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1.
Inorg Chem ; 59(2): 1323-1331, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920084

RESUMO

We first design and synthesize a dendritic aromatic 6-carboxyl linker (H6TDCPB), which is successfully assembled with Cd(II) ion to construct a porous metal-organic framework with a raw Cd6 cluster, {[Cd3(TDCPB)·2DMAc]·DMAc·4H2O}n (namely, complex 1). More interestingly, six adjacent linkers are packed together by π-π-stacking interactions to form an amazing six-molecule accumulation in the crystal structure. By virtue of high stability and luminescent properties, the as-synthesized sample not merely owns an excellent detectable ability but also possesses an outstanding selectivity for nitrofurans with remarkable recursitivity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Medições Luminescentes , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/síntese química , Estrutura Molecular
2.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 202: 111724, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785446

RESUMO

Laser induced autofluorescence (LIAF) lifetime is useful to distinguish between normal laryngeal tissues and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) based on variations of their biochemical composition and structure alterations. LIAF was collected from samples constituted by pairs of normal and malignant tissue, which were excised from three patients. Exclusion criteria for samples harvest were: (i) macroscopic changes of normal vocal cord observed during surgery; (ii) previous surgical intervention on vocal cord, (iii) patients treated only with chemotherapy or radiotherapy for carcinoma. Inclusion conditions: men, aged 57-68, non-smokers. A pulsed laser diode excited LIAF at 375 nm and 31 MHz repetition rate; beam full-time width at half-maximum was 87 ps at an average power of 0.49 mW. Mean LIAF lifetime for normal tissues was (3.75 ± 0.49) ns and for malignant (4.37 ± 0.85) ns: it is longer in malignant than in normal tissue. Variance analysis made with Fisher's test has shown no significant difference between patients for normal tissues; the same was true for malignant. Though, when malignant tissue was compared to normal for the same patients as well as between patients, a significant difference (significance level of 5%) was evidenced. Time-resolved LIAF may allow better differentiation between normal and malignant tissues in patients diagnosed with larynx SCC.


Assuntos
Laringe/efeitos da radiação , Lasers , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Humanos , Laringe/química , Medições Luminescentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
3.
Talanta ; 206: 120206, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514889

RESUMO

Hemoglobin (Hb) plays an important role in oxygen carriage for mammals, which is also a typical biomarker for certain diseases. Although numerous methods had been developed for the detection of Hb in red blood cells, analytical technology for the monitoring of low-abundance Hb in serum or plasma is still a challenge. Herein, persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNPs) with strong near-infrared (NIR) emission character behaving as a label-free probe for the highly sensitive and selective detection of Hb were developed. Further studies revealed that the sensing mechanism should be attributed to the Hb-induced dynamic quenching process. Moreover, the nanoprobe showed high selectivity to Hb against the common existing substances in human serum and a linear response to Hb ranging from 1 to 50 nM with an extremely high limit of detection (LOD) of 0.13 nM. Finally, applicability of the proposed probe for the detection of Hb in human serum samples was validated.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinas/análise , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Cromo/química , Gálio/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Luminescência , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Zinco/química
5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(2): 313-316, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808779

RESUMO

A host-guest recognition-regulated aggregation-induced emission (AIE) strategy is developed based on the interaction between cyclodextrin-functionalized copper nanoclusters and di(adamantan-1-yl)phosphine as a connector, which significantly improves the AIE efficiency and stability and can be applied to long-term in situ imaging of MUC1 protein.


Assuntos
Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Mucina-1/análise , Fosfinas/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cobre/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos
6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(92): 13932-13935, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686058

RESUMO

In this work, a bipedal DNA walker was employed to mediate an efficient enzyme-free exponential isothermal DNA signal amplification. On the basis of the bipedal DNA walker mediated enzyme-free exponential isothermal signal amplification, an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor was constructed for sensitive and rapid detection of microRNA (miRNA) with a limit of detection down to 0.24 fM and requiring less than 40 min.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , DNA/química , MicroRNAs/análise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Complexos de Coordenação/química , DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Medições Luminescentes , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Rutênio/química , Titânio/química
7.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e6, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714111

