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1.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 59(3): 607-617, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557684

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus, COVID-19, proliferates as a contagious psychological threat just like the physical disease itself. Due to the growing death toll and constant coverage this pandemic gets, it is likely to activate mortality awareness, to greater or lesser extents, depending on a variety of situational factors. Using terror management theory and the terror management health model, we outline reactions to the pandemic that consist of proximal defences aimed at reducing perceived vulnerability to (as well as denial of) the threat, and distal defences bound by ideological frameworks from which symbolic meaning can be derived. We provide predictions and recommendations for shifting reactions to this pandemic towards behaviours that decrease, rather than increase, the spread of the virus. We conclude by considering the benefits of shifting towards collective mindsets to more effectively combat COVID-19 and to better prepare for the next inevitable pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Medo , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Mecanismos de Defesa , Negação em Psicologia , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Autoimagem
2.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e31, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292143

RESUMO

Cushman argues that "rationalization is rational." We show that there is reasonable empirical clinical and forensic psychological evidence to support viewing rationalization as a quite suboptimal defense mechanism. Rationalization has been found to be associated not only with poorer emotional development, but also with a broad range of antisocial behavior, including not only shoplifting, but also pedophilia and murder.


Assuntos
Mecanismos de Defesa , Racionalização
3.
Behav Ther ; 51(2): 207-210, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138932

RESUMO

Pediatric irritability is a functionally impairing transdiagnostic symptom underlying a substantial proportion of child mental health referrals. The past 20 years have witnessed a striking uptick in empirical work focused on pediatric irritability, with increasing recognition of its role across multiple internalizing and externalizing disorders. That said, it has only been in recent years that research has begun to make advances in understanding the natural course and neurobiological underpinnings of irritability across development; research directly informing effective clinical management of pediatric irritability has been limited. At this critical stage in the study of pediatric irritability, this special series brings together the latest work from leading experts across three interrelated domains: (a) progress in understanding the phenomenology and course of pediatric irritability; (b) advances in the assessment of pediatric irritability; and (c) innovations in the treatment of pediatric irritability. The papers in this special series collectively offer critical steps forward for better understanding pediatric irritability and improving proper assessment, classification, and clinical management.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Humor Irritável , Transtornos do Humor , Pediatria/tendências , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Psicológicos
4.
Behav Ther ; 51(2): 238-252, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138935

RESUMO

Severe irritability is a common and clinically important problem longitudinally associated with internalizing and externalizing problems in children. To better understand these mechanisms and to inform treatment research, we tested cognitive-behavioral processes as candidate mediators in the paths from irritability to later problems. Methods: A school sample (N = 238, 48% female, ages 8-10) was assessed at ~6-month intervals in fall (T1) and spring (T2) of third to fourth grade, and again the following fall (T3). Measures assessed irritability (T1/predictor); anger and sadness coping, intolerance of uncertainty, and rumination; (T1-T2/mediators); and anxiety, depressive symptoms, reactive aggression, and oppositionality (T1-T3/outcomes). Focused cross-lagged panel models, controlling for gender and grade, were specified to examine full (XT1 ➔ MT2 ➔ YT3) and half (XT1 ➔ MT2; MT1 ➔ YT2) longitudinal mediation. Across one or more intervals, irritability predicted higher depressive symptoms, anxiety, reactive aggression, oppositionality, intolerance of uncertainty, and poor emotion coping. From T1 irritability to T2/T3 outcomes, mediation was found for poor sadness coping leading to reactive aggression and oppositionality; poor anger coping to anxiety, depressive symptoms, and oppositionality; and intolerance of uncertainty to anxiety. Results offer further evidence for internalizing and externalizing outcomes of youth irritability and new evidence suggesting underlying mechanisms. Irritability may confer risk for externalizing problems via poor sadness/anger coping, and for internalizing problems via poor anger coping and intolerance of uncertainty. Theoretical models and psychosocial treatment should consider addressing regulation of various unpleasant emotions as well as psychological flexibility and tolerating uncertainty.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão/psicologia , Humor Irritável , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Ira , Criança , Cognição , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
5.
Behav Ther ; 51(2): 294-309, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138939

