Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.704
Filtrar
1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(1): e1919935, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995212

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding suicide ideation (SI) during combat deployment can inform prevention and treatment during and after deployment. Objective: To examine associations of sociodemographic characteristics, lifetime and past-year stressors, and mental disorders with 30-day SI among a representative sample of US Army soldiers deployed in Afghanistan. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this survey study, soldiers deployed to Afghanistan completed self-administered questionnaires in July 2012. The sample was weighted to represent all 87 032 soldiers serving in Afghanistan. Prevalence of lifetime, past-year, and 30-day SI and mental disorders was determined. Logistic regression analyses examined risk factors associated with SI. Data analyses for this study were conducted between August 2018 and August 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Suicide ideation, lifetime and 12-month stressors, and mental disorders were assessed with questionnaires. Administrative records identified sociodemographic characteristics and suicide attempts. Results: A total of 3957 soldiers (3473 [weighted 87.5%] male; 2135 [weighted 52.6%] aged ≤29 years) completed self-administered questionnaires during their deployment in Afghanistan. Lifetime, past-year, and 30-day SI prevalence estimates were 11.7%, 3.0%, and 1.9%, respectively. Among soldiers with SI, 44.2% had major depressive disorder (MDD) and 19.3% had posttraumatic stress disorder in the past 30-day period. A series of analyses of the 23 grouped variables potentially associated with SI resulted in a final model of sex; race/ethnicity; lifetime noncombat trauma; past 12-month relationship problems, legal problems, and death or illness of a friend or family member; and MDD. In this final multivariable model, white race/ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 3.1 [95% CI, 1.8-5.1]), lifetime noncombat trauma (OR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.1-4.0]), and MDD (past 30 days: OR, 31.8 [95% CI, 15.0-67.7]; before past 30 days: OR, 4.9 [95% CI, 2.5-9.6]) were associated with SI. Among the 85 soldiers with past 30-day SI, from survey administration through 12 months after returning from deployment, 6% (5 participants) had a documented suicide attempt vs 0.14% (6 participants) of the 3872 soldiers without SI. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that major depressive disorder and noncombat trauma are important factors in identifying SI risk during combat deployment.


Assuntos
Militares/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Resiliência Psicológica , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMJ ; 368: l7057, 2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy on fractures in offspring during different developmental stages of life. DESIGN: National register based birth cohort study with a sibling comparison design. SETTING: Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 1 680 307 people born in Sweden between 1983 and 2000 to women who smoked (n=377 367, 22.5%) and did not smoke (n=1 302 940) in early pregnancy. Follow-up was until 31 December 2014. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Fractures by attained age up to 32 years. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 21.1 years, 377 970 fractures were observed (the overall incidence rate for fracture standardised by calendar year of birth was 11.8 per 1000 person years). The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of fracture in offspring differed by attained age. Maternal smoking was associated with a higher rate of fractures in offspring before 1 year of age in the entire cohort (birth year standardised fracture rates in those exposed and unexposed to maternal smoking were 1.59 and 1.28 per 1000 person years, respectively). After adjustment for potential confounders the hazard ratio for maternal smoking compared with no smoking was 1.27 (95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.45). This association followed a dose dependent pattern (compared with no smoking, hazard ratios for 1-9 cigarettes/day and ≥10 cigarettes/day were 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.39) and 1.41 (1.18 to 1.69), respectively) and persisted in within-sibship comparisons although with wider confidence intervals (compared with no smoking, 1.58 (1.01 to 2.46)). Maternal smoking during pregnancy was also associated with an increased fracture incidence in offspring from age 5 to 32 years in whole cohort analyses, but these associations did not follow a dose dependent gradient. In within-sibship analyses, which controls for confounding by measured and unmeasured shared familial factors, corresponding point estimates were all close to null. Maternal smoking was not associated with risk of fracture in offspring between the ages of 1 and 5 years in any of the models. CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking is associated with an increased rate of fracture during the first year of life but does not seem to have a long lasting biological influence on fractures later in childhood and up to early adulthood.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Gestantes/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
3.
BJOG ; 127(3): 389-395, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Presence of lung metastases in low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is generally considered not to influence prognosis. However, in a recent study in the Netherlands, GTN patients with lung metastases had a higher recurrence rate and more disease-specific deaths compared with patients without metastases. The aim of the present study was to validate these findings in a different country. DESIGN: Historical cohort study. SETTING: Charing Cross Hospital, United Kingdom. POPULATION: A total of 1040 low-risk GTN patients treated with methotrexate (MTX) between 2002 and 2016 were identified: 65 with lung metastases (group 1) and 975 without metastases (group 2). METHODS: Baseline characteristics, MTX resistance, survival and recurrence rates were recorded and compared between both groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: MTX resistance, recurrence rate and survival. RESULTS: The occurrence of MTX resistance and median number of MTX courses to achieve remission was significantly higher in patients with lung metastases than patients without metastases (60% versus 38.9%, P = 0.001; and nine versus six courses, P < 0.001). All choriocarcinoma patients (n = 4) with lung metastases developed MTX resistance. The recurrence rate was also higher in group I (9.2% versus 2.7%; P = 0.012). Disease-specific survival was 100% in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of lung metastases at the start of MTX therapy is associated with increased incidence of MTX resistance and recurrence in low-risk GTN without affecting overall survival, which remains 100%. However, individuals with low-risk choriocarcinoma with lung metastases are likely to become resistant to MTX and primary multi-agent chemotherapy should be considered. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: The presence of lung metastases appears to increase the risk of recurrence in low-risk GTN, but does not affect overall cure rates and survival.


