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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(38)2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479991

RESUMO

COVID-19 induces a robust, extended inflammatory "cytokine storm" that contributes to an increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Macrophages are a key innate immune cell population responsible for the cytokine storm that has been shown, in T2D, to promote excess inflammation in response to infection. Using peripheral monocytes and sera from human patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and a murine hepatitis coronavirus (MHV-A59) (an established murine model of SARS), we identified that coronavirus induces an increased Mφ-mediated inflammatory response due to a coronavirus-induced decrease in the histone methyltransferase, SETDB2. This decrease in SETDB2 upon coronavirus infection results in a decrease of the repressive trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) at NFkB binding sites on inflammatory gene promoters, effectively increasing inflammation. Mφs isolated from mice with a myeloid-specific deletion of SETDB2 displayed increased pathologic inflammation following coronavirus infection. Further, IFNß directly regulates SETDB2 in Mφs via JaK1/STAT3 signaling, as blockade of this pathway altered SETDB2 and the inflammatory response to coronavirus infection. Importantly, we also found that loss of SETDB2 mediates an increased inflammatory response in diabetic Mϕs in response to coronavirus infection. Treatment of coronavirus-infected diabetic Mφs with IFNß reversed the inflammatory cytokine production via up-regulation of SETDB2/H3K9me3 on inflammatory gene promoters. Together, these results describe a potential mechanism for the increased Mφ-mediated cytokine storm in patients with T2D in response to COVID-19 and suggest that therapeutic targeting of the IFNß/SETDB2 axis in T2D patients may decrease pathologic inflammation associated with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/virologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Sci Adv ; 7(32)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348897

RESUMO

We investigated the influence of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination on the unstimulated plasma levels of a wide panel of cytokines, chemokines, acute-phase proteins (APPs), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and growth factors in a group of healthy elderly individuals (age, 60 to 80 years) at baseline (before vaccination) and 1 month after vaccination as part of our clinical study to examine the effect of BCG on COVID-19. Our results demonstrated that BCG vaccination resulted in diminished plasma levels of types 1, 2, and 17 and other proinflammatory cytokines and type 1 interferons. BCG vaccination also resulted in decreased plasma levels of CC, CXC chemokines, APPs, MMPs, and growth factors. Plasma levels of the aforementioned parameters were significantly lower in vaccinated individuals when compared to unvaccinated control individuals. Thus, our study demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties of BCG vaccination and suggests its potential utility in nonspecific vaccination of COVID-19 by down-modulating pathogenic inflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vacina BCG/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
3.
Nat Immunol ; 22(9): 1163-1174, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426690

RESUMO

The immunosuppressive function of regulatory T (Treg) cells is dependent on continuous expression of the transcription factor Foxp3. Foxp3 loss of function or induced ablation of Treg cells results in a fatal autoimmune disease featuring all known types of inflammatory responses with every manifestation stemming from Treg cell paucity, highlighting a vital function of Treg cells in preventing fatal autoimmune inflammation. However, a major question remains whether Treg cells can persist and effectively exert their function in a disease state, where a broad spectrum of inflammatory mediators can either inactivate Treg cells or render innate and adaptive pro-inflammatory effector cells insensitive to suppression. By reinstating Foxp3 protein expression and suppressor function in cells expressing a reversible Foxp3 null allele in severely diseased mice, we found that the resulting single pool of rescued Treg cells normalized immune activation, quelled severe tissue inflammation, reversed fatal autoimmune disease and provided long-term protection against them. Thus, Treg cells are functional in settings of established broad-spectrum systemic inflammation and are capable of affording sustained reset of immune homeostasis.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Autoimunidade/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Homeostase/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/patologia
4.
J Immunol ; 207(5): 1229-1238, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348975

