominance of female children (61%). Sexual violence was the most reported (53%). Most of the perpetrators were male (68%) and 72% of the cases occurred at the victim's home. Girls are more susceptible to sexual violence. Male children suffer more physical violence and neglect. Conclusion and implications for the practice the results demonstrate the importance of knowing the profile of violence for intervention and for the elaboration of inter-sectoral public policies, as well as for the training of the multi-professional team to recognize the problem at the time of assistance and the proper referral.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Notificação de Abuso , Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Pediatrics ; 147(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment (CM) is a global public health issue, with reported impacts on health and social outcomes. Evidence on mortality is lacking. In this study, we aimed to estimate the impact of CM on death rates in persons 16 to 33 years. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of all persons born in South Australia 1986 to 2003 using linked administrative data. CM exposure was based on child protection service (CPS) contact: unexposed, no CPS contact before 16 years, and 7 exposed groups. Deaths were observed until May 31, 2019 and plotted from 16 years. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) by CPS category were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for child and maternal characteristics. Incident rate ratios (IRRs) were derived for major causes of death, with and without CPS contact. RESULTS: The cohort included 331 254 persons, 20% with CPS contact. Persons with a child protection matter notification and nonsubstantiated or substantiated investigation had more than twice the death rate compared with persons with no CPS contact: aHR = 2.09 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.62-2.70) to aHR = 2.61 (95% CI = 1.99-3.43). Relative to no CPS contact, persons ever placed in out-of-home care had the highest mortality if first placed in care aged ≥3 years (aHR = 4.67 [95% CI = 3.52-6.20]); aHR was 1.75(95% CI = 0.98-3.14) if first placed in care aged <3 years. The largest differential cause-specific mortality (any contact versus no CPS contact) was death from poisonings, alcohol, and/or other substances (IRR = 4.82 [95% CI = 3.31-7.01]) and from suicide (IRR = 2.82 [95% CI = 2.15-3.68]). CONCLUSIONS: CM is a major underlying cause of potentially avoidable deaths in early adulthood. Clinical and family-based support for children and families in which CM is occurring must be a priority to protect children from imminent risk of harm and early death as young adults.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/mortalidade , Suicídio Consumado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Surg Res ; 257: 232-238, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of injuries that relates to abuse and neglect in children with burn injuries. METHODS: The Nationwide Readmissions Database for 2010-2014 was queried for all patients aged less than 18 y admitted with burn injuries. The primary outcome was child maltreatment identified at the index admission. The secondary outcome was readmission for maltreatment. A subgroup analysis was performed on patients without a diagnosis of maltreatment during the index admission. Multivariable logistic regression was performed for each outcome. RESULTS: There were 57,939 admissions identified and 1960 (3.4%) involved maltreatment at the index admission. Maltreatment was associated with total body surface area burned >20% (odds ratio (OR) 2.79, P < 0.001) and burn of the lower limbs (OR 1.37, P < 0.001). Readmission for maltreatment was found in 120 (0.2%), and the strongest risk factor was maltreatment identified at the index admission (OR 5.11, P < 0.001). After excluding the patients with maltreatment identified at the index admission, 96 (0.17%) children were found to have a readmission for maltreatment that may have been present on the index admission and subsequently missed. The strongest risk factor was burn of the eye or ocular adnexa (OR 3.79, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that a portion of admissions for burn injuries in children could involve maltreatment that was undiagnosed. Identifying these at-risk individuals is critical to prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/etiologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico , Criança Hospitalizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Diagnóstico Ausente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Queimaduras/terapia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
11.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 39: e2020267, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Social isolation is currently identified as the best way to prevent the infection by the new coronavirus. However, for some social groups, such as children and adolescents, this measure carries a contradiction: the home, which should be the safest place for them, is also a frequent environment of a sad aggravation: domestic violence. This study aims to evaluate the notifications of interpersonal/self-inflicted violence available in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases in the State of Santa Catarina (southern Brazil), for the juvenile age group, before and during the new coronavirus pandemics. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive study of violence against children and adolescents (from 0 to 19 years) notified by health professionals by completing and entering the occurrence in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases of the State of Santa Catarina in 11 weeks in which the social isolation measure was instituted as mandatory, comparing with the same period before this measure. RESULTS: During the study period, 136 municipalities in Santa Catarina made 1,851 notifications. There was a decrease of 55.3% of them in the isolation period, and the difficulties encountered in seeking protection and assistance institutions were listed. CONCLUSIONS: The society needs to be aware of possible cases of violence in the children and adolescent population. It is important to provide accessible, effective, and safe ways for complaints and notifications, as well as a quick response to the cases, aiming at protecting victims and minimizing damages to prevent the perpetuation of the violence.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Bem-Estar da Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente/tendências , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Criança/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência Doméstica/prevenção & controle , Violência Doméstica/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment affects social functioning in the general adult population. However, how child abuse affects functional disability in adulthood remains unknown. Thus, we investigated the correlation between child abuse, depressive symptoms, cognitive complaints, and functional disability in adult community volunteers. METHODS: Participants (N = 556) completed the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment, and Sheehan Disability Scale. Multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling were performed to evaluate scale correlations. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling showed that the direct effect of childhood maltreatment on depressive symptoms, the indirect effect of childhood maltreatment on cognitive function via depressive symptoms, and the indirect effects of childhood maltreatment on functional disability via depressive symptoms and via cognitive function were all significant. The direct effects of childhood maltreatment on cognitive function and functional disability were not significant. There was no significant association between variables. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional designs cannot identify causal relationships between parameters. Participants were adult volunteers from the community; therefore, results may not be generalizable to individuals with psychiatric disorders. Sociodemographic variability was a limitation because we used self-reported childhood maltreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood maltreatment indirectly affects functional disability via depressive symptoms and via cognitive function through depressive symptoms. We suggest that depressive symptoms and cognitive function play crucial roles in the influence of childhood maltreatment on functional disability in adult community volunteers.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Cognição , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(10): 1356-1367, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047691