Assuntos
Coriocarcinoma , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Trofoblástica Gestacional , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Metotrexato , Adulto , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Coriocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Coriocarcinoma/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Doença Trofoblástica Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Trofoblástica Gestacional/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Recidiva , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
4.
Urology ; 135: 117-123, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the accuracy of MRI and MRI-ultrasound fusion guided targeted biopsy (TBx) on risk stratification in men who underwent subsequent radical prostatectomy (RP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-center, retrospective study was performed in men at risk for prostate cancer who (n = 140) underwent TBx and RP between November 2012 and August 2018. Comparisons were made between patients clinically staged by preoperative MRI and TBx Gleason grade group (GGG) and stage after RP. Multivariable regression was performed to identify factors associated with MRI and TBx compared to RP grading, staging, and consistency with National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk stratification. RESULTS: There was an increase in NCCN risk stratification in 47 men (33.6%) and a decrease in 17 men (12.1%) compared to the resected prostate. GGG upgrading and downgrading occurred in 35 (25.0%) and 31 men (22.1%), respectively. Upstaging occurred in 41 men (29.3%). In adjusted analysis for age, BMI, PSA Density (PSAD), median maximal diameter of the regions of interest, and PIRADS, men with PIRADS 4 were less likely to be upgraded (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.08-0.81, P = .020) than PIRADS 3. PSAD ≥ 0.15 ng/mL/cc was associated with upstaging (OR 3.92, 95% CI 1.60-9.62, P = .003). CONCLUSION: Accurate risk stratification is critical for disease management, mandated by the increasing use of active surveillance, partial gland ablation, and androgen deprivation therapy with radiation therapy for men with unfavorable intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer. This study confirms the need for advances in imaging and biomarker to increase the accuracy of pretreatment staging.


Assuntos
Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Próstata/patologia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
5.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 617-626, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861114

RESUMO

US guidelines recommend that most women older than 65 years cease cervical screening after two consecutive negative cotests (concurrent HPV and cytology tests) in the previous 10 years, with one in the last 5 years. However, this recommendation was based on expert opinion and modeling rather than empirical data on cancer risk. We therefore estimated the 5-year risks of cervical precancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or adenocarcinoma in situ [CIN3]) after one, two and three negative cotests among 346,760 women aged 55-64 years undergoing routine cotesting at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (2003-2015). Women with a history of excisional treatment or CIN2+ were excluded. No woman with one or more negative cotests was diagnosed with cancer during follow-up. Five-year risks of CIN3 after one, two, and three consecutive negative cotests were 0.034% (95% CI: 0.023%-0.046%), 0.041% (95% CI: 0.007%-0.076%) and 0.016% (95% CI: 0.000%-0.052%), respectively (ptrend < 0.001). These risks did not appreciably differ by a positive cotest result prior to the one, two or three negative cotest(s). Since CIN3 risks after one or more negative cotests were significantly below a proposed 0.12% CIN3+ risk threshold for a 5-year screening interval, a longer screening interval in these women is justified. However, the choice of how many negative cotests provide sufficient safety against invasive cancer over a woman's remaining life represents a value judgment based on the harms versus benefits of continued screening. Ideally, this guideline should be informed by longer-term follow-up given that exiting is a long-term decision.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma in Situ/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adenocarcinoma in Situ/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma in Situ/patologia , California/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Colo do Útero/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
6.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 819-828, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980681