RESUMO

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) or seasonal influenza may lead to respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. The pathophysiology of this respiratory failure is attributed to local immune dysregulation, but how the immune response to viral infection in the lower airways of the human lung differs between individuals with respiratory failure and those without is not well understood. We used quantitative multiparameter flow cytometry and multiplex cytokine assays to evaluate matched blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from control human subjects, subjects with symptomatic seasonal influenza who did not have respiratory failure, and subjects with severe seasonal influenza or SARS-CoV-2 infection with respiratory failure. We find that severe cases are associated with an influx of nonclassical monocytes, activated T cells, and plasmablast B cells into the lower airways. Cytokine concentrations were not elevated in the lower airways of moderate influenza patients compared with controls; however, 28 of 35 measured cytokines were significantly elevated in severe influenza, severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, or both. We noted the largest elevations in IL-6, IP-10, MCP-1, and IL-8. IL-1 family cytokines and RANTES were higher in severe influenza infection than severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Interestingly, only the concentration of IP-10-correlated between blood and BAL during severe infection. Our results demonstrate inflammatory immune dysregulation in the lower airways during severe viral pneumonia that is distinct from lower airway responses seen in human patients with symptomatic, but not severe, illness and suggest that measurement of blood IP-10 concentration may predict this unique dysregulation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Respiratória , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
5.
J Immunotoxicol ; 18(1): 93-104, 2021 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436982

RESUMO

The aging immune system is characterized by a low-grade chronic systemic inflammatory state ("inflammaging") marked by elevated serum levels of inflammatory molecules such as interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP). These inflammatory markers were also reported to be strong predictors for the development/severity of Type 2 diabetes, obesity, and COVID-19. The levels of these markers have been positively associated with those of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) generated via non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins and lipids during normal aging and metabolism. Based on the above observations, it is clinically important to elucidate how dietary AGEs modulate inflammation and might thus increase the risk for aging-exacerbated diseases. The present narrative review discusses the potential pro-inflammatory properties of dietary AGEs with a focus on the inflammatory mediators CRP, IL-6 and ferritin, and their relations to aging in general and Type 2 diabetes in particular. In addition, underlying mechanisms - including those related to gut microbiota and the receptors for AGEs, and the roles AGEs might play in affecting physiologies of the healthy elderly, obese individuals, and diabetics are discussed in regard to any greater susceptibility to COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Dieta , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/imunologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Imunidade , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
6.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 98: 107806, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352471

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel virus SARS-CoV-2, is often more severe in older adults. Besides age, other underlying conditions such as obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, and malignancies, which are also associated with aging, have been considered risk factors for COVID-19 mortality. A rapidly expanding body of evidence has brought up various scenarios for these observations and hyperinflammatory reactions associated with COVID-19 pathogenesis. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) generated upon glycation of proteins, DNA, or lipids play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of age-related diseases and all of the above-mentioned COVID-19 risk factors. Interestingly, the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) is mainly expressed by type 2 epithelial cells in the alveolar sac, which has a critical role in SARS-CoV-2-associated hyper inflammation and lung injury. Here we discuss our hypothesis that AGEs, through their interaction with RAGE amongst other molecules, modulates COVID-19 pathogenesis and related comorbidities, especially in the elderly.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Senescência Celular , Comorbidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais
7.
J Immunol ; 207(5): 1448-1455, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362834

RESUMO

Identification of the receptors involved in innate immune recognition of Staphylococcus aureus, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, is essential to develop alternative strategies to treat infections caused by antibiotic-resistant strains. In the current study, we examine the role of endosomal TLRs, which sense the presence of prokaryotic-type nucleic acids, in anti-staphylococcal host defenses using infection models involving genetically defective mice. Single deficiencies in TLR7, 9, or 13 resulted in mild or no decrease in host defenses. However, the simultaneous absence of TLR7, 9, and 13 resulted in markedly increased susceptibility to cutaneous and systemic S. aureus infection concomitantly with decreased production of proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, neutrophil recruitment to infection sites, and reduced production of reactive oxygen species. This phenotype was significantly more severe than that of mice lacking TLR2, which senses the presence of staphylococcal lipoproteins. Notably, the combined absence of TLR7, 9, and 13 resulted in complete abrogation of IL-12 p70 and IFN-ß responses to staphylococcal stimulation in macrophages. Taken together, our data highlight the presence of a highly integrated endosomal detection system, whereby TLR7, 9, and 13 cooperate in sensing the presence of staphylococcal nucleic acids. We demonstrate that the combined absence of these receptors cannot be compensated for by cell surface-associated TLRs, such as TLR2, or cytosolic receptors. These data may be useful to devise strategies aimed at stimulating innate immune receptors to treat S. aureus infections.


