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1.
Bull Cancer ; 106(9): 747-758, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182221

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Delays for consultation of more than six months exist for uterine cancer. Delays in diagnosis of more than five years exist for vulvar cancer. The peak incidence of these neoplasms appear after the age of 65 years. Patient's symptoms are characteristically swelling, vaginal bleeding or itching. This study aims to understand what is happening during this period for women over 65 years old. It also tries to identify triggers during the help-seeking period. METHODS: Qualitative studies using semi-structured interviews with dual analyses (semio-pragmatic and psychodynamic) have been conducted on a population of older (65+) gynaecologic cancer patients, recruited from a French oncology centre. RESULTS: Twelve patients were interviewed. Patients' courses of action were determined by the characteristics of their symptoms, their feelings and their emotions. Representations, subjective beliefs and past experiences were employed to make sense of their symptoms. The patient's friend and family circle had an important role in incentivizing the patient to seek consultation. Multiple factors affected the path towards consulting the doctor. The initial medical contact included several challenges. The patient would consult a doctor earlier if he had more information about his illness and if his relationship with the doctor was better. CONCLUSION: Our findings are similar to those of other cancers. The peculiarity for this population appears to be the different representations of age-related changes in the reproductive system, and the taboo associated with this issue when facing friends and family.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio/psicologia , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Vaginais/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cultura , Mecanismos de Defesa , Família , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Avaliação de Sintomas/psicologia , Tabu , Fatores de Tempo , Neoplasias Uterinas/psicologia , Neoplasias Vaginais/psicologia , Neoplasias Vulvares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Vulvares/psicologia
2.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 40: 104-110, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229199

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Working in oncology departments is a stressful and emotionally consuming experience and oncology professionals are particularly at risk for developing stress-related syndromes. Defense mechanisms (high-adaptive) and mindfulness dispositions are known as facilitators of well-being and adaptation. In this study we analysed the role of these unconscious and conscious strategies in protecting the oncology clinicians from stress-related symptoms. METHOD: A convenience sample of 63 oncology professionals was assessed on defense style, mindfulness disposition, depression and anxiety symptoms using self-reported questionnaires. Demographic and professional information was included in data collection. RESULTS: Results did not show significance differences in demographic and professional characteristics among all studied variables. Mature defense style and mindfulness were highly and negatively correlated with depression and anxiety, while a positive association was found between immature defense style and both depression and anxiety symptoms. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses found defense styles and mindfulness as predictors of depression, whereas only immature defense style predicted anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides the first empirical evidence of the influence of unconscious defense mechanisms and conscious mindfulness dispositions in protecting oncology professionals from depression and anxiety symptoms. Defense mechanisms and mindfulness share several common-points and should be seen as complementary in enhancing physical and psychological well-being. Further studies are required for a deeper understanding of the impact of mindfulness and defenses in improving adaptation.


Assuntos
Mecanismos de Defesa , Atenção Plena , Neoplasias/psicologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oncologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermagem Oncológica , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
3.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(1): 19-33, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074420

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Empirical research in defense mechanisms - a concept that stem from the work of Sigmund and Anna Freud and gave rise to a number of thematic approaches - dates back to the mid-20th century. From the psychometric measure instruments developed since that time, the present investigation was aimed to assess the short form of Defense Style Questionnaire that can be efficiently applied in clinical practice and that was supposed to be used as the sixth diagnostic factor of the new version of DSM. A multi-level validity analysis of DSQ-40 was carried out. METHODS: We applied trait assessing measures for anxiety, avoidant behavior, schizotypal traits and personality disorder diagnostic measures developed for DSM-5. To evaluate discriminant validity we applied instruments that assess the stability of self-esteem and the state of self and that can measure the clarity of self-representations. 670 healthy university students volunteered to participate in the investigation. RESULTS: Based on the applied questionnaires, it was revealed that its inner consistency and validity measures are adequate. Its factors that discriminate neurotic and immature defense styles can be applied to identify persons inclined to use either adaptive or maladaptive defense mechanisms. Our findings correspond to other international research results. CONCLUSION: Our results attest that DSQ-40 is a reliable instrument to assess defense style.