RESUMO

Irritability is a substrate of more than one dozen clinical syndromes. Thus, identifying when it is atypical and interfering with functioning is crucial to the prevention of mental disorder in the earliest phase of the clinical sequence. Advances in developmentally based measurement of irritability have enabled differentiation of normative irritable mood and tantrums from indicators of concern, beginning in infancy. However, developmentally sensitive assessments of irritability-related impairment are lacking. We introduce the Early Childhood Irritability-Related Impairment Interview (E-CRI), which assesses impairment associated with irritable mood and tantrums across contexts. Reliability and validity are established across two independent samples varied by developmental period: the Emotional Growth preschool sample (EmoGrow; N = 151, M = 4.82 years) and the When to Worry infant/toddler sample (W2W; N = 330, M = 14 months). We generated a well-fitting two-factor E-CRI model, with tantrum- and irritable mood-related impairment factors. The E-CRI exhibited good interrater, test-retest, and longitudinal reliability. Construct and clinical validity were also demonstrated. In both samples, E-CRI factors showed association to internalizing and externalizing problems, and to caregiver-reported concern in W2W. Tantrum-related impairment demonstrated stronger and more consistent explanatory value across outcomes, while mood-related impairment added explanatory utility for internalizing problems. The E-CRI also showed incremental utility beyond variance explained by the Family Life Impairment Scale (FLIS) survey indicator of developmental impairment. The E-CRI holds promise as an indicator of impairment to inform identification of typical versus atypical patterns reflecting early emerging irritability-related syndromes in the initial phase of the clinical sequence.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Humor Irritável , Agressão/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(11): 5964-5969, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094167

RESUMO

Unlike other snakes, most species of Rhabdophis possess glands in their dorsal skin, sometimes limited to the neck, known as nucho-dorsal and nuchal glands, respectively. Those glands contain powerful cardiotonic steroids known as bufadienolides, which can be deployed as a defense against predators. Bufadienolides otherwise occur only in toads (Bufonidae) and some fireflies (Lampyrinae), which are known or believed to synthesize the toxins. The ancestral diet of Rhabdophis consists of anuran amphibians, and we have shown previously that the bufadienolide toxins of frog-eating species are sequestered from toads consumed as prey. However, one derived clade, the Rhabdophis nuchalis Group, has shifted its primary diet from frogs to earthworms. Here we confirm that the worm-eating snakes possess bufadienolides in their nucho-dorsal glands, although the worms themselves lack such toxins. In addition, we show that the bufadienolides of R. nuchalis Group species are obtained primarily from fireflies. Although few snakes feed on insects, we document through feeding experiments, chemosensory preference tests, and gut contents that lampyrine firefly larvae are regularly consumed by these snakes. Furthermore, members of the R. nuchalis Group contain compounds that resemble the distinctive bufadienolides of fireflies, but not those of toads, in stereochemistry, glycosylation, acetylation, and molecular weight. Thus, the evolutionary shift in primary prey among members of the R. nuchalis Group has been accompanied by a dramatic shift in the source of the species' sequestered defensive toxins.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamento Predatório , Serpentes/fisiologia , Toxinas Biológicas/química , Animais , Anuros , Bufanolídeos/química , Bufanolídeos/isolamento & purificação , Bufonidae , Glicosídeos Cardíacos , Colubridae , Mecanismos de Defesa , Glicosilação , Insetos , Larva , Peso Molecular , Oligoquetos , Estereoisomerismo , Toxinas Biológicas/isolamento & purificação
7.
Am J Surg ; 220(1): 10-18, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unsustainable surgeon burnout rates and moral imperatives for performance improvement suggest an urgent need to understand and apply rationales and methods for cultivating grit and optimism in surgery. DATA SOURCES: Embase, MEDLINE, and PubMed articles. CONCLUSIONS: Passivity in response to negative events is the default human response, but the presence of control activates the prefrontal cortex-the brain region controlling executive function-promoting effort toward solutions. Challenges, failures, and traumatic events perceived as inescapable, permanent, pervasive, and irreparable lead to debility and attrition; grit and optimism shift the human response toward growth, strength, and improved performance. Methods for realizing these advantages include maintaining positivity, pursuing major challenges that match personal skills, engaging in deliberate practice to improve skills, persisting in hard work, and pursuing higher meaning and purpose in work and life. Grit and optimism are difficult to teach; selecting gritty, optimistic surgical residency applicants may also be effective.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Internato e Residência , Otimismo , Resiliência Psicológica , Humanos
8.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 47(1): 1-6, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088742