RESUMO

Background: Neglectful feeding and physical activity (PA) practices by parents are associated with development of adulthood obesity. The Arab world has reported an alarming increase of adulthood obesity and childhood neglect by parents, yet have not studied the association between the two variables. Aims: The objectives of this study were to evaluate two parental negligence parameters (feeding style and social activity) associated with adulthood obesity and to identify the level of parental negligence on a customized parent neglect scale. Methods: In total 450 adult subjects 18-30 were screened for body mass index (BMI) values. 240 subjects fulfilling the criteria for the study were divided into two groups normal weight (N Gp) (n = 150) and overweight/obese (Ov/Ob Gp) (n = 90) groups. A questionnaire was formulated through a dual moderator focus group discussion, which was then tested in a prepilot and a pilot study (qualitative) to determine its validity (content and criterion) and reliability (repeated measurement) before distributing to the parents of both groups. Physical activity and screen time were also recorded for the subjects and their parents. Chi square test for association/difference between two categorical variables and Pearsons correlation coefficient for BMI correlation were employed. Results: Parenting parameters like maternal age, consanguineous marriage, breastfeeding duration, formula food introduction, and maternal smoking were significantly different between studied groups. Higher physical inactivity was observed among parents (father/mother 53%) and subjects (80%). The higher amount of screen time (73% ≥ 60-100 h/week) was found in the Ov/Ob Gp that significantly differed with the other group. Maternal BMI was positively related to the subjects BMI. Parents of obese subjects were found negligent in feeding style and very negligent for social activity on a parent neglect scale as compared to the parents of the normal weight subjects. Conclusion: Parents are responsible for developing healthy eating habits and competitive social behavior among their children. Parents need to practice the same to influence changes in their children during their early childhood, as well as when their children grow into adults. Negligent parenting in the studied parameters were found to increase the risk of developing adulthood obesity and should be considered as a potential marker for adult obesity.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/etnologia , Pré-Escolar , Dieta Saudável , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e042867, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine any change in referral patterns and outcomes in children (0-18) referred for child protection medical examination (CPME) during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with previous years. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study, analysing routinely collected clinical data from CPME reports in a rapid response to the pandemic lockdown. SETTING: Birmingham Community Healthcare NHS Trust, which provides all routine CPME for Birmingham, England, population 1.1 million including 288 000 children. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged under 18 years attending CPME during an 18-week period from late February to late June during the years 2018-2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers of referrals, source of disclosure and outcomes from CPME. RESULTS: There were 78 CPME referrals in 2018, 75 in 2019 and 47 in 2020, this was a 39.7% (95% CI 12.4% to 59.0%) reduction in referrals from 2018 to 2020, and a 37.3% (95% CI 8.6% to 57.4%) reduction from 2019 to 2020. There were fewer CPME referrals initiated by school staff in 2020, 12 (26%) compared with 36 (47%) and 38 (52%) in 2018 and 2019, respectively. In all years 75.9% of children were known to social care prior to CPME, and 94% of CPME concluded that there were significant safeguarding concerns. CONCLUSIONS: School closure due to COVID-19 may have harmed children as child abuse has remained hidden. There needs to be either mandatory attendance at schools in future or viable alternatives found. There may be a significant increase in safeguarding referrals when schools fully reopen as children disclose the abuse they have experienced at home.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Serviços de Proteção Infantil , Bem-Estar da Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/métodos , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar da Criança/tendências , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , População , Isolamento Social , Serviço Social/métodos , Serviço Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943535