Assuntos
Mecanismos de Defesa , Transtornos da Personalidade , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(1): 43-50, 2019 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994785

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LTPP) emphasizes the centrality of intrapsychic and unconscious conflicts and their relation to development. Although there is evidence supporting the efficacy of LTPP in mental disorders, little research has been published on the efficacy of LTPP for depressive and anxiety disorders. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether patients with anxiety and depressive disorders demonstrate improvement in their attachment styles, defense styles, psychiatric symptoms, anxiety/depressive symptoms, and alexithymia with LTPP. METHODS: In this retrospective, descriptive study, the psychological outcomes of patients who were treated at the psychoanalytic clinic of Babol University of Medical Sciences were assessed. Fourteen patients diagnosed with depressive or anxiety disorder participated in the study of LTPP using the self-psychology approach. The Beck Depression Inventory II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Adult Attachment Scale, 40-item Defense Style Questionnaire, and the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale were administered at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze changes in psychological outcomes after each of the three assessments. RESULTS: The mean scores of depression and anxiety and secure attachment improved significantly after LTPP with self-psychology approach from baseline to post-treatment and follow-up. Also, the mean scores of neurotic and immature defenses, difficulty in identifying feelings, difficulty in describing feelings, externally oriented thinking, and total alexithymia scores decreased significantly from baseline to post-treatment and follow-up. CONCLUSION: Symptoms of anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, insecure attachment styles, alexithymia, and neurotic/immature defense styles improved after the LTPP with self-psychology approach. Moreover, the improvements persisted at the 6-month follow-up.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Apego ao Objeto , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/métodos , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Psychiatry Res ; 272: 797-805, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832201

RESUMO

Biological rhythm theories highlight the reciprocal relations between dysregulated circadian patterns and internalizing psychopathology. Chronotype characterizes individuals' diurnal preference, as some exhibit more morningness or eveningness. Previous research suggests that eveningness prospectively predicts depression in adolescence. Anxiety often co-occurs with depression, but little is known about longitudinal, reciprocal associations between chronotype and anxiety, and whether this relationship remains after controlling for depression. We assessed different forms of anxiety (social, panic, separation), positive/negative affect, anxious arousal (from tripartite theory), and depression, in relation to chronotype to better understand the specificity and directionality of associations between chronotype and internalizing problems in adolescence. Community youth participated in three assessment time points: T1, T2 (18-months post-T1), and T3 (30-months post-T1) as part of a larger longitudinal study. Youth completed self-report measures of anxiety, depression, positive and negative affect, and chronotype. Regression analyses showed that eveningness: (1) concurrently associated with decreased separation anxiety, elevated symptoms of depression and low levels of positive affect, (2) was prospectively predicted by elevated depression, (3) did not predict later symptoms of anxiety. The reciprocal, prospective relationship between chronotype and internalizing psychopathology is specific to depression during adolescence.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/psicologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Mecanismos de Defesa , Depressão/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/fisiopatologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato
6.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(2): 443-456, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837010

RESUMO

This study used a structural equation mixture model to examine associations between child maltreatment, polygenic risk, and indices of adaptive functioning. Children aged 6 to 13 years (N = 1,004), half maltreated, half nonmaltreated, were recruited to attend a research day camp. Multi-informant indicators of prosocial behavior, antisocial behavior, withdrawn behavior, and depression were collected and used in a latent class analysis. Four classes emerged, characterizing "well-adjusted," "externalizing," "internalizing," and "socially dominant" groups. Twelve genetic variants, previously reported in the Gene × Environment literature, were modeled as one weighted polygenic risk score. Large main effects between maltreatment and adaptive functioning were observed (Wald = 35.3, df = 3, p < .0001), along with evidence of a small Gene × Environment effect (Wald = 13.5, df = 3, p = .004), adjusting for sex, age, and covariate interaction effects.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Depressão/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Adolescente , Criança , Depressão/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial
7.
J Affect Disord ; 248: 180-184, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Temperament is still regarded as a stable part of personality, an "endophenotype" developed early in life. However, how frequently temperament traits can change throughout life is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate affective temperament changes from late childhood to adolescence and from late adolescence to adulthood. METHODS: We used data from a cross-sectional web-based survey collected from the Brazilian Internet Study on Temperament and Psychopathology. We used the Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament Scale questionnaire to assess temperament at time of participation, and at age of 10-12 and 18 years, retrospectively, dividing affective temperaments into four major groups: internalized, externalized, stable and unstable. The final sample consisted of 36,255 participants from 24 to 40 years of age (71.9% women). RESULTS: Most of the sample (66.2%) changed to a different affective temperament group at adulthood. We found a significant decrease in internalized temperaments from 10-12 to 18 years of age (34.5% to 25.0% in women and 31.8% to 26.7% in men), parallel with an increase of externalized temperaments (14.1% to 20.3% in women and 17.3% to 19.6% in men). From 18 years of age to adult life, stable temperaments decreased slightly in frequency (37.9% to 32.5% in women and 38.6% to 36.8% in men), while unstable types increased (16.9% to 24.0% in women and 15.3% to 18.4% in men). LIMITATIONS: The retrospective design and self-reported evaluation may bias self-perception. CONCLUSIONS: Affective temperaments often change over time, contrary to the classic view of temperament as a consistent phenotype.