RESUMO

Abstract Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a challenging disease in terms of remission rates and treatment approaches. All theoretical approaches are needed for a better understanding. Compared to other theories, it has not been examined sufficiently from the perspective of gestalt theory in the literature. Objective To examine and compare the Gestalt Contact Styles of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the Control Group and to examine the relationship between Gestalt Contact Styles and OCD symptoms. Methods 50 OCD patients were compared with the healthy control group. All patients were evaluated with the Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Padua Inventory (PI), and the Gestalt Contact Styles Scale-Revised Form (GCSS-RF). For the control group, GCSS-RF was applied. Results The scores of the OCD patients for GCSS-RF "Retroflection" and "Deflection" subscales were significantly higher than the Control Group. Statistically significant high scores were found between the subscales of Padua Inventory "contamination obsessions and washing compulsions", "obsessional thoughts", "obsessional impulses" and "checking compulsions" subtypes and Gestalt contact styles in the Patient Group in a symptomatological examined manner. With these findings, in terms of Gestalt Contact Styles, it is seen that the difference between Patient and Control Groups is significantly different. There was no significant relationship between the Yale-Brown total score of the Patient Group and the GCSS-RF subscales. Discussion In conclusion, the findings of the study showed significant differences in terms of Gestalt Contact Styles (Retroflection, Contact, Deflection, Desensitization, Confluence) in Patient and Control Groups and OCD symptoms. These results are important to Gestalt Therapists in terms of shedding light on the therapeutic intervention to be done for an OCD patient and contributing to the literature.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Gestalt/métodos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Inventário de Personalidade , Projeção , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria/métodos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Mecanismos de Defesa , Dessensibilização Psicológica/métodos , Introversão Psicológica
9.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(1): 60-73, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889229

RESUMO

Previous studies have found discrepancies between parent and child reports of parental favoritism. Some studies have also found that these discrepancies have unique effects on children's psychosocial adjustment. Nonetheless, much is still unknown about discrepancies between parent-reports and child-reports of parental favoritism and how they are associated with children's development. The current study examines discrepancies in multi-informant reports on parental favoritism in relation to children's internalizing and externalizing problems. The sample consisted of 556 mother-child dyads and 554 father-child dyads (46% boys, Mage = 12.52 years, SDage = 1.18). Polynomial regression analyses and response surface analyses were used to disentangle the effects of parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental favoritism. The results indicate that children reported higher parental favoritism than their parents. And the highest internalizing and externalizing problems occurred when both the mother and the child reported high maternal favoritism, and when both the father and the child report high paternal favoritism. Therefore, these findings partly support the assumptions based on the operations triad model. The findings also highlight the importance of the discrepancy between child- and parent-reports on parental favoritism in the development of children's internalizing and externalizing problems.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Mecanismos de Defesa , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Irmãos/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Poder Familiar/psicologia
10.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(4): 1159-1171, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907729

RESUMO

In order to better understand protective factors for internalizing problems, this longitudinal study examined positive emotions, emotion awareness and (non-)emotional communication skills in relation to somatic complaints and social anxiety in children with (N = 104) and without (N = 183) Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) using self-reported measures twice with a 9-month interval. Additionally, parents reported on their child's communication problems and emotion communication at Time 1. Most importantly, since we found that increasing levels of emotion awareness related to decreases in social anxiety and somatic complaints in children with and without DLD, we conclude that children with DLD are likely to benefit from interventions aimed at improving their emotion awareness in addition to language interventions.