RESUMO

The Coat-A-Count® radioimmunoassay has been long and widely used to determine the concentration of progesterone in serum or plasma of bitches (progRIA), but was discontinued in 2014. The Immulite® 1000 LKPG1 chemiluminescence immunoassay has gained prominence since 2003 to determine the concentration of progesterone in serum of bitches, but the assay changed in 2012 (Immulite® 1000 LKPW1). This study assessed the feasibility of using Immulite® 1000 LKPW1 (progImm) to estimate the time of clinically relevant events during oestrus and compared progRIA and progImm 2 and 3 days after the first or only day of the luteinizing hormone surge (LH1). ProgImm first exceeded 5.1 nmol/L on the same day that progRIA first exceeded 6 nmol/L, a proxy for the occurrence of the LH surge, or the day before in 28 of 31 (90%) of oestrous periods. ProgImm first exceeded 13.6 nmol/L on the same day that progRIA first exceeded 16 nmol/L (a proxy for the day of ovulation) or the day before in 34 of 35 (97%) oestrous periods. ProgImm first exceeded 5.4 nmol/L on LH1 or the day before in 24 of 25 (95%) of oestrous periods. The median of progImm 2 days after LH1 was 1.2 nmol/L lower than the 10.7 nmol/L of progRIA (p = 0.001). The mean of progImm 3 days after LH1 was 2.2 nmol/L lower than the 19.0 nmol/L of progRIA (p 0.001). In conclusion, the days on which progImm first exceeded 5.1 nmol/L, 13.6 nmol/L and 5.4 nmol/L effectively estimate the days on which progRIA reached 6 nmol/L or 16 nmol/L or LH1.


Assuntos
Cães/sangue , Medições Luminescentes/veterinária , Detecção da Ovulação/veterinária , Progesterona/sangue , Radioimunoensaio/veterinária , Animais , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Estro/sangue , Feminino , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Detecção da Ovulação/métodos , Radioimunoensaio/métodos , Reprodução/fisiologia
8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(100): 15053-15056, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777878

RESUMO

The present study reports an aqueous synthesis approach towards off-stoichiometric copper indium sulfide quantum dots with emissions in the near-infrared spectral range. The photoluminescence properties of the dots, and in particular the appearance of dual emission at high Cu deficiency, were studied with temperature-dependent steady-state and transient photoluminescence spectroscopy.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular , Cobre/química , Células HeLa , Humanos , Índio/química , Medições Luminescentes , Pontos Quânticos/toxicidade , Temperatura Ambiente , Raios Ultravioleta
9.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 18(12): 2942-2951, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746925

RESUMO

In this work, we report a novel strategy for fabricating a luminescent 2D nanocomposite at room temperature by in situ generation of luminescent copper nanoclusters (Cu NCs) embedded in natural monolithic eggshell membrane (ESM) using dithiothreitol as the reducing and capping agent. The established fabrication is facile, cost-effective and viable. The as-prepared Cu NC/ESM nanocomposite exhibited excellent photoluminescence performance, improved chemical, thermal and photo stability, convenient tailoring and flexibility. Significantly, the nanocomposites could be employed as test strips for the visual detection of Ag+ ions based on the luminescence quenching phenomenon and as color conversion layers in light-emitting diodes. Furthermore, application of the proposed strategy for surface luminescence patterning was well demonstrated, indicating great potential in biomass based anti-counterfeiting, information encryption and security paper or sheets.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Casca de Ovo/química , Medições Luminescentes , Nanocompostos/química , Prata/análise , Animais , Íons/química , Solventes/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Raios Ultravioleta
10.
J Chem Phys ; 151(14): 144712, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615232

RESUMO

Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) is a promising technique for low concentration molecular detection. To improve the detection limit, plasmonic nanoparticles have been proposed as signal boosting antennas to amplify ECL. Previous ensemble studies have hinted that spectral overlap between the nanoparticle antenna and the ECL emitter may play a role in signal enhancement. Ensemble spectroscopy, however, cannot resolve heterogeneities arising from colloidal nanoparticle size and shape distributions, leading to an incomplete picture of the impact of spectral overlap. Here, we isolate the effect of nanoparticle-emitter spectral overlap for a model ECL system, coreaction of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(ii) hexahydrate and tripropylamine, at the single-particle level while minimizing other factors influencing ECL intensities. We found a 10-fold enhancement of ECL among 952 gold nanoparticles. This signal enhancement is attributed exclusively to spectral overlap between the nanoparticle and the emitter. Our study provides new mechanistic insight into plasmonic enhancement of ECL, creating opportunities for low concentration ECL sensing.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Propilaminas/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Ouro/química , Ouro/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Luminescência , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/efeitos da radiação , Compostos Organometálicos/efeitos da radiação
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(45): 12576-12583, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618026