Assuntos
Afeto , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Personalidade , Temperamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Mecanismos de Defesa , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759723

RESUMO

There is no denying the fundamental role played by parents in the psychosocial development of their children-either as a liability or as protection against mental health disorders. This study seeks to ascertain, by means of odds ratio statistics (OR), the correlation between parental psychological control and emotional and behavioral disorders. A total of 762 students took part in this study, with an average age of 12.23 years-53.8% of whom were girls and 46.2% were boys. Children and adolescents reported their parental psychological control and their emotional and behavioral disorders (i.e., emotional and behavioral problems, internalizing and externalizing problems). Minors who perceive their psychological control as high are 6 times more likely to suffer from internalizing disorders and 4.8 times more likely to develop externalizing disorders. Furthermore, the probability of suffering externalizing disorders is higher among males who perceive a high degree of psychological control. This study breaks new ground on the importance of perceived psychological control-considered as a negative form of control by parents-in the emotional and behavioral disorders among children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Emoções , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Adolescente , Criança , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Problema , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Biol Psychol ; 143: 62-73, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797949

RESUMO

The present research investigated the effect of self-uncertainty salience on self-esteem striving, as well as the corresponding self-regulatory processes. Inspired by uncertainty management and meaning maintenance models, we conducted an electroencephalogram experiment to examine how self-uncertainty salience affects performance on self-esteem related tasks, and how it affects neurophysiological activity related to performance monitoring (e.g., error-related negativity, error positivity) on those tasks. Results showed that when self-uncertainty was salient, participants performed better on a task that was high (but not low) in self-esteem relevance, and these participants also displayed a larger amplitude of error positivity after error commissions, which is considered a manifestation of heightened performance monitoring. Overall, these results suggest that self-uncertainty salience increases the need and efforts for self-esteem striving. Further implications are discussed in terms of meaning compensation and self-uncertainty management.


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Autocontrole/psicologia , Incerteza , Adolescente , Adulto , Mecanismos de Defesa , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
10.
Qual Life Res ; 28(7): 1825-1833, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783875

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined the relative importance of body dissatisfaction (BD) and internalized weight bias (IWB) in accounting for variance in quality of life (QoL) impairment in an ethnically diverse sample of college students (n = 630) and potential moderation of these associations by sex. METHODS: Participants completed an online survey that included established measures of BD, IWB and QoL. Regression models were used to examine the relative contributions of BD and IWB in accounting for variance in physical and mental QoL impairment. RESULTS: BD and IWB were highly correlated with bivariate analysis in both women (r = .76) and men (r = .60). In multivariable analysis, IWB was found to be associated with both physical (b = - 1.33, 95% CI - 1.93, - 0.72) and mental (b = - 2.58, 95% CI - 3.45, - 1.72) QoL impairment, whilst BD was not associated with impairment in either physical (b = - 0.29, 95% CI - 0.68, 0.09) or mental (b = - 0.48, 95% CI - 1.03, 0.07) QoL. While levels of both BD and IWB were higher for women than for men, sex did not moderate the association between either BD or IWB and either physical or mental QoL. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the view that IWB warrants greater attention in interventions seeking to reduce the adverse impact of BD in both women and men and both normal-weight and overweight individuals.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mecanismos de Defesa , Emoções , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Psychiatry Res ; 271: 621-627, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791334