Assuntos
Endossomos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor Toll-Like 9/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360887

RESUMO

The fruits of the mulberry tree (Morus alba L.), known as white mulberry, have been consumed in various forms, including tea, beverages, and desserts, worldwide. As part of an ongoing study to discover bioactive compounds from M. alba fruits, the anti-inflammatory effect of compounds from M. alba were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract of the M. alba fruits led to the isolation of 22 compounds. Among the isolated compounds, to the best of our knowledge, compounds 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 12, and 14-22 were identified from M. alba fruits for the first time in this study. Inhibitory effects of 22 compounds on the production of the nitric oxide (NO) known as a proinflammatory mediator in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were evaluated using NO assays. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of cyclo(L-Pro-L-Val) (5). We evaluated whether the anti-inflammatory effects of cyclo(L-Pro-L-Val) (5) following LPS stimulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages occurred because of phosphorylation of IκB kinase alpha (IKKα), IκB kinase beta (IKKß), inhibitor of kappa B alpha (IκBα), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activations of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Cyclo(L-Pro-L-Val) (5) significantly suppressed phosphorylations of IKKα, IKKß, IκBα, and NF-κB and activations of iNOS and COX-2 in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicate that cyclo(L-Pro-L-Val) (5) can be considered a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammation-associated disorders.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Morus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445767

RESUMO

The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are implicated in many neuropathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases. To explore potential JNK3 inhibitors from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug library, we performed structure-based virtual screening and identified azelastine (Aze) as one of the candidates. NMR spectroscopy indicated its direct binding to the ATP-binding site of JNK3, validating our observations. Although the antihistamine effect of Aze is well documented, the involvement of the JNK pathway in its action remains to be elucidated. This study investigated the effects of Aze on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced JNK phosphorylation, pro-inflammatory mediators, and cell migration in BV2 microglial cells. Aze was found to inhibit the LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun. It also inhibited the LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nitric oxide. Wound healing and transwell migration assays indicated that Aze attenuated LPS-induced BV2 cell migration. Furthermore, Aze inhibited LPS-induced IκB phosphorylation, thereby suppressing nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Collectively, our data demonstrate that Aze exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-migratory effects through inhibition of the JNK/NF-κB pathway in BV2 cells. Based on our findings, Aze may be a potential candidate for drug repurposing to mitigate neuroinflammation in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Microglia/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443423

RESUMO

Chronic liver inflammation has become a major global health concern. In the absence of clinical surrogate markers to diagnose inflammatory liver disease, the intervention with effective drugs in modern medicine tends to be late. In Sri Lanka, traditional medical practitioners prescribe herbal preparations from Osbeckia octandra for the prevention and treatment of liver disorders. To test the efficacy of such treatments, we have administered thioacetamide (TAA) to male Wistar rats to induce chronic liver damage (disease control; DC) and examined how various leaf extracts: crude leaf suspension (CLS), boiled leaf extract (BLE), sonicated leaf extract (SLE), methanol leaf extract (MLE) and hexane leaf extract (HLE) of O. octandra ameliorate TAA-induced liver disease. The CLS, BLE and SLE treatments in cirrhotic rats significantly attenuated disease-related changes, such as liver weight and hepato-enzymes. The mRNA levels of Tnf-α were significantly decreased by 3.6, 10 and 3.9 times in CLS, BLE and SLE compared to DC. The same treatments resulted in significantly lower (19.5, 4.2 and 2.4 times) α-Sma levels compared to DC. In addition, Tgf-ß1 and Vegf-R2 mRNA expressions were significantly lower with the treatments. Moreover, BLE expressed a strong anti-angiogenic effect. We conclude that CLS, BLE and SLE from O. octandra have potent hepatic anti-fibrotic effects in TAA-induced liver cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Melastomataceae/química , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/sangue , Neovascularização Patológica/sangue , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Tioacetamida , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Água , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445132

RESUMO

Saponarin{5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-6-[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]-7-[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxychromen-4-one}, a flavone found in young green barley leaves, is known to possess antioxidant, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and skin-protective effects of saponarin were investigated to evaluate its usefulness as a functional ingredient in cosmetics. In lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 (murine macrophage) cells, saponarin (80 µM) significantly inhibited cytokine expression, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Saponarin (80 µM) also inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells. Saponarin (40 µM) significantly inhibited ß-hexosaminidase degranulation as well as the phosphorylation of signaling effectors (Syk, phospholipase Cγ1, ERK, JNK, and p38) and the expression of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, COX-2, and FcεRIα/γ) in DNP-IgE- and DNP-BSA-stimulated RBL-2H3 (rat basophilic leukemia) cells. In addition, saponarin (100 µM) significantly inhibited the expression of macrophage-derived chemokine, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and the phosphorylation of signaling molecules (ERK, p38 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 [STAT1]) in TNF-α- and interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated HaCaT (human immortalized keratinocyte) cells. Saponarin (100 µM) also significantly induced the expression of hyaluronan synthase-3, aquaporin 3, and cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (LL-37) in HaCaT cells, which play an important role as skin barriers. Saponarin remarkably inhibited the essential factors involved in the inflammatory and allergic responses of RAW264.7, RBL-2H3, and HaCaT cells, and induced the expression of factors that function as physical and chemical skin barriers in HaCaT cells. Therefore, saponarin could potentially be used to prevent and relieve immune-related skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apigenina/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Células HaCaT , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 662465, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335566

RESUMO

To systematically explore potential biomarkers which can predict disease severity in COVID-19 patients and prevent the occurrence or development of severe COVID-19, the levels of 440 factors were analyzed in patients categorized according to COVID-19 disease severity; including asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe, convalescent and healthy control groups. Factor candidates were validated by ELISA and functional relevance was uncovered by bioinformatics analysis. To identify potential biomarkers of occurrence or development of COVID-19, patient sera from three different severity groups (moderate, severe, and critical) at three time points (admission, remission, and discharge) and the expression levels of candidate biomarkers were measured. Eleven differential factors associated with disease severity were pinpointed from 440 factors across 111 patients of differing disease severity. The dynamic changes of GDF15 reflect the progression of the disease, while the other differential factors include TRAIL R1, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-4, VCAM-1, sFRP-3, FABP2, Transferrin, GDF15, IL-1F7, IL-5Rα, and CD200. Elevation of white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), Alanine aminotransferase and Aspartate aminotransferase, low lymphocyte and eosinophil counts in the severe group were associated with the severity of COVID-19. GDF15 levels were observed to be associated with the severity of COVID-19 and the dynamic change of GDF15 levels was closely associated with the COVID-19 disease progression. Therefore, GDF15 might serve as an indicator of disease severity in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , COVID-19/imunologia , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361105

RESUMO

Epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity (EMP) plays critical roles during embryonic development, wound repair, fibrosis, inflammation and cancer. During cancer progression, EMP results in heterogeneous and dynamic populations of cells with mixed epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics, which are required for local invasion and metastatic dissemination. Cancer development is associated with an inflammatory microenvironment characterized by the accumulation of multiple immune cells and pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines. Cytokines from the interleukin 6 (IL-6) family play fundamental roles in mediating tumour-promoting inflammation within the tumour microenvironment, and have been associated with chronic inflammation, autoimmunity, infectious diseases and cancer, where some members often act as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. All IL-6 family members signal through the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway and are able to activate a wide array of signalling pathways and transcription factors. In general, IL-6 cytokines activate EMP processes, fostering the acquisition of mesenchymal features in cancer cells. However, this effect may be highly context dependent. This review will summarise all the relevant literature related to all members of the IL-6 family and EMP, although it is mainly focused on IL-6 and oncostatin M (OSM), the family members that have been more extensively studied.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371873

RESUMO

Menopause, probably the most important natural change in a woman's life and a major component of female senescence, is characterized, inter alia, by cessation of ovarian estrogen and progesterone production, resulting in a gradual deterioration of the female immune system. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is used in postmenopausal women to relieve some of the peri- and postmenopausal symptoms, while there is also evidence that the therapy may additionally partially reverse menopausal immune senescence. Flavonoids, and especially isoflavones, are widely used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, although it is not at present clear whether they can reverse or alleviate other menopausal changes. HRT reverses the menopausal CD4/CD8 ratio and also limits the general peri- and postmenopausal inflammatory state. Moreover, the increased levels of interleukins (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8, as well as of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are decreased after the initiation of HRT. However, some reports show no effect of HRT on IL-4, IL-10, and IL-12. It is thus evident that the molecular pathways connecting HRT and female immune senescence need to be clarified. Interestingly, recent studies have suggested that the anti-inflammatory properties of isoflavones possibly interact with inflammatory cytokines when applied in menopause treatments, thereby potentially reversing immune senescence. This narrative review presents the latest data on the effect of menopausal therapies, including administration of flavonoid-rich products, on age-associated immune senescence reversal with the aim of revealing possible directions for future research and treatment development.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossenescência/efeitos dos fármacos , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoestrógenos/uso terapêutico , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Flavonoides/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Menopausa/imunologia , Menopausa/metabolismo , Fitoestrógenos/efeitos adversos , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371878

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the aberrant processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau, both of which are accompanied by neuroinflammation. Dietary supplementation with spray-dried porcine plasma (SDP) has anti-inflammatory effects in inflammation models. We investigated whether dietary supplementation with SDP prevents the neuropathological features of AD. The experiments were performed in 2- and 6-month-old SAMP8 mice fed a control diet, or a diet supplemented with 8% SDP, for 4 months. AD brain molecular markers were determined by Western blot and real-time PCR. Senescent mice showed reduced levels of p-GSK3ß (Ser9) and an increase in p-CDK5, p-tau (Ser396), sAPPß, and the concentration of Aß40, (all p < 0.05). SDP prevented these effects of aging and reduced Bace1 levels (all p < 0.05). Senescence increased the expression of Mme1 and Ide1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-17 and Il-18; all p < 0.05); these changes were prevented by SDP supplementation. Moreover, SDP increased Tgf-ß expression (p < 0.05). Furthermore, in aged mice, the gene expression levels of the microglial activation markers Trem2, Ym1, and Arg1 were increased, and SDP prevented these increases (all p < 0.05). Thus, dietary SDP might delay AD onset by reducing its hallmarks in senescent mice.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Plasma , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Quinase 5 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/efeitos dos fármacos , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/metabolismo , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/patologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Secagem por Atomização , Sus scrofa , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
16.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371879

RESUMO

Sepsis is an extremely complex clinical syndrome, usually involving an excessive inflammatory response including an overshooting cytokine release that damages tissue and organs of the patient. Due to the severity of this condition, it is estimated that over 11 million people die from sepsis each year. Despite intensive research in the field, there is still no specific therapy for sepsis. Many sepsis patients show a marked deficiency of vitamin C. 9 out of 10 sepsis patients have a hypovitaminosis C, and every third patient even shows a clinical deficiency in the scurvy range. In addition, low vitamin C levels of intensive care sepsis patients correlate with a higher need for vasopressors, higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores, and increased mortality. Based on this observation and the conducted clinical trials using vitamin C as sepsis therapy in intensive care patients, the aim of the present ex vivo study was to evaluate the effects of high-dose vitamin C alone and in a triple combination supplemented with vitamin B1 (thiamine) and hydrocortisone on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy human donors. We found that all corticosteroid combinations strongly reduced the cytokine response on RNA- and protein levels, while high-dose vitamin C alone significantly diminished the PBMC mediated secretion of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-10, IL-23, and monocyte chemo-attractant protein (MCP-1), which mediate the inflammatory response. However, vitamin C showed no enhancing effect on the secretion of further cytokines studied. This data provides important insights into the possible immunomodulatory function of vitamin C in an ex vivo setting of human PBMCs and the modulation of their cytokine profile in the context of sepsis. Since vitamin C is a vital micronutrient, the restoration of physiologically adequate concentrations should be integrated into routine sepsis therapy, and the therapeutic effects of supraphysiological concentrations of vitamin C in sepsis patients should be further investigated in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Tiamina/farmacologia , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sepse/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371919

RESUMO

Besides its well-known psychoactive effects, caffeine has a broad range of actions. It regulates several physiological mechanisms as well as modulates both native and adaptive immune responses by various ways. Although caffeine is assumed to be a negative regulator of inflammation, the effect on the secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is highly controversial. Macrophages are major mediators of inflammatory responses; however, the various subpopulations develop different effects ranging from the initiation to the resolution of inflammation. Here we report a comparative analysis of the effect of caffeine on two subpopulations of human monocyte-derived macrophages differentiated in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), resulting in M-MΦs and GM-MΦs, respectively. We showed that although TNF-α secretion was downregulated in both LPS-activated MΦ subtypes by caffeine, the secretion of IL-8, IL-6, and IL-1ß as well as the expression of Nod-like receptors was enhanced in M-MΦs, while it did not change in GM-MΦs. We showed that caffeine (1) altered adenosine receptor expression, (2) changed Akt/AMPK/mTOR signaling pathways, and (3) inhibited STAT1/IL-10 signaling axis in M-MΦs. We hypothesized that these alterations play an important modulatory role in the upregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1ß secretion in LPS-activated M-MΦs following caffeine treatment.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/metabolismo , Receptor A2B de Adenosina/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
18.
Oncology ; 99(9): 571-579, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265768

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Increasing evidence demonstrates a crucial role of inflammation in inducing and promoting several cancers. Pro-inflammatory upregulation of cytokines such as IL-6 has been implicated in cervical cancer development and progression through several mechanisms, for example, by inducing platelet production, activation, and aggregation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effective prognostic impact of inflammatory biomarkers such as platelet count, platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and IL-6 in cervical cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2016 and 2019, 108 out of 159 patients with cervical cancer have been enrolled. Cutoff level of pretreatment platelet count and PLR was identified by using the ROC curve. IL-6 tumoral and peritumoral expression was analyzed and stratified as low and high (low expression: 0 and +1; marked expression: +2 and +3). RESULTS: Median follow-up duration was 30 months (range 16-44). Patients with higher platelet counts showed worse DFS and OS (DFS p < 0.001; OS p < 0.001). Cumulative rates of DFS and OS in patients with lower PLR were higher than in patients with higher values of PLR (DFS p = 0.032; OS p < 0.001). Survival analysis showed a better prognosis in patients with lower IL-6 expression (DFS p < 0.001; OS p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Nowadays, causal relationship between inflammation, innate immunity, and cancer is more widely accepted. However, many of the molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating this relationship remain unresolved. Ongoing inflammatory response was associated with poor outcomes in cervical cancer patients. A higher pretreatment platelet count and PLR value associated with higher IL-6 tumoral expression could be used to predict poor prognosis in cervical cancer patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Microambiente Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204506

RESUMO

Ergosta-7, 9 (11), 22-trien-3ß-ol (EK100) was isolated from Cordyceps militaris, which has been used as a traditional anti-inflammatory medicine. EK100 has been reported to attenuate inflammatory diseases, but its anti-inflammatory mechanism is still unclear. We were the first to investigate the effect of EK100 on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor of the κ light chain enhancer of B cells (NF-κB) signaling in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled NF-κB reporter gene of Drosophila. EK100 suppressed the release of the cytokine and attenuated the mRNA and protein expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. EK100 inhibited the inhibitor kappa B (IκB)/NF-κB signaling pathway. EK100 also inhibited phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Protein kinase B (Akt) signal transduction. Moreover, EK100 interfered with LPS docking to the LPS-binding protein (LBP), transferred to the cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14), and bonded to TLR4/myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2) co-receptors. Compared with the TLR4 antagonist, resatorvid (CLI-095), and dexamethasone (Dexa), EK100 suppressed the TLR4/AKT signaling pathway. In addition, we also confirmed that EK100 attenuated the GFP-labeled NF-κB reporter gene expression in Drosophila. In summary, EK100 might alter LPS docking to LBP, CD14, and TLR4/MD-2 co-receptors, and then it suppresses the TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and Drosophila.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Drosophila/metabolismo , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Antígeno 96 de Linfócito/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Antígeno 96 de Linfócito/química , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/química
20.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 1223-1230, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234422

RESUMO

Purpose: The occurrence and predictors of delirium in older adults hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not been well described. Highlighting the association with inflammatory markers may be useful for identifying delirium. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and incidence of delirium and explore its association with the C-reactive protein (CRP). Patients and Methods: This cohort study of adults aged 65 and older with a COVID-19 diagnosis took place at an academic healthcare institution between April and May 2020. COVID-19 was diagnosed by positive nasopharyngeal swab. Serum levels of CRP were collected as a marker of systemic inflammation. The primary outcome was the prevalence and incidence of delirium. Delirium was diagnosed primarily during a patient's stay in hospital based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5). To ensure that no delirium diagnosis was missed during hospital stay, clinical records were reviewed by clinicians with geriatric medicine training for retrospective diagnoses. Results: A total of 127 patients aged 65 and older were hospitalized with a diagnosis of COVID-19. The median age was 82 years (IQR: 74-88), with 54 (43%) females. Overall, delirium was present in 62 (49%) patients: manifestations of delirium were present on the first day of hospitalization in 53 of these cases (86%), while 9 cases (14%) developed delirium during hospitalization. After controlling for age and sex, the mean CRP value over the first 3 days since arrival was associated with a higher risk of delirium (OR 1.35; 95% CI: 1.01-1.85) for every 50 mg/L increase. Conclusion: In this cohort of older adults hospitalized for COVID-19, delirium was highly prevalent. An early increase in CRP levels should raise suspicion about the occurrence of delirium and could improve its diagnosis.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Delírio/sangue , Delírio/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
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