Assuntos
Mecanismos de Defesa , Emoções/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Autorrelato
11.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 208(3): 245-251, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929466

RESUMO

This research examined the efficacy of intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) in the treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and compared the therapeutic outcomes of ISTDP when feeling focus or defense work is emphasized. A three-group randomized design with 6-month follow-up was used. Forty-one subjects were selected among volunteer college students diagnosed with SAD. They were assigned randomly into three groups; 14 cases to feeling-focused ISTDP (FF-ISTDP) group, 14 cases to defense-focused ISTDP (DF-ISTDP) group, and 13 cases to a control group. All subjects were evaluated at pretest, posttest, and six-month follow-up through clinical interviewing using DSM-5 criteria for SAD along with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Each experimental group had a course of 8 to 10 sessions of ISTDP treatment. Analysis of variance showed that ISTDP is an effective treatment for SAD compared with a control group. No outcome differences were found between FF-ISTDP and DF-ISTDP in treating SAD.


Assuntos
Mecanismos de Defesa , Emoções , Fobia Social/terapia , Psicoterapia Breve/métodos , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fobia Social/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Biol Psychol ; 151: 107846, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958548

RESUMO

The cardiac defense response (CDR) to intense auditory stimulation is characterized by two acceleration-deceleration heart rate (HR) components. This study investigated contributions of sympathetic cardiac control to habituation and recovery of the CDR. Fifty-six healthy subjects were presented with noise stimuli eliciting the CDR. Three stimuli were presented with short and long (2.5 min and 12.5 min) inter-trial intervals (ITIs). The pre-ejection period was recorded as an index of sympathetic cardiac control, in addition to HR. Repeated stimulation at short ITI was associated with marked habituation of the HR and sympathetic responses; both responses exhibited a degree of recovery with long ITI. Regarding the time course, the first acceleration-deceleration was accompanied by a decline and subsequent increase in sympathetic cardiac control. During the second acceleration-deceleration, the parameters exhibited parallel courses. These results suggest that the sympathetic contribution to the habituation and recovery is limited to the second HR component.


Assuntos
Mecanismos de Defesa , Habituação Psicofisiológica/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Affect Disord ; 260: 638-645, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dependent (self-generated) stress is a strong risk factor for depression and anxiety, but perceptions of stress can alter its impact. Appraisals of dependent stress controllability and severity additionally relate to depression and anxiety over and above stress exposure. Due to the high comorbidity of depression and anxiety, it is unclear whether dependent stress frequency and appraisals relate specifically to depression or anxiety or are transdiagnostically associated shared aspects of internalizing disorders. Consistent with the tripartite model, the current study represented internalizing symptoms with three latent factors - depression-specific, anxiety-specific, and common internalizing - and tested how dependent stress frequency and appraisals of controllability and severity were associated with these factors. METHODS: Bifactor modeling was used to create the latent internalizing factors in a treatment-seeking sample of emerging adults (n = 356). Structural equation models tested dependent stress frequency and appraisals of controllability and severity as predictors of these latent factors. RESULTS: Dependent stress frequency was associated with common internalizing while perceived controllability was associated uniquely with depression-specific variance. Continuous stress severity was not associated with latent factors, but high-severity stressors were associated with anxiety-specific variance. LIMITATIONS: Without longitudinal data conclusions regarding temporal directionality cannot be made. Participants' appraisals of stressors could not be compared to expert ratings. CONCLUSIONS: Dependent stress frequency, controllability appraisals, and high-severity stressful events have distinct links with different dimensions of internalizing psychopathology. This suggests there may be several distinct mediating mechanisms between stress constructs and psychopathology, which have potential to serve as targets for intervention.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Mecanismos de Defesa , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Psicopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(3): 724-734, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879856