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that the internalization of schizophrenia-related stigma is associated with a worse prognosis and more suicidal tendencies. Empirical literature suggests that affective well-being -composed of positive affect (e.g. pride, enthusiasm, vitality, inspiration) and negative affect (e.g. shame, guilt, annoyance, worry)- seems to be the key component which, when being negatively affected by internalized stigma and the subsequent deterioration of self-concept, would lead to more severe symptomatology, lower recovery, and higher risk of suicide. Thus, our aim was to delve into the process by which affective well-being is impacted by the two main dimensions of internalized stigma (stereotype endorsement and alienation), with self-esteem and self-efficacy as mediators. The model was tested by path analysis -maximum likelihood procedure- in a sample of 216 patients. Our results indicate that alienation would entail more damage than stereotype endorsement both on affective well-being and on self-concept. Findings suggest that self-esteem mediates the impact of both internalized stigma dimensions on both types of affect, and that self-efficacy mediates the impact of alienation on positive affect. It is concluded that, in clinical practice, an important effort should be made to prevent internalized stigma (especially, alienation) and to promote positive self-concept of patients (especially, self-esteem).


Assuntos
Mecanismos de Defesa , Emoções , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Autoimagem , Estigma Social , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia , Autoeficácia , Vergonha , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Couns Psychol ; 66(2): 131-142, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702325

RESUMO

Synthesizing both objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) and minority stress theory (Meyer, 2003), the present study used a pantheoretical model of dehumanization (Moradi, 2013) to examine body image concerns and disordered eating symptomatology with 205 transgender women from the United States. Objectification theory constructs (i.e., sexual objectification, internalization of sociocultural standards of attractiveness, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction) and minority stress-related variables (i.e., antitransgender discrimination) were examined as direct and indirect predictors of disordered eating. Results of a latent variable SEM (with a higher-order dehumanization factor comprised of sexual objectification and discrimination) generally provided support for our hypothesized direct and indirect relations. As expected, dehumanization was related directly to internalization and disordered eating and had significant indirect links to body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating via internalization. Potential implications of a pantheoretical model for future research with transgender women are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Mecanismos de Defesa , Desumanização , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoimagem , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 272: 438-446, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611961

RESUMO

Exposure to stressful life events increases risk for both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, but less is known about moderators of the association between stressful life events and psychopathology. The present study examined the influence of stressful life events, psychopathy, and their interaction on internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in 3877 individuals from the community. We hypothesized that (1) exposure to stressful life events would be a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology, (2) primary and secondary psychopathy would be differentially associated with internalizing psychopathology, and (3) primary psychopathy would moderate the association between stressful life events and internalizing psychopathology. Confirming existing findings, our results were consistent with the first and second hypotheses. In contrast to our third hypothesis, primary psychopathy was not associated with stressful life events in childhood, inconsistently associated with stressful life events in adolescence, and did not moderate the association between stressful life events and internalizing psychopathology. Furthermore, stressful life events across development were associated with secondary psychopathy and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. We also found similar associations between stressful life events, psychopathy, and psychopathology in females and males. Future studies investigating the impact of stressful life events on psychopathology should include psychopathic traits and stress-reactivity.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/tendências , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
14.
Stress Health ; 35(2): 200-210, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623579

RESUMO

Psychological distancing, a form of cognitive reappraisal, involves construal of emotionally valenced stimuli in an objective manner, or with perceived spatial and temporal distance. Prior work suggests that in appropriate contexts, reappraisal broadly, and distancing specifically, is related to adaptive mental and physical health outcomes. Additionally, recent research suggests that shifting language to be more distant (i.e., linguistic distancing [LD]) can have adaptive emotion regulatory effects. The present study addressed whether LD is also associated with adaptive health indicators. Participants transcribed their thoughts while viewing negative or neutral stimuli in one of three ways: (a) by implementing objective language, (b) by implementing spatially and/or temporally far away language, or (c) by responding naturally. Across psychological distancing groups, LD was associated with lower negative affectivity (lower perceived stress and depression symptoms), better general well-being (better emotional well-being and energy and vitality), and better emotion regulation (ER; greater reappraisal frequency and fewer difficulties in implementing ER). Participants who used more LD in the objective group had lower negative affectivity, better general well-being, and better ER, and those in the far group had better ER. The results reveal linguistic mechanisms underlying ER and its relationship to health indicators, suggesting future examination of LD interventions.