RESUMO

Large, comprehensive studies of the risk for neurologic disorders among long-term survivors of noncentral nervous system (CNS) childhood cancers are lacking. Thus, the aim of our study was to assess the lifetime risk of Nordic non-CNS childhood cancer survivors for neurologic disorders. We identified 15,967 5-year survivors of non-CNS childhood cancer diagnosed in Denmark, Iceland, Finland and Sweden in 1943-2008, and 151,118 matched population comparison subjects. In-patient discharge diagnoses of neurologic disorders were used to calculate relative risks (RRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs). A neurologic disorder was diagnosed in 755 of the survivors while 370 were expected, yielding a RR of 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-2.2). The highest risks were found among survivors of neuroblastoma (4.1; 95% CI 3.2-5.3) and leukemia (2.8; 95% CI 2.4-3.2). The AER decreased from 331 (278-383) excess neurologic disorders per 100,000 person-years 5-9 years after diagnosis to 82 (46-118) ≥ 20 years after diagnosis. Epilepsy was the most common diagnosis (n = 229, 1.4% of all survivors), and significantly increased risks were seen among survivors of eight out of 12 types of childhood cancer. Survivors of neuroblastoma had remarkably high risks (RR ≥ 10) for hospitalization for paralytic syndromes and hydrocephalus, while survivors of leukemia had additional high risks for dementia and encephalopathy. In conclusion, survivors of non-CNS childhood cancer are at high risk for neurologic disorders, especially within the first decade after diagnosis. Therefore, intensive follow-up to identify those who require close management is needed.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMJ ; 367: l6109, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review and summarise the evidence on the prevalence of colorectal adenomas and cancers at a follow-up screening colonoscopy after negative index colonoscopy, stratified by interval between examinations and by sex. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of all available studies. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase. Two investigators independently extracted characteristics and results of identified studies and performed standardised quality ratings. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies assessing the outcome of a follow-up colonoscopy among participants at average risk for colorectal cancer with a negative previous colonoscopy (no adenomas). RESULTS: 28 studies were identified, including 22 cohort studies, five cross sectional studies, and one case-control study. Findings for an interval between colonoscopies of one to five, five to 10, and more than 10 years were reported by 17, 16, and three studies, respectively. Summary estimates of prevalences of any neoplasm were 20.7% (95% confidence interval 15.8% to 25.5%), 23.0% (18.0% to 28.0%), and 21.9% (14.9% to 29.0%) for one to five, five to 10, and more than 10 years between colonoscopies. Corresponding summary estimates of prevalences of any advanced neoplasm were 2.8% (2.0% to 3.7%), 3.2% (2.2% to 4.1%), and 7.0% (5.3% to 8.7%). Seven studies also reported findings stratified by sex. Summary estimates stratified by interval and sex were consistently higher for men than for women. CONCLUSIONS: Although detection of any neoplasms was observed in more than 20% of participants within five years of a negative screening colonoscopy, detection of advanced neoplasms within 10 years was rare. Our findings suggest that 10 year intervals for colonoscopy screening after a negative colonoscopy, as currently recommended, may be adequate, but more studies are needed to strengthen the empirical basis for pertinent recommendations and to investigate even longer intervals. STUDY REGISTRATION: Prospero CRD42019127842.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Humanos , Prevalência , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 1033-1039, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638520

RESUMO

Regionalization of complex surgical care has increased interhospital transfers to quaternary centers within large health-care systems. Risk-based patient selection is imperative to improve resource allocation without compromising care. This study aimed to develop predictive models for identifying low-risk patients for transfer to a fully integrated satellite hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) service in the northeast region of the health-care system. HPB transfers to the quaternary center over 15 months from hospitals in proximity to the satellite HPB center. A predictive tool was developed based on simple pretransfer variables and outcomes for 30-day major complications (Clavien grade ≥ 3), readmission, and mortality. Thresholds for "low risk" were set at different SDs below mean for each model. Predictive models were developed from 51 eligible northeast region patient transfers for major complications (Brier score 0.1948, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) 0.7123, P = 0.0009), readmission (Brier score 0.0615, ROC 0.7368, P = 0.0020), and mortality (Brier score 0.0943, ROC 0.7989, P = 0.0023). Thresholds set from 2 SD below the mean for all models identified 2 as "low risk." Adjusting the threshold for the serious complication model to only 1 SD below the mean increased the "low-risk" cohort to five patients. These models demonstrate an easy-to-use tool to assist surgeons in identifying low-risk patients for diversion to a fully integrated satellite center. Improved interhospital transfers within a region could begin a transition from centers of excellence toward health-care systems of excellence.