RESUMO

Potential long-lasting adverse effects of child maltreatment have been widely reported, although little is known about the distinctive long-term impact of differing types of maltreatment. Our objective for this special article is to integrate findings from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a longitudinal prenatal cohort study spanning 2 decades. We compare and contrast the associations of specific types of maltreatment with long-term cognitive, psychological, addiction, sexual health, and physical health outcomes assessed in up to 5200 offspring at 14 and/or 21 years of age. Overall, psychological maltreatment (emotional abuse and/or neglect) was associated with the greatest number of adverse outcomes in almost all areas of assessment. Sexual abuse was associated with early sexual debut and youth pregnancy, attention problems, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and depression, although associations were not specific for sexual abuse. Physical abuse was associated with externalizing behavior problems, delinquency, and drug abuse. Neglect, but not emotional abuse, was associated with having multiple sexual partners, cannabis abuse and/or dependence, and experiencing visual hallucinations. Emotional abuse, but not neglect, revealed increased odds for psychosis, injecting-drug use, experiencing harassment later in life, pregnancy miscarriage, and reporting asthma symptoms. Significant cognitive delays and educational failure were seen for both abuse and neglect during adolescence and adulthood. In conclusion, child maltreatment, particularly emotional abuse and neglect, is associated with a wide range of long-term adverse health and developmental outcomes. A renewed focus on prevention and early intervention strategies, especially related to psychological maltreatment, will be required to address these challenges in the future.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Asma/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estatura , Criança , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sexual , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(701): 1459-1461, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833369

RESUMO

During the semi-confinement period linked to the COVID-19 pandemic, the CHUV's Child Abuse and Neglect Team observed a decrease in cases of child abuse. Has confinement made it easier for families to avoid violence or, on the contrary, to hide it? Within the framework of this second hypothesis, we propose that the relaxation of the measures be an opportunity for professionals to explore in families the possible occurrence of domestic abuse.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Pandemias
20.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 43(8): 774-778, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800414

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In an environment where strabismus is poorly understood and management centers rare, we studied the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of neglected childhood strabismus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study carried out from March 1st, 2013 to September 30, 2018. Neglected childhood strabismus was defined as strabismus occurring in the first 5 years of life, for which the patient was over 7-years-old at the time of first consultation. The variables studied were age at first consultation, gender, age of onset, type of strabismus, etiology of strabismus, angle of deviation and rate of surgery. RESULTS: We found 113 cases of neglected childhood strabismus among the 430 cases of strabismus seen during the study period. There were more females (n=64) than males. The mean age was 17.7±10.5 years. There were 73 exotropias (64.6 %). The mean angle of deviation was 41.2±12.2PD. Strabismus was early in 70.8 % of cases. Innervational strabismus accounted for 86.7 % of cases. The most frequent refractive error was hyperopic astigmatism (55.3 %). Of the 45 patients who were seen again after full-time wear of their full cycloplegic correction, 2 were orthotropic. Surgery was performed in 60.5 % of cases. The average postoperative angle of deviation was 6.6±9.4PD. CONCLUSION: Management of neglected childhood strabismus provides good results and should therefore be encouraged in order to improve the quality of life of affected patients.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio , Estrabismo/diagnóstico , Estrabismo/epidemiologia , Estrabismo/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Tardio/estatística & dados numéricos , Esotropia/diagnóstico , Esotropia/epidemiologia , Esotropia/terapia , Exotropia/diagnóstico , Exotropia/epidemiologia , Exotropia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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