Assuntos
Afeto , Inteligência Emocional , Linguística , Ajustamento Social , Distância Social , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Nível de Alerta , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(5): 1887-1898, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623270

RESUMO

Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder report elevated parenting stress. The current study examined bidirectional effects between parenting stress and three domains of child functioning (ASD symptoms, internalizing behavior problems, and externalizing behavior problems) across four time points in 188 families of children with ASD (ages 5-12 years). Mother and father reports of parenting stress and child functioning were used in cross-lag models to examine bidirectional associations between parenting stress and child functioning. Results indicated parent-driven effects for child internalizing behavior problems, while child externalizing behavior problems and ASD symptoms evidenced both parent-driven and child-driven effects, in different ways for mothers versus fathers. Overall, findings have important implications for interventions for families of children with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Problema , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia
16.
Biol Psychol ; 141: 17-24, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599210

RESUMO

Increased vascular reactivity to stress has been suggested to contribute to the greater risk for developing hypertension in African Americans. Here, we examined the way (hemodynamic profile) and the extent to which (compensation deficit) cardiac output and total peripheral resistance compensate for each other in determining blood pressure responses to a physical (orthostasis) and a mental (anger recall) stress task, in normotensive African American (AA, n = 30) and European American (EA, n = 48) college students. Blood pressure stress reactivity did not differ as a function of race. However, AAs showed a prominent vascular hemodynamic profile and a significant compensation deficit in response to both tasks, while EAs showed no hemodynamic response to orthostasis and a mixed profile in response to anger recall. The present findings demonstrate a more prominent vascular hemodynamic reactivity to stress in AAs, which could contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension in this ethnic group.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Ira/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Débito Cardíaco , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Estados Unidos , Resistência Vascular , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Affect Disord ; 246: 74-81, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm births rates of infants with very low birth weight (VLBW < 1500 g) are increasing. Prematurity poses several risks for emotional child development, e.g., internalizing symptoms. Our understanding of this condition in young children is limited, for at preschool age, symptoms have mostly been assessed from the mother's perspective only. METHODS: As part of the longitudinal HaFEn cohort-study in Hamburg, Germany, we measured the level of internalizing symptoms in VLBW and term preschoolers as well as predictors from four informants' perspectives: mother, father, teacher, and child. A multilevel model was constructed to examine predictors of internalizing symptoms. n = 104 VLBW and n = 79 term children were included. RESULTS: From both their parents' perspective, children with VLBW had a significantly higher level of internalizing symptoms. From the teacher's and child's own perspectives, there were no significant mean group differences. In the multilevel analyses, the results were different regarding the four perspectives. VLBW did not predict internalizing symptoms. From mother's perspective, her own postpartum psychological distress, and from father's perspective, his postpartum and current psychological distress predicted a higher level of internalizing symptoms in their offspring. From teacher's perspective, socio-economic status predicted internalizing symptoms. LIMITATIONS: The sample size was relatively small. Exclusion criteria and drop out of families could have created some selection bias. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings point to the importance of early identification of parental postpartum psychological distress given the potential for later internalizing symptoms in their children or the perception of their offspring as vulnerable and symptomatic, which may also impact the child's development.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/psicologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Psicologia da Criança , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
18.
Psicol. rev ; 27(2): 233-261, dez. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-998578

RESUMO

Partindo da experiência de uma das autoras como fotógrafa profissional, este trabalho objetiva examinar como a psicanálise poderia colaborar na abordagem da fotografia em relação ao trabalho, investigando possíveis articulações do fotografar com a sublimação das pulsões. Trata-se de uma pesquisa psicanalítica no campo da psicanálise em extensão. Os resultados mostraram que, para Freud, o trabalho é um instrumento poderoso para o homem no combate ao sofrimento, além de inseri-lo na comunidade humana, podendo ser meio de sublimação. Quando o trabalho é fonte de sublimação, coincide com a criação artística, que também é apontada por Freud como uma significativa forma de deslocamento libidinal, e a fotografia abarca estas duas características, sendo um ofício e também uma forma de arte. Foi possível compreender que, sendo escolhido livremente e estando o fotógrafo eroticamente ligado ao trabalho, o fotografar pode propiciar a satisfação pulsionalpor meio da sublimação de componentes sexuais e agressivos.


This study is based on the experience one of its authors as a professional photographer. It aims to examine how psychoanalysis might potentially collaborate with photography centered on 'work' as a theme, investigating possible links between photography and the sublimation of impulses. This psychoanalytic research aims to apply theory to a field of practice such as photography. The results have demonstrated that, for Freud, work is a powerful tool for man to fight against suffering and to make him feel like he belongs in the human community, so therefore, a path to sublimation. When work is a source of sublimation, it coincides with artistic creation, which is also pointed out by Freud as a significant form of libidinal movement, and photography includes these two features, being a craft and also a form of art. Then, it was understood that if photography is freely chosen practice and the photographer is erotically committed to the work, photographing may provide the instinctual satisfaction through the sublimation of sexual and aggressive components.


A partir de la experiencia de una de las autoras como fotógrafa profesional, este estudio tiene como objetivo explorar como el psicoanálisis podría colaborar en el abordaje de la fotografía en relación al trabajo, investigando posibles ligaciones del acto de fotografiar con la sublimación de las pulsiones. Se trata de una investigación psicoanalítica en el campo del psicoanálisis en extensión. Los resultados mostraron que, para Freud, el trabajo es una herramienta poderosa para el hombre en el combate al sufrimiento, además de inserirlo en la comunidad humana, siendo así un medio de sublimación. Cuando el trabajo es una fuente de sublimación, coincide con la creación artística, la cual también fue indicada por Freud como una forma significativa de desplazamiento libidinal, y la fotografía, abarca estas dos características, siendo un trabajo y también una forma de arte. Fue posible comprender que al ser escogido libremente y el fotógrafo estando ligado eróticamente al trabajo, la fotografía puede propiciar la satisfacción pulsional por medio de la sublimación de componentes sexuales y agresivos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Arte , Psicanálise , Trabalho , Mecanismos de Defesa , Fotografia
19.
Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 18(3): 331-343, oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-174409

RESUMO

Defensive functioning is considered one of the core aspects of personality functioning and its maturity level is regarded an important predictor of psychopathology and more specific personality pathology. The current investigation assesses the relation between overall defensive functioning, as measured by the Defense Style Questionnaire-42 (DSQ-42), and higher order models of psychopathology as measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). The DSQ-42 and MMPI-2-RF was completed by 383 patients. We analysed the MMPI-2-RF personality and psychopathology as measured with the Restructured Clinical scales and the Personality Psychopathology Five-revised scales using Goldberg’s Bass Ackwards Method. Higher order dimensions of personality and psychopathology in the current investigation demonstrated structural similarity with previously reported higher order models. Next we examined the optimal level of differentiation of defensive functioning, as measured by the DSQ-42 Total and Overall Defensive Functioning scores, to personality and psychopathology at each succeeding level of the hierarchical factor structures. Results indicated that immature defense mechanisms exemplify strong correlations with internalizing pathology (i.e., Demoralisation and Introversion), but not with externalizing pathology and thought disorder. The differentiation of defensive functioning from higher order models of psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits seems to be limited, based on the current results. The DSQ-42 appeared to have a large overlap and correlations with internalizing pathology, which appeared to be due to its item content: mostly intrapsychic and immature defenses. Theoretical and clinical implications considering the use of the DSQ are discussed


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Assuntos
Humanos , Mecanismos de Defesa , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Testes Psicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , MMPI/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato
20.
Bull Menninger Clin ; 82(3): 224-252, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179043

RESUMO

This study examined the factor structure of the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) and explored the relationships between defense mechanisms and religious coping in a diverse sample of 380 college students. In contrast with the three-factor model of defenses proposed by the developers of the DSQ-40, principal axis factoring yielded two internally consistent components: adaptive and maladaptive defense styles. Endorsement of adaptive defenses was positively correlated with the use of positive religious coping strategies and negatively correlated with negative religious coping. Maladaptive defenses were associated with the endorsement of negative religious coping strategies. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations are made for future use of the DSQ-40.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Mecanismos de Defesa , Psicometria/instrumentação , Religião e Psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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