RESUMO

Copper ion (Cu2+)-triggered carbon dots (CDs/Cu) with dual emissions were utilized to develop a ratiometric fluorescence sensor for ultrasensitive detection of inert thiophanate-methyl (TM). TM could be recognized by CDs/Cu through π-π stacking and could chelate Cu2+ of CDs/Cu through metal ion coordination, inducing synchronous fluoresent quenching of the dual emission of CDs/Cu based on the excited state intramolecular proton transfer and the ligand-to-metal charge transfer. The fluorescence ratio of CDs/Cu (F416/F481) linearly responded in a TM concentration of 0.10-20.00 µmol/L with an ultralow limit of detection of 2.90 × 10-6 µmol/L. A synchronous response of the ratiometric sensor enhanced the specificity toward TM and presented remarkable capability of anti-interference in complex matrices. The sensor exhibited satifactory accuracy and precision for practical applications with recoveries of 88.33-101.09% and relative standard deviations of 1.61-5.06%, demonstrating an ultrasensitive ratiometric fluorescent nanosensor for detecting pesticides residues in complex matrices.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Cobre/química , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Pontos Quânticos/química , Tiofanato/análise , Fluorescência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(86): 12980-12983, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603440

RESUMO

Nuclear factor kappa B p50 (NF-κB p50) induces various biological processes. In this study, a highly selective and sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for the detection of NF-κB p50 has been developed, which combines the high selectivity of the proximity hybridization assay (PHA) with the high efficiency of the hybridization chain reaction (HCR).


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/análise , DNA/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Humanos , Medições Luminescentes , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico
13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(87): 13078-13081, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608909

RESUMO

The chiral spin-flip luminophore [Cr(ddpd)2]3+ can be resolved into enantiopure material by chiral HPLC. The corresponding enantiomers show very high luminescence dissymmetry factors of up to ∣glum ∣≈ 0.093 in circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) measurements for the "ruby-like" phosphorescence transition 2E/2T1 → 4A2 in the near-IR region around λ ≈ 775 nm.


Assuntos
Cromo/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Luminescência , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Medições Luminescentes , Conformação Molecular
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4483, 2019 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578369

RESUMO

Among optical imaging techniques light sheet fluorescence microscopy is one of the most attractive for capturing high-speed biological dynamics unfolding in three dimensions. The technique is potentially millions of times faster than point-scanning techniques such as two-photon microscopy. However light sheet microscopes are limited by volume scanning rate and/or camera speed. We present speed-optimized Objective Coupled Planar Illumination (OCPI) microscopy, a fast light sheet technique that avoids compromising image quality or photon efficiency. Our fast scan system supports 40 Hz imaging of 700 µm-thick volumes if camera speed is sufficient. We also address the camera speed limitation by introducing Distributed Planar Imaging (DPI), a scaleable technique that parallelizes image acquisition across cameras. Finally, we demonstrate fast calcium imaging of the larval zebrafish brain and find a heartbeat-induced artifact, removable when the imaging rate exceeds 15 Hz. These advances extend the reach of fluorescence microscopy for monitoring fast processes in large volumes.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico por Imagem/instrumentação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Medições Luminescentes/instrumentação , Microscopia/instrumentação , Animais , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Larva , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Microscopia/métodos , Microscopia Confocal/instrumentação , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/instrumentação , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 18(11): 2740-2747, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573014

RESUMO

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB) is associated with memory formation and controls cell survival and proliferation via regulation of downstream gene expression in tumorigenesis. As a transcription factor, CREB binds to cAMP response elements. Phosphorylation of CREB triggers transcriptional activation of CREB downstream genes following the interaction of the kinase-inducible domain (KID) of CREB with the KID interaction domain (KIX) of CREB-binding protein. Nevertheless, because of the lack of single-cell analytical techniques, little is known about spatiotemporal regulation of CREB phosphorylation. To analyze CREB activation in single living cells, we developed genetically encoded bioluminescent sensors using luciferase-fragment complementation: the sensors are designed based on KID-KIX interaction with a single-molecule format. The luminescence intensity of the sensor, designated as CREX (a sensor of CREB activation based on KID(CREB)-KIX interaction), increased by phosphorylation of CREB. Moreover, the luminescence intensity of CREX was sufficient to detect CREB activation in live-cell bioluminescence imaging for single-cell analysis because of the higher sensitivity. CREX sensor is expected to contribute to elucidation of the spatiotemporal regulation of CREB phosphorylation by applying single-cell analysis.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação a CREB/análise , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/genética , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/metabolismo , Colforsina/química , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Luciferases/química , Luciferases/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 183, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565143