RESUMO

Extensive research has consistently shown an association between relational victimization and internalizing problems among adolescents. However, limited information is available about the underlying peer status related factors that may mediate or moderate this association. Using a short-term longitudinal design with a six-month interval between the two waves, this study examined whether popularity status insecurity mediated the associations between relational victimization and internalizing problems and whether this mediational process was moderated by popularity status among 447 (250 girls) Chinese 7th and 8th graders. The findings of this study show that popularity status insecurity mediated the longitudinal associations between relational victimization and the two internalizing problems, depressive symptoms and anxiety, but only for adolescents with relatively low popularity. This study reveals the moderated mediation processes explaining the impact of relational victimization on adolescents' mental health.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Distância Social , Adolescente , China , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
15.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 88, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptoms of anxiety and depression are common mental health problems in children and are often referred to as internalizing symptoms. Youth with such symptoms are at greater risk for poor academic achievement, school non-completion, and future mental health problems, all of which, lead to public health consequences and costs to society. The aim of the current study was to investigate associations between young school children's internalizing symptoms and school functioning, as assessed separately by the teachers and the children. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional study including children (N = 750. 58% girls) from the ages of 8-12 years with elevated levels of self-reported symptoms of anxiety (MASC-C) and/or depression (SMFQ). Teachers reported the academic achievement, school adaptation (TRF) and internalizing symptoms (BPM-T) of the children. Associations were analyzed using linear regression analyses. RESULTS: Both teacher-reported internalizing symptoms and children's self-reported depressive symptoms were associated with poor academic achievement and school adaptation, while self-reported symptoms of anxiety were not. Symptoms of depression as assessed by the children were associated with teacher-rated internalizing symptoms, while self-reported symptoms of anxiety were not. CONCLUSION: We found negative associations between school functioning and internalizing symptoms, as assessed by both the teachers and the children. The dual findings strengthen the validity of these relationships. Thus, prevention of depressive and anxiety symptoms in children may lead to positive changes in school domains such as academic achievement and school adaptation. We also identified a negative association between teacher-rated internalizing symptoms and children's self-report of depressive symptoms, indicating that teachers may have difficulties recognizing children with these symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT02340637, Registered on June 12, 2014, Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Depressão/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato
16.
Am J Psychoanal ; 79(4): 540-554, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723219

RESUMO

The importance of human relations in understanding and treating trauma is evident not only from the severity of traumatization inflicted by human agency and the dissociation that ensues from traumatic interpersonal relations, but also from the analyst's affective participation which is essential to the reparation of the serious psychopathologies that originate in traumatization. Developing Ferenczi's theorizations, on the identification with the aggressor, I propose that after the abuse the traumatized subject identifies partly with the persecutor and partly with the victim, which sometimes is represented by the body itself, becoming the object of the destructiveness. Such unconscious identifications are accompanied by the dynamics of experiencing complex feelings of guilt and shame (the victim side) and the aggressiveness and anger, (the persecutor/persecuting side). It was Ferenczi who first described the potential for a therapist, acting benevolently and supportively as sole witness, to create the preconditions for the patient to re-contact long-dissociated parts, thanks to the implicit non-verbal and corporal exchange, a concept which is here explained as embodied testimony/witnessing and enactment, and unconscious communication of the right hemispheres of therapist and patient.


Assuntos
Teoria Psicanalítica , Terapia Psicanalítica/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Transtornos Dissociativos/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
17.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 75, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that perceptions of mental health related stigma can negatively impact help-seeking, particularly in military samples. Moreover, perceptions of stigma and barriers to care can vary between individuals with different psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether perceptions of stigma and barriers to care differed in a UK military sample between those with and without a current likely mental health diagnosis. METHOD: Structured telephone interviews were carried out with 1432 service personnel and veterans who reported recent subjective mental ill health in the last 3 years. Participants completed self-reported measures relating to perceived stigma, barriers to care and psychological wellbeing. RESULTS: Those meeting criteria for probable common mental disorders (CMD) and PTSD were significantly more likely to report concerns relating to perceived and internalised stigma and barriers to care compared to participants without a likely mental disorder. Compared to individuals with likely CMD and alcohol misuse, those with probable PTSD reported higher levels of stigma-related concerns and barriers to care - although this difference was not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that perceptions of stigma continue to exist in UK serving personnel and military veterans with current probable mental disorders. Efforts to address particular concerns (e.g. being seen as weak; difficulty accessing appointments) may be worthwhile and, ultimately, lead to improvements in military personnel and veteran wellbeing.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Estigma Social , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
18.
EMBO J ; 38(24): e101822, 2019 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736111