Assuntos
Doenças Biliares/cirurgia , Hepatopatias/cirurgia , Modelos Logísticos , Pancreatopatias/cirurgia , Transferência de Pacientes , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Planejamento Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina , Readmissão do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Medição de Risco/métodos
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1323, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the prevention paradox, the majority of alcohol-related harms in the population occur among low-to-moderate risk drinkers, simply because they are more numerous in the population, although high-risk drinkers have a higher individual risk of experiencing alcohol-related harms. In this study we explored the prevention paradox in the Irish population by comparing alcohol-dependent drinkers (high-risk) to low-risk drinkers and non-dependent drinkers who engage in heavy episodic drinking (HED). METHODS: Data were generated from the 2013 National Alcohol Diary Survey (NADS), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of Irish adults aged 18-75. Data were available for 4338 drinkers. Respondents dependent on alcohol (as measured by DSM-IV criteria), respondents who engaged in monthly HED or occasional HED (1-11 times a year) and low-risk drinkers were compared for distribution of eight alcohol-related harms. RESULTS: Respondents who were dependent on alcohol had a greater individual risk of experiencing each harm (p < .0001). The majority of the harms in the population were accounted for by drinkers who were not dependent on alcohol. Together, monthly and occasional HED drinkers accounted for 62% of all drinkers, consumed 70% of alcohol and accounted for 59% of alcohol-related harms. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the majority of alcohol consumption and related harms in the Irish population are accounted for by low- and moderate-risk drinkers, and specifically by those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. A population-based approach to reducing alcohol-related harm is most appropriate in the Irish context. Immediate implementation of the measures in the Public Health (Alcohol) Act (2018) is necessary to reduce alcohol-related harm in Ireland.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 674, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654271

RESUMO

The rice consumption behaviors of Thai citizens vary among regions. However, the influence of different consumption patterns on arsenic (As) exposure has never been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of rice consumption behavior on As exposure levels. White rice (n = 96) and sticky rice (n = 63) samples were collected from local households in northern Thailand. The actual rice consumption behavior (type, frequency, and amount of rice consumed) was surveyed from the households where the rice samples were collected and used to calculate individual As exposures. The white rice (2.1%) and sticky rice (6.3%) samples contained inorganic As at higher concentrations than the Codex standard (0.2 mg kg-1). Approximately 58.3% of participants consumed white rice for breakfast and sticky rice for lunch and dinner, while 41.8% of participants consumed only white rice or sticky rice daily. Wide variations of As exposure (1 × 10-4 to 2 × 10-3 mg kg-1 day-1) were found. The average As exposure from only sticky rice consumption and combined rice consumption was 2 times higher than the As exposure from only white rice consumption. The rice ingestion rate was the most important factor affecting the level of As exposure resulting from the white rice-only and combined rice consumption patterns. For the combined rice consumption pattern, 45.7 to 93.5% of the total As exposure was from sticky rice consumption. Regarding individual characteristics, older and lower weight participants tended to consume lower amounts of rice. Thus, lower As exposure and fewer health impacts were found in those participants.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Arsênico/toxicidade , Arsenicais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Oryza/química , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tailândia
11.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(10): 671-675, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, Israel established the first national-level adult cardiac surgery database, which was linked to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS). OBJECTIVES: To validate and compare the STS predicted risk of mortality (PROM) to logistic EuroSCORE I (LESI) and EuroSCORE II (ESII) in Israeli patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 1279 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgeries with a calculable PROM. Data were prospectively entered into our database and used to calculate PROM, LESI, and ESII. Scores were normalized and correlated using linear regression and Pearson's test. To examine model calibration, we plotted the total observed versus expected mortality for each score and across five risk-score subgroups. Model discrimination was assessed by measuring the area under the receiver operating curves. RESULTS: The observed 30-day operative mortality was 1.95%. The median (IQ1; IQ3) PROM, LESI, and the ESII scores were 1.45% (0.69; 3.22), 4.54% (2.28; 9.27), and 1.88% (1.18; 3.54), respectively, with observed over expected ratios of 0.63 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.42-0.93), 0.59 (95%CI 0.40-0.87), and 0.24 (95%CI 0.17-0.36), respectively, (STS vs. ESII P = 0.36, STS vs. LESI P = 0.0001). There was good correlation among all scores. All models overestimated mortality. Model discrimination was high and similar for all three scores. Model calibration of the STS, PROM, and ESII were more accurate than the LESI, particularly in higher risk subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: All scores overestimated mortality. In Israeli patients, the STS, PROM, and ESII risk-scores were more reliable metrics than LESI, particularly in higher risk patients.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Gestão de Riscos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sociedades Médicas , Cirurgia Torácica
12.
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc ; 53(5): 346-350, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400967