RESUMO

Introduction: There is a great scarcity of literature in Pakistan investigating the proportion of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) who meet the recommended kidney diseases outcome quality initiative (K/DOQI) guidelines for serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), calcium phosphorus product (Ca x P) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Our study aimed to determine frequencies of patients who met the K/DOQI targets for these minerals at a tertiary care hospital's dialysis unit. Methods: 111 ESRD patients on maintenance HD were selected from a tertiary care hospital. Serum Ca and P were assayed on chemistry analyser. PTH was measured through electrochemiluminescence sandwich method. Data were compared with K/DOQI targets and analysed using SPSS-21. Results: The mean age of patients was 55.85 years (SD ± 13.95). Gender distribution was almost equal with 49.5% males and 50.5% females. The patients had mean corrected serum Calcium 9.12 ± 0.64 mg/dL, Phosphorus 4.57 ± 1.54 mg/dL and Parathyroid hormone 333.8 ± 278.4 pg/mL. The patients had achieved K/DOQI target ranges of Ca, P, PTH, Ca x P product and all 4 criteria in 63.1%, 47.6%, 38.7%, 84.7% and 10.8% respectively. Conclusion: Majority of patients on maintenance HD at our institution did not achieve the recommended K/DOQI target ranges. Further studies pertaining to the Asian subcontinent will prove resourceful for comparison of mineral metabolism and dialysis outcome of ESRD patients.


Assuntos
Cálcio/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Fósforo/sangue , Diálise Renal/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Feminino , Humanos , Medições Luminescentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Centros de Atenção Terciária
17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(83): 12479-12482, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566643

RESUMO

The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) from europium hydroxide nanorods (EHNs) was reported for the first time using K2S2O8 as an efficient cathodic co-reactant, and an ultrasensitive ECL aptasensor based on the system for the detection of thrombin has been formulated successfully.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Európio/química , Hidróxidos/química , Medições Luminescentes , Nanotubos/química , Trombina/análise , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Trombina/metabolismo
18.
Inorg Chem ; 58(19): 12700-12706, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556291

RESUMO

The highly porous luminescent metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can act as fluorescent probes for the detection of nitro compounds and can also serve as containers and energy transfer platforms to construct the host-guest systems. Herein, two new three-dimensional MOFs with high porosity were prepared successfully by the electron-rich tetrakis(4-pyridylphenyl)ethylene (tppe) as ligands. Compound 1 shows the high sensitivity and selectivity toward nitro-antibiotics in an aqueous media, particularly showing the best detection efficiency for furazolidone (FZD) among the reported luminescent sensors. The highly efficient fluorescence quenching toward FZD may be attributed to the electron and energy transfer. Compound 2 has naphthalene-2,7-dicarboxylic acid (2,7-npd) and tppe as dual linkers, and the energy transfer between 2,7-npd and tppe leads to the emission band in a large scale. It is worth noting that the single-phased white-light materials can be obtained by the in situ encapsulation of different concentration of sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) into compound 2 matrix.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Nitrocompostos/análise , Estilbenos/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Luminescência , Medições Luminescentes , Modelos Moleculares , Rodaminas/química
19.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 18(11): 2682-2687, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528963

RESUMO

Bioluminescence spectra of firefly luciferases are affected by pH, heavy metals and high temperatures. Previously, we compared the effect of pH and heavy metals on the bioluminescence spectra of different firefly luciferases and showed that such spectral sensitivity can be harnessed to ratiometrically estimate the pH inside cells and metal concentration. Here, we compared the effect of temperature on the spectral sensitivity of four firefly luciferases (Amydetes vivianii: 539 nm; Cratomorphus distinctus: 548 nm; Photinus pyralis: 558 nm and Macrolampis sp2: 594 nm) and investigated whether a ratiometric curve could be used to estimate temperature. The ratio of intensities of bioluminescence at two wavelengths (green and red) at different temperatures (5-35 °C) was determined. The results confirm that, in the case of pH-sensitive luciferases, the more blue-shifted the bioluminescence spectrum, the more thermostable the enzyme and the less sensitive the emission spectrum to temperature. An almost linear relationship between temperature and the ratio of bioluminescence intensities in the green and red region of the spectrum was found for the four luciferases: the more blue-shifted and less sensitive luciferases exhibit a smaller slope and the more red-shifted luciferases exhibit a steeper slope in the following order: Amy < Crt < Ppy < Mac. This relationship offers the possibility of using firefly luciferases as ratiometric indicators of temperature and may allow the compensation of the effect of temperature in the ratiometric analysis of intracellular pH and heavy metal concentration for each enzyme.


Assuntos
Luciferases de Vaga-Lume/química , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Besouros/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Luciferases de Vaga-Lume/genética , Luciferases de Vaga-Lume/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura Ambiente
20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(77): 11551-11554, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490470

RESUMO

A novel ratiometric electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-electrochemical (EC) hybrid biosensor with a high accuracy and reproducibility was fabricated for the ultrasensitive detection of miRNA-133a. With the help of a DNA tetrahedron nanostructure and hybridization chain reaction dual amplification strategy, the detection limit of 12.17 aM for miRNA-133a was obtained.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , DNA/química , MicroRNAs/análise , Nanoestruturas/química , 2,2'-Dipiridil/análogos & derivados , 2,2'-Dipiridil/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Medições Luminescentes , Azul de Metileno/química , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Compostos Organometálicos/química
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