RESUMO

Environmental adaptation of organisms relies on fast perception and response to external signals, which lead to developmental changes. Plant cell growth is strongly dependent on cell wall remodeling. However, little is known about cell wall-related sensing of biotic stimuli and the downstream mechanisms that coordinate growth and defense responses. We generated genetically encoded pH sensors to determine absolute pH changes across the plasma membrane in response to biotic stress. A rapid apoplastic acidification by phosphorylation-based proton pump activation in response to the fungus Fusarium oxysporum immediately reduced cellulose synthesis and cell growth and, furthermore, had a direct influence on the pathogenicity of the fungus. In addition, pH seems to influence cellulose structure. All these effects were dependent on the COMPANION OF CELLULOSE SYNTHASE proteins that are thus at the nexus of plant growth and defense. Hence, our discoveries show a remarkable connection between plant biomass production, immunity, and pH control, and advance our ability to investigate the plant growth-defense balance.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/imunologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular , Celulose/metabolismo , Fusariose , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Glucosiltransferases , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
19.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(11): 2307-2322, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606829

RESUMO

Problematic family functioning places young adolescents at risk for internalizing behaviors. However, not all adolescents who experience family risk develop internalizing behaviors during early adolescence. Informed by a cumulative risk perspective, the current study examined whether associations between cumulative family risk, as well as particular family risk domains, and youth internalizing behaviors are moderated by youth parasympathetic reactivity. Participants include 68 young adolescents in 6th grade. Youth were 56% female, 41% African American, and 54% European American. For young adolescents who experienced higher change in respiratory sinus arrhythmia during a challenge/stressor task, greater cumulative family risk, exposure to more family risk domains, and several particular risk factors (maternal psychological well-being, marital/family system risk), were associated with higher levels of internalizing behaviors. The findings from this study demonstrate that the extent to which both particular family risk factors and cumulative family risk place youth at increased risk for internalizing behaviors depends on youth's parasympathetic functioning.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Depressão/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
20.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(12): 2403-2417, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605292

RESUMO

Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are more likely to use alcohol than their heterosexual cisgender peers. At the same time, SGM youth experience sexuality- and gender identity-specific stressors known to exacerbate negative health outcomes. Though scholars have established a link between minority stressors (e.g., internalized stigma and victimization) and increased alcohol use for SGM youth as a whole, there is little indication of whether internalized stigma and victimization are more strongly associated with alcohol use for specific groups of SGM youth. A United States sample of 11,811 racially and geographically diverse 13-17 year old SGM youth was used to employ a series of gender-stratified multivariable regression models to examine the association among internalized stigma, victimization, and alcohol-related behaviors, and whether they differed for specific groups of sexual minority youth. Sexual orientation moderated several associations between sexual minority stressors (i.e., victimization and stigma) and youth's alcohol use (i.e., recent use and heavy episodic drinking) across models stratified by gender (i.e., male, female, and non-binary). For example, bisexual boys had stronger associations between SGM-specific victimization and alcohol use frequency and heavy episodic drinking relative to gay boys; conversely, victimization and alcohol use frequency were more weakly associated among bisexual girls relative to lesbian/gay girls. Pansexual girls showed weaker associations between internalized stigma and alcohol use frequency compared to lesbian/gay girls. This paper demonstrates who among SGM youth are more likely to engage in alcohol-related behaviors as a function of differential forms of SGM-related victimization and stigma. These findings can inform substance use interventions that are tailored to youth of diverse sexual orientations and gender identities.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
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