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether being the parents of children with developmental hip dysplasia (DDH) is a risk factor for asymptomatic dysplasia. METHODS: Asymptomatic parents of children who were diagnosed with DDH were assessed for presence of dysplasia by examining their anteroposterior pelvis radiographs at the neutral position. Eighty-six hips of 43 participants were included in the study group and 98 hips of 49 participants were included in the control group. Presence of hip dysplasia over the anteroposterior pelvis radiographs was analyzed for Wiberg's angle, acetabular index of the weight-bearing zone (the Tönnis angle), acetabular depth/width index, femoral head coverage ratio (FHCR) and femoral neck/shaft angle. RESULTS: The mean acetabular depth/width ratio was 44.3% in the study group and 53.5% in the control group. And, the mean FHCR was 80% in the study group and 82% in the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean acetabular depth/width ratio (p < 0.05) and FHCR (p < 0.05). In addition, 21 participants in the study group and 2 in the control group had a pathological acetabular depth/width ratio. And, the number of participants with a pathological FHCR was 22 in the study group and 13 in the control group. A statistically significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the number of pathological measurements of acetabular depth/width ratio (p < 0.05) and FHCR (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Having a parent with DDH is a definitive risk factor for the development of hip dysplasia in childhood. In addition, being a parent of a child with DDH is a risk factor for asymptomatic dysplasia. These parents should be screened by roentgenogram. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, Diagnostic Study.


Assuntos
Acetábulo , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Luxação Congênita de Quadril , Articulação do Quadril , Pais , Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Acetábulo/patologia , Adulto , Criança , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/diagnóstico , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/epidemiologia , Articulação do Quadril/anormalidades , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Radiografia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
13.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 481, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of occupational injury and associated factors among building construction workers in Dessie town, Northeast Ethiopia. RESULT: The prevalence of occupational injury was 32.6% 95% CI (27.8-37.4). Male workers [AOR: 1.775, 95% CI (1.108-2.844)], uneducated [AOR: 3.327, 95% CI (1.262-8.771)], training [AOR: 2.053, 95% CI (1.004-4.195)] and Uses of PPE [AOR: 2.076, 95% CI (1.253-3.439)]. In focus group discussions negligence of the workers and lack of awareness were factors significantly associated with Occupational injury. The occupational injury was high among construction workers. Sex, Educational status, Safety training, Personal protective equipment were statically significantly associated.


Assuntos
Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394804

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) was collected in three different areas, SY-1, SY-2, and SY-3, in Shenyang, China, during the warm and cold seasons from 2012 to 2014. SY-1 was located beside a thermal power plant, far from the central area. SY-2 was near a coal heating boiler on the main road, close to the central area. SY-3 was on the main road, without fixed emission sources. Nine PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The results showed that the mean concentration of total PAHs was higher in the cold season (92.6-316 ng m-3) than in the warm season (18.4-32.2 ng m-3). Five- and six-ring PAHs occupied a large percentage at all sites in the warm season, and four-ring PAHs were the dominant components in the cold season. Several diagnostic PAH ratios indicated that the main sources of PAHs in Shenyang in the warm and cold seasons were not only coal burning but also vehicle emission. In this study, we suggest that a benzo[a]pyrene/benzo[ghi]perylene ratio ([BaP]/[BgPe]) of 0.6 was a useful indicator to speculate the relative significance of coal burning and vehicle exhaust. Although the Shenyang government has undertaken actions to address air pollution, the PM and PAH concentrations did not decrease significantly compared to those in our previous studies. The cancer risk calculated from the BaP equivalent total concentration at all three sites in the warm and cold seasons exceeded the acceptable limit established by the US EPA.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Humanos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Estações do Ano
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454901

RESUMO

Government officials, health professionals, and other decision makers are tasked with characterizing vulnerability and understanding how populations experience risks associated with exposure to climate-related hazards. Spatial analyses of vulnerable locations have given rise to climate change vulnerability mapping. While not a new concept, the spatial analyses of specific health outcomes remain limited. This review explores different methodologies and data that are used to assess vulnerability and map population health impacts to climate hazards. The review retrieved scholarly articles and governmental reports concerning vulnerability mapping of human health to the impacts of climate change in the United States, published in the last decade. After review, 37 studies were selected for inclusion. Climate-related exposures were distributed across four main categories, including: high ambient temperatures; flood hazards; vector-borne diseases; and wildfires. A number of different methodologies and measures were used to assess health vulnerability to climate-related hazards, including heat vulnerability indices and regression analyses. Vulnerability maps should exemplify how variables measuring the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of different populations help to determine the potential for climate-related hazards to have an effect on human health. Recommendations address methodologies, data gaps, and communication to assist researchers and stakeholders in directing adaptations to their most efficient and effective use.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Espacial , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 393, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess the sanitary condition of services and its implication for intestinal parasitic infections among prison inmates in eastern Tigrai, northern Ethiopia. RESULTS: We have assessed the availability and sanitary condition of services at Adigrat prison. Frequent water cuts and unavailability of soap in the prison have challenged prisoners and food handlers to maintain their hygiene. The living rooms were overcrowded and poorly ventilated besides to unsatisfactory kitchen rooms. The prevalence of intestinal parasites among the participants was 40% (108/270). The dominant parasite was Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (60, 22.2%) followed by Giardia lamblia, 39 (14.4%). The mixed infections of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Giardia lamblia were detected among 17 (6.3%) of the participants. In multivariate analysis, participants who were feeding in groups were more likely to harbor intestinal parasites than those who were feeding alone (AOR: 2.1; CI 1.05-4.3). Intestinal parasites are significant health problems to the prisoners of Adigrat prison with poor sanitation of services. Therefore, provision of necessary facilities such as hand washing basins, soaps, disinfectants, disinfestations, and food utensils could significantly reduce the burden of intestinal parasites in the prison.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões , Saneamento/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Lab ; 65(7)2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis represents one of the common diseases in the neonatal intensive care unit. Here we aim to evaluate the differences between a group of preterm newborns with sepsis and a control group in relation to clinical and laboratory variables. In addition, our goal is to establish potential predictors of early-onset sepsis (EOS) and late-onset sepsis (LOS). METHODS: The study included 113 preterm newborns with sepsis (EOS-63.72%/LOS-36.28%). Laboratory deter-minations included full blood count, CRP, biochemical determinations, blood culture. RESULTS: The most important univariate neonatal predictors were gestational age (p < 0.001), surfactant adminis-tration (p < 0.001), mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001), heart failure (p < 0.001), a history of hypocalcemia (p = 0.037), Apgar score at 1 minute lower than 7 (p = 0.001), birth weight < 1,500 g (p = 0.005), number of hospi-talization days (p = 0.048), and number of weight recovery days < 10 (p < 0.05). The WBC and CRP parameters remained significant univariate predictors of sepsis on day 7 (p = 0.002; OR = 2.01 per 10,000 mm3 increase of WBC, 95% CI: (1.30; 3.09) and p = 0.001; OR = 4.27, 95% CI: (1.85; 9.88), respectively). Logistic regression anal-ysis showed maternal urinary tract infection (OR = 3.05), heart failure (OR = 5.28), the number of hospitalization days (OR = 1.09) and CRP (OR = 3.26) were significant independent risk factors for neonatal sepsis in preterms. The univariate predictors of EOS were gestational age (p = 0.002), birth weight (p = 0.014), 1-minute Apgar score (p = 0.012), maternal urinary tract infection (p = 0.008), surfactant administration (p < 0.001), heart failure (p < 0.001), and CRP level (p < 0.001). Surfactant administration (OR = 6.73) and CRP level (OR = 3.51) represent predictors of EOS in preterms according to the multivariate model. The univariate predictors of LOS were gesta-tional age (p = 0.001), birth weight (p = 0.048), 1-minute Apgar score (p = 0.001), surfactant administration (p < 0.001), hypocalcemia (p = 0.03), heart failure (p = 0.003), CRP level (p < 0.001), mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001), and the number of hospitalization days (p < 0.001). In the multivariate model, the number of hospitali-zation days (OR = 1.11) and heart failure (OR = 5.98) are independent predictors for LOS in preterms. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirms the presence of maternal urinary tract infection, hospitalization days, heart fail-ure, and CRP level as predictors of neonatal sepsis in preterms with differences between EOS and LOS.


Assuntos
Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Idade de Início , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/complicações , Infecções Urinárias/complicações
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 406, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of hypertension among adults in Debre Markos town, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study design was employed. Systematic random sampling was used to select 456 study participants. Analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. Binary logistic regression was fitted to show the association between dependent variable and independent variables. RESULT: A total of 57 (12.5%) individuals had hypertension in Debre Markos town. Being female [AOR 3.78, 95% CI 1.56, 9.147], consuming animal source fat [AOR 6.28, 95% CI 2.63, 14.99], family history of hypertension [AOR 4.88, 95% CI 1.99, 12.015], age greater than 50 years [AOR 3.31, 95% CI 1.00, 10.99], body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 [AOR 4.70, 95% CI 1.99, 11.06], excess salt consumption [AOR 6.49, 95% CI 2.83,14.89] and alcohol consumers [AOR 3.19, 95% CI 1.13, 8.99] were found to be statistically significant factors associated with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension in Debre Markos town is still a public health problem. Being female sex, consuming animal source fat, family history of hypertension, excess salt consumption age greater than 50 years and body mass index > 25 kg/m2 were significant factors of hypertension. Therefore, health sectors should take actions to tackle these modifiable risk factors.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos
19.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 381, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Unintended pregnancy is one of the most public health issues in the world, and it is the major sexual and reproductive health problem which carries a higher risk of morbidity and mortality for women, often due to unsafe abortion. Even though family planning services are effective and available than ever before, unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion are the major public health problems in the study area. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the magnitude and associated factors of unintended pregnancy among pregnant women attending antenatal care follow up in Maichew town, northern Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted on 329 pregnant women selected with a systematic sampling technique from April 5 to May 4, 2017. RESULT: The magnitude of unintended pregnancy among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Maichew was found to be 29.7% (95% CI 24.30, 35.50). On the other hand, single in marital status (AOR = 38.6, 95% CI 10.07, 148.01), living alone (AOR = 9.9, 95% CI 1.80, 53.40) and having three or four children (AOR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.10, 11.04) were factors associated with an unintended pregnancy. Creating awareness about unintended pregnancy associated factors and implication of unintended pregnancy is highly recommended.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez não Planejada , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 30(3): 251-259, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301993

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Guests and guides partaking in helicopter and snowcat skiing (collectively known as mechanized skiing) are exposed to numerous natural winter hazards that can result in injury or death, but detailed quantitative risk estimates are currently lacking. This lack represents a considerable barrier for evaluating existing risk management practices and implementing evidence-based improvements. METHODS: We collected historical incident and exposure information from mechanized skiing operations in Canada to perform a retrospective risk analysis. Our analysis dataset includes 713 incidents that resulted in injuries or fatalities among guests or guides during a total of 3,258,000 skier days from the 1970 to 2016 winter season. RESULTS: Overall risk of death from natural winter hazards in mechanized skiing was 18.6 fatalities per million skier days (1997-2016). Although the risk of death from avalanches decreased substantially over the entire study period, avalanches remain the largest contributor to the overall risk of death (77%), followed by tree wells and other non-avalanche-related snow immersions. The risk of death from avalanches in snowcat skiing is about half of that in helicopter skiing, but other snow immersion fatalities are more common. The risk of major injury to guests is primarily associated with other falls and collisions. The risk of major injury for guides is higher in snowcat skiing than in helicopter skiing. CONCLUSION: We recommend the design of an industry-wide incident and near-miss reporting system to support evidence-based improvements of safety practices.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Esqui/lesões , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/mortalidade , Canadá/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Esqui/classificação , Esqui/estatística & dados numéricos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA