Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 77
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936073

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal strongyle nematodes (GIS) are included among the most important parasites of small ruminants. The widespread drug resistance and drug residues in products of animal origin have increased the interest in the search for natural compounds with anthelmintic activity as a valid alternative to current synthetic drugs. The aim of the present investigation was to test the 'in vitro' anthelmintic activity of saponins and prosapogenins from different Medicago species, selected for their importance as a forage crop worldwide for animal feeding. From these plants, saponin mixtures were extracted, purified and used at scalar concentrations to evaluate their anthelmintic activities against sheep gastrointestinal strongyles (GISs), by the egg hatch test. Treated and untreated controls were used as the comparison. Data were statistically analyzed, and EC50 and EC90 were also calculated. All saponins and prosapogenins showed inhibiting effects on GIS eggs in a concentration-dependent manner. At higher concentrations, most of them showed an efficacy comparable to the reference drug (Thiabendazole 3 µg/mL) (P < 0.001). With 1.72 mg/mL EC50 and 3.84 mg/mL EC90, saponin from M. polymorpha cultivars Anglona was the most active. Obtained results encourage further studies aimed at evaluating the efficacy 'in vivo' of saponins which resulted as most effective 'in vitro' in this study.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Medicago/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Nematoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Saponinas/química , Ovinos
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 102: 1052-1063, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710522

RESUMO

This research focuses on screening and evaluation of bioactive constituents in plants through pharmacological assays. In present study, we evaluated phytochemicals, cytotoxic activity, in vivo effect of M. monantha against CCl4 induced toxicity in cardiac and renal tissues and its aphrodisiac potential in rats. Shade dried plant was extracted with methanol. The phytochemical screening indicates the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids. Aphrodisiac study showed improved sexual desire; may be attributed to the presence of saponins that boosts the androgen level. Cytotoxicity of the plant was assessed through brine shrimp lethality assay and nearly all the fractions showed promising results. The in vivo study focused on the protective ability of extract against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in renal and cardiac tissues of rats. Serum analysis revealed that CCl4 intoxication increased the levels of bilirubin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Antioxidant enzyme analysis showed that catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione activity and protein levels declined due to CCl4 induced renal and cardiac toxicity. Moreover, the histopathological studies of both low & high dose plant treated group's revealed glomerular hypertrophy and glomerular congestion in kidney, cardiac degeneration and vacuolization of germinal epithelium induced by CCl4 intoxication. DNA also shows damage showed the toxic nature of the plant.


Assuntos
Medicago/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Afrodisíacos/farmacologia , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Bilirrubina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Cardiotoxicidade/sangue , Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotoxicidade/patologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio Cometa , Creatinina/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/enzimologia , Rim/patologia , Nitritos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(8): 1743-1750, 2018 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29401393

RESUMO

Magnesium (Mg) is important for both plant photosynthesis and protein synthesis. Nevertheless, latent Mg deficiencies are common, and Mg addition has shown an improved yield. Might such an increasing yield cause "hidden" hunger for microelements and protein, and if so, what is the mechanism? We conducted two greenhouse experiments using low-Mg soil to investigate (i) effects of five levels of Mg fertilizer (20-400 mg kg-1) on eight elements and crude protein concentrations in annual ryegrass and white clover and (ii) if any protein effects of the Mg fertilizer depend upon soil nitrogen (N). Mg addition significantly increased the yield in both species, simultaneously decreasing concentrations of crude protein, calcium (Ca), sodium, manganese, and potassium/Mg and Ca/Mg ratios caused by increased biomass dilution effects and increased [Mg]. Other mineral dilution effects of the Mg fertilizer depended upon species: the concentration of phosphorus decreased only in ryegrass, and the concentration of zinc decreased only in white clover. Mg addition in soil rich with available N (from N fertilizer in ryegrass or biological fixation in white clover) showed an increased crude protein content as well as increased yield in the forage of both species. These results suggest that the Mg fertilizer can affect the protein content positively or negatively depending upon available N in soil and that sufficiently available N must be ensured along with Mg addition in low Mg soils.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes/análise , Lolium/química , Magnésio/análise , Medicago/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Lolium/metabolismo , Magnésio/metabolismo , Medicago/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Potássio/análise , Potássio/metabolismo , Solo/química
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 98(10): 3823-3828, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29352470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authenticity of honey is of great importance for commercial and health reasons, because adulteration of bee honey with cheaper sweetening materials is sometimes carried out for financial gain. The objectives of this study were to evaluate clover honey quality according to physicochemical characteristics, to measure light transmission through honey samples using a visible laser technique (He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm) and to predict types of adulterants of clover honey according to the transmission intensity of the laser beam through the sample. RESULTS: The transmission intensity of pure clover honey was 3520 lx. Addition of water or sugar solution at various concentrations led to increased transmission intensities in the range 4720-6980 lx, while addition of glucose honey led to increased transmission intensities in the range 3570-4120 lx. However, addition of starch suspension or black honey led to decreased transmission intensities in the ranges 3440-120 and 2770-85 lx respectively. The physicochemical properties of pure clover honey were within the standard limits. The light microscope image of pollen in the honey indicated that the pollen came from the clover plant. CONCLUSION: The transmission intensity method using visible laser light to predict the type of adulteration of clover honey can be considered a fast and accurate method. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mel/análise , Medicago/química , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Lasers , Imagem Óptica/instrumentação , Pólen/química
5.
Molecules ; 24(1)2018 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602699

RESUMO

Growing public concerns about health haves prompted the search for novel food sources. The study is focused on the seeds, sprouted seeds and microgreens of Trifolium pratense, T. medium, Medicago sativa, M. lupulina, Onobrychis viciifolia, Astragalus glycyphyllos and A. cicer species as a potential source of value-added food ingredientsr. The samples were analysed for nutritional (wet chemistry, standard methods) and mineral (atomic absorption spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry) profiles, isoflavones (ultra-performance liquid with diode array detector ⁻UPLC-DAD), coumestrol (UPLC-DAD), condensed tannins (CT) (vanillin-H2SO4 assay) and triterpene saponins (UPLC with triple-stage quadrupole MS). In our study, each species displayed high, but species-dependent nutritional, mineral and phytochemical value. All counterparts of legumes were mineral and protein rich. A. glycyphyllos samples, especially seeds, were abundant in iron. Trifolium spp. were found to be important sources of isoflavones, Medicago spp. of coumestrol and saponins, and O. viciifolia of CT. The protein and phytochemical contents increased and total carbohydrates decreased from seeds to microgreens.Our findings proved for the first time that seeds, sprouted seeds, and especially microgreens of small-seeded legumes are promising new sources of ingredients for fortification of staple foods with bioactive compounds, minerals and nutrients.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Sementes/química , Astrágalo (Planta)/química , Isoflavonas/análise , Medicago/química , Valor Nutritivo , Trifolium/química
6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 120: 194-201, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055265

RESUMO

It is widely believed that pectin are responsible for the vast majority of cation binding positions in the root cell walls. To estimate the role of particular kinds of pectin, we studied the cell wall material isolated from the roots of monocots (wheat and rye) and dicots (clover and lupine) before and after removal of different fractions of soluble pectin. Simultaneously PME activity and degree of pectin methylation were determined. From potentiometric titration curves cation exchange capacity, total surface charge and acidic strength of surface functional groups responsible for surface charging were determined. Monocots had smaller cation exchange capacity and lower pectin content than dicots. Removal of pectin induced up to 50% reduction in the cell walls surface charge. Pectin seem to have more acidic character than the other roots components that is seen from an increase in very weakly acidic groups fraction and significant decrease in the average dissociation constant of the cell walls material after pectin removal. Water soluble pectin and non-pectic soluble compounds had the dominant role in surface charging, while chelator and diluted alkali soluble pectin contributed to surface charge only at high pH's.


Assuntos
Cátions/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Lupinus/metabolismo , Medicago/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Secale/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Parede Celular/química , Lupinus/química , Medicago/química , Pectinas/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Secale/química , Triticum/química
7.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem ; 17(11): 1508-1518, 2017 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28748756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Saponins from Medicago species display several biological activities, among them apoptotic effects against plant cells have been evidenced. In contrast, their cytotoxic and antitumor activity against animal cells have not been studied in great details. OBJECTIVE: To explore the cytotoxic properties of saponin from Medicago species against animal cells and their effect in combination with the antitumoral drug cisplatin. METHOD: Cytotoxic activity of saponin mixtures from M. arabica (tops and roots), M. arborea (tops) and M. sativa (tops, roots and seeds) and related prosapogenins from M. arborea and M. sativa (tops) against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines is described. In addition, cytotoxicity of soyasaponin I and purified saponins (1-8) of hederagenin, medicagenic and zanhic acid is also presented. Combination experiments with cisplatin have been also conducted. RESULTS: Saponins from M. arabica tops and roots (mainly monodesmosides of hederagenin and bayogenin) were the most effective to reduce proliferation of HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. Among the purified saponins, the most cytotoxic was saponin 1, 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin. When saponins, derived prosapogenins and pure saponins were used in combination with cisplatin, they all, to different extent, were able to potentiate cisplatin activity against HeLa cells but not against MCF-7 cell lines. Moreover uptake of cisplatin in these cell lines was significantly reduced. CONCLUSION: Overall results showed that specific molecular types of saponins (hederagenin glycosides) have potential as anti-cancer agents or as leads for anti-cancer agents. Moreover saponins from Medicago species have evidenced interesting properties to mediate cisplatin effects in tumor cell lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Medicago/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HeLa , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Estrutura Molecular , Saponinas/síntese química , Saponinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
8.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0176590, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28591133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural estrogen decline leads to vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Hormone therapy alleviates symptoms but increases cancer risk. Effective treatments against VMS with minimal cancer risks are needed. We investigate the effects of a highly bioavailable aglycone rich Red Clover isoflavone treatment to alleviate existing menopausal VMS, assessed for the first time by 24hour ambulatory skin conductance (SC). METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a parallel, double blind, randomised control trial of 62 peri-menopausal women aged 40-65, reporting ≥ 5 hot flushes/day and follicle stimulating hormone ≥35 IU/L. Participants received either twice daily treatment with bioavailable RC extract (RCE), providing 34 mg/d isoflavones and probiotics, or masked placebo formulation for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was change in daily hot flush frequency (HFF) from baseline to 12 weeks using 24hr SC. Secondary outcomes were change in SC determined hot flush intensity (HFI), self-reported HFF (rHFF) and hot flush severity (rHFS), blood pressure and plasma lipids. A significant decrease in 24hr HFF (P < 0.01) and HFI (P<0.05) was found when comparing change from baseline to 12 months of the RCE (-4.3 HF/24hr, CI -6.8 to -2.3; -12956 µS s-1, CI -20175 to -5737) with placebo (0.79 HF/24hr, CI -1.56 to 3.15; 515 µS s-1, CI -5465 to 6496). rHFF was also significantly reduced (P <0.05)in the RCE (-2.97 HFs/d, CI -4.77 to -1.17) group compared to placebo (0.036 HFs/d, CI -2.42 to 2.49). Other parameters were non-significant. RCE was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that moderate doses of RCE were more effective and superior to placebo in reducing physiological and self-reported VMS. Findings support that objective physiological symptom assessment methods should be used together with self-report measures in future studies on menopausal VMS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02028702.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Sistema Vasomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Feminino , Fogachos/tratamento farmacológico , Fogachos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Isoflavonas/química , Medicago/química , Menopausa/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Sistema Vasomotor/patologia
9.
Phytochemistry ; 138: 116-127, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28256274

RESUMO

Artefact compounds obtained during acid hydrolysis of saponins from Medicago spp. (Fabaceae), have been monitored and evaluated by GC-FID. Their identification has been performed by GC-MS and 1H and 13C NMR. Saponins with different substituents on the triterpenic pentacyclic aglycones were considered, and their hydrolysis products were detected and quantified during 10 h of time course reaction. From soyasapogenol B glycoside the well known soyasapogenols B, C, D and F were obtained together with a previously undescribed sapogenol artefact identified as 3ß,22ß,24-trihydroxyolean-18(19)-en and named soyasapogenol H. From a zanhic acid saponin two major artefact compounds identified as 2ß,3ß,16α-trihydroxyolean-13(18)-en-23,28-dioic acid and 2ß,3ß,16α-trihydroxyolean-28,13ß-olide-23-oic acid were obtained, together with some zanhic acid. Other compounds, detected in very small amount in the reaction mixture, were also tentatively identified based on their GC-MS and UV spectra. The other most characteristic saponins in Medicago spp., hederagenin, bayogenin and medicagenic acid glycosides, under acidic condition of hydrolysis, released instead the correspondent aglycones and generated a negligible amount of artefacts. Nature of artefacts and mechanism of their formation, involving a stable tertiary carbocation, is here proposed and discussed for the first time.


Assuntos
Medicago/química , Saponinas/química , Artefatos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glicosídeos/química , Hidrólise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Oleanólico/química , Triterpenos/química
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 97(9): 2883-2890, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27790705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limiting the use of purchased concentrate for livestock and replacing it with home-grown forage without compromising milk production can offer benefits in both organic and conventional dairy systems. A full lactation trial was conducted with 92 cows over two years comparing three diets, each differing in the mean forage proportion over the lactation, 500 (500F), 600 (600F) and 700 (700F) g kg-1 dry matter (DM) respectively. The diets were designed to represent common conventional feeding, current regulations for organic production and more extreme high-forage-based production respectively. The aims were to determine the effects of forage proportion in the diet on milk production and feed utilisation. RESULTS: Compared with 500F, daily milk yield did not differ in 600F but was lower in 700F (31.3, 31.1 and 29.2 kg energy-corrected milk respectively). Daily dry matter intake (DMI) was similar between treatments (20.3, 20.4 and 19.9 kg in 500F, 600F and 700F respectively). CONCLUSION: Increasing the forage proportion from 500 to 600 g kg-1 DM did not have any adverse effects on milk production or DMI. Thus it is possible to produce the same quantity of milk with less concentrate and reduce the use of potential human feeds in dairy production. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Medicago/química , Poaceae/química , Silagem/análise , Animais , Feminino , Lactação , Medicago/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo
11.
J Biotechnol ; 236: 26-34, 2016 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27422353

RESUMO

Lactic acid is one of the most important building blocks for the production of bioplastic. Many investigations have been conducted to reduce the lactic acid production costs. In this work, the focus was put on the application of legume pressed juice or green juice as nutrient source. The pressed juice was utilized directly without prior pre-treatment and sterilization. Using two different alfalfa green juices and a clover green juice from two different harvest years as sole nutrients, non-sterile fermentations were performed at 52°C and pH 6.0 with a thermotolerant strain Bacillus coagulans AT107. The results showed that alfalfa green juices generally were more suitable for high lactic acid production than clover green juices, presumably due to the higher nitrogen content. A final titer of 98.8g/L after 30h with l(+)-lactic acid purity of >99% was obtained.


Assuntos
Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Medicago/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Bacillus coagulans/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus coagulans/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química
12.
Sci Rep ; 6: 27658, 2016 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27283034

RESUMO

A series of saponins and sapogenins from Medicago species were tested for their ability to bind and activate the nuclear receptor PPARγ by SPR experiments and transactivation assay, respectively. The SPR analysis proved to be a very powerful and fast technique for screening a large number of compounds for their affinity to PPARγ and selecting the better candidates for further studies. Based on the obtained results, the sapogenin caulophyllogenin was proved to be a partial agonist towards PPARγ and the X-ray structure of its complex with PPARγ was also solved, in order to investigate the binding mode in the ligand binding domain of the nuclear receptor. This is the first known crystal structure of a sapogenin directly interacting with PPARγ. Another compound of the series, the echinocistic acid, showed antagonist activity towards PPARγ, a property that could be useful to inhibit the adipocyte differentiation which is a typical adverse effect of PPARγ agonists. This study confirms the interest on saponins and sapogenins as a valuable natural resource exploitable in the medical and food industry for ameliorating the metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Medicago/química , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Sapogeninas/química , Saponinas/química , Sítios de Ligação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , PPAR gama/agonistas , PPAR gama/química , Ligação Proteica , Sapogeninas/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia
13.
Nature ; 530(7588): 85-8, 2016 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26842058

RESUMO

There is considerable concern over declines in insect pollinator communities and potential impacts on the pollination of crops and wildflowers. Among the multiple pressures facing pollinators, decreasing floral resources due to habitat loss and degradation has been suggested as a key contributing factor. However, a lack of quantitative data has hampered testing for historical changes in floral resources. Here we show that overall floral rewards can be estimated at a national scale by combining vegetation surveys and direct nectar measurements. We find evidence for substantial losses in nectar resources in England and Wales between the 1930s and 1970s; however, total nectar provision in Great Britain as a whole had stabilized by 1978, and increased from 1998 to 2007. These findings concur with trends in pollinator diversity, which declined in the mid-twentieth century but stabilized more recently. The diversity of nectar sources declined from 1978 to 1990 and thereafter in some habitats, with four plant species accounting for over 50% of national nectar provision in 2007. Calcareous grassland, broadleaved woodland and neutral grassland are the habitats that produce the greatest amount of nectar per unit area from the most diverse sources, whereas arable land is the poorest with respect to amount of nectar per unit area and diversity of nectar sources. Although agri-environment schemes add resources to arable landscapes, their national contribution is low. Owing to their large area, improved grasslands could add substantially to national nectar provision if they were managed to increase floral resource provision. This national-scale assessment of floral resource provision affords new insights into the links between plant and pollinator declines, and offers considerable opportunities for conservation.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Flores/química , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Néctar de Plantas/análise , Plantas/química , Plantas/classificação , Animais , Flores/classificação , Pradaria , Insetos/fisiologia , Medicago/química , Medicago/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas/metabolismo , Polinização , Especificidade da Espécie , Reino Unido
14.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 56 Suppl 1: S149-61, 2016 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26507574

RESUMO

The discovery of bioactive molecules from botanical sources is an expanding field, preferentially oriented to plants having a tradition of use in medicine and providing high yields and availability. Temperate forage legumes are Fabaceae species that include worldwide-important crops. These plants possess therapeutic virtues that have not only been used in veterinary and folk medicine, but have also attracted the interest of official medicine. We have examined here Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Trifolium pratense and T. repens (clovers), Melilotus albus and M. officinalis (sweet clovers), Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil), Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin), Lespedeza capitata (roundhead lespedeza), and Galega officinalis (goat's rue). The phytochemical complexes of these species contain secondary metabolites whose pharmacological potentials deserve investigation. Major classes of compounds include alkaloids and amines, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, condensed tannins, and saponins. Some of these phytochemicals have been related to antihypercholesterolemia, antidiabetic, antimenopause, anti-inflammatory, antiedema, anthelmintic, and kidney protective effects. Two widely prescribed drugs have been developed starting from temperate forage legumes, namely, the antithrombotic warfarin, inspired from sweet clover's coumarin, and the antidiabetic metformin, a derivative of sainfoin's guanidine. Available evidence suggests that temperate forage legumes are a potentially important resource for the extraction of active principles to be used as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Cumarínicos/análise , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrinolíticos/análise , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Galega/química , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Lespedeza/química , Lotus/química , Medicago/química , Medicago sativa/química , Melilotus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Saponinas/análise , Saponinas/farmacologia , Trifolium/química , Varfarina/análise , Varfarina/farmacologia
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 198: 124-32, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26386414

RESUMO

This study investigated the potentials of forbs; caraway, chicory, red clover and ribwort plantain as substrates for biogas production. One-, two- and four-cut systems were implemented and the influence on dry matter yields, chemical compositions and methane yields were examined. The two- and four-cut systems resulted in higher dry matter yields (kg [total solid, TS] ha(-1)) compared to the one-cut system. The effect of plant compositions on biogas potentials was not evident. Cumulative methane yields (LCH4kg(-1) [volatile solid, VS]) were varied from 279 to 321 (chicory), 279 to 323 (caraway), 273 to 296 (ribwort plantain), 263 to 328 (red clover) and 320 to 352 (grass-clover mixture), respectively. Methane yield was modelled by modified Gompertz equation for comparison of methane production rate. Near infrared spectroscopy showed potential as a tool for biogas and chemical composition prediction. The best prediction models were obtained for methane yield at 29 days (99 samples), cellulose, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and crude protein, (R(2)>0.9).


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Medicago/química , Poaceae/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Fibras na Dieta , Metano/metabolismo
16.
Nat Prod Commun ; 10(3): 483-6, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25924534

RESUMO

This study was designed to evaluate the flavonoid, saponin (TSC) and phenolic (TPC) contents and in vitro antioxidant activity of the crude (CME) and dry extracts and fractions of Medicago lupulina L. aerial parts. A validated RP-HPLC method led to quantitation of flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin) and flavones (apigenin and luteolin) in the hydrolyzed extract. TSC and TPC were assayed spectrophotometrically at 560 and 760 nm, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the CME and the dry fractions were followed in vitro by DPPH free radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The flavonoid content of CME was 1.27 mg/g dw. The prevailing flavonoids were luteolin and myricetin, at concentrations of 0.37 and 0.36 mg/g dw, respectively. TSC and TPC were detected in CME at the level of 90.4 mg ESE/g dw, and 12.9 mg GAE/g dw, respectively. In the DPPH and FRAP tests, the CME exhibited antioxidant capacity with TEAA and FRAP values of 45.4 µmol Trolox®/g dw and 0.2 mmol Fe2+/g dw, respectively. The diethyl ether dry fraction was the most valuable one, showing the highest antioxidant activity (TEAA = 726.1 µmol Trolox®/g dw, FRAP = 2349.4 µmol Fe2+/g dw) that was in accordance with its high TPC (162.4 mg/g dw).


Assuntos
Flavonoides/química , Medicago/química , Fenóis/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Saponinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
17.
Phytochemistry ; 116: 230-238, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25982842

RESUMO

A high variety of plant species are often proposed as potential natural sources of specific bioactive components, with emphasis in phenolic compounds. However, the ability to produce a determined phytochemical might be variable, even among species with close phylogeny. Furthermore, the metabolic dynamics vary greatly according to phenologic factors. Herein, it was verified whether isoflavone production in Medicago spp. is more associated with phylogenetic or phenologic determinants, to define the optimal productive conditions. Isoflavone profiles were characterized in field-grown Medicago species in three phenologic stages. Isoflavones were extracted by matrix solid-phase dispersion method and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode-array detector. The obtained data were evaluated by a generalized linear model (GLM) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Formononetin, genistein and irilone were the most abundant isoflavones, reaching values higher than those present in acknowledged plant sources like soy or red clover. Outputs from GLM and LDA indicate that the phylogenetic factors are the most defining criteria. This study promotes Medicago spp. as potential isoflavone sources, particularly because the effects of these compounds are highly dependent on their type and concentration, with potential application as foodstuff, feedstuff, or in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industry.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas/isolamento & purificação , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Medicago/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Suplementos Nutricionais , Genisteína/química , Genisteína/isolamento & purificação , Genisteína/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Isoflavonas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Filogenia , Portugal
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 98(6): 3980-7, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25864051

RESUMO

Methane emissions from ruminant livestock contribute to total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and reduce metabolizable energy intake by the animal. Condensed tannins (CT) are polyphenolic plant secondary compounds commonly produced by some perennial forage legumes that characteristically bind to protein, carbohydrates, and minerals. The degree to which CT may affect ruminant nutrition depends upon the concentration, structural composition, and biological activity of the CT. The objective of our experiment was to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa in a corn-alfalfa-based substrate with a legume containing CT on in vitro CH4 production and the dynamics of fermentation using an in vitro gas production technique. All fermented substrates contained 50% ground corn as the energy concentrate portion, whereas the forage portion (50%) of each diet was comprised of alfalfa (control) or some combination of alfalfa and sericea lespedeza (SL) or panicled-tick clover (PTC). Our treatments consisted of PTC or SL 15, 30, and 45, which corresponded with 15, 30, or 45% replacement of the diet (alfalfa component) with either PTC or SL. Substrates containing 45% PTC or SL reduced in vitro CH4 production. Treatments did not affect total gas production as compared with that of the control. Replacement of alfalfa with SL or PTC increased fermentable organic matter (FOM). The PTC treatment increased FOM by as much as 1.8% at the 45% replacement level, whereas FOM of SL 45 was increased by less than 1%. The replacement of alfalfa with PTC increased substrate nutritive value greater than replacement with SL. There were no correlations between any physicochemical constituent of the substrates and CH4 production. A combination of factors associated with the inclusion of PTC and SL contributed to the in vitro CH4 production, and CT in these forages was likely a major contributing factor. Further confirmation of these results on in situ or in vivo animal systems is required. If proven effective in an in vivo production scenario, replacement of commonly fed non-CT-containing legumes, such as alfalfa, with legumes containing CT might be a viable method to decrease the effect of animal agriculture on greenhouse gas production.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Metano/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Animais , Fermentação , Lespedeza/química , Medicago/química , Medicago sativa/química , Rúmen/metabolismo , Trifolium/química , Zea mays/química
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 63(5): 1496-504, 2015 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25599399

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro activity of 15 essential oils, 4 essential oil fractions, and 3 pure compounds (thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol) on phagocytosis by human neutrophils and on complement system. Samples were characterized by GC and GC-MS. Most of the oils (nutmeg, clove, niaouli, tea tree, bay laurel, lemon, red thyme, ginger), nutmeg terpenes, eugenol, and carvacrol showed mild to moderate inhibition of phagocytosis (25-40% inhibition at doses ranging from 40 to 60 µg/mL); highest inhibitory activity was found for thymol (72% at 56 µg/mL), whereas the mixture of bornyl and isobornyl acetates showed a mild stimulating activity (21% at 56 µg/mL). All samples were inactive in the alternative pathway of complement system, whereas on classical pathway, clove oil, eugenol, palmarosa oil, red thyme oil, tarragon oil, and carvacrol showed the highest activity, with IC50 values ranging from 65 to 78 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Humanos , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/imunologia , Medicago/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Thymus (Planta)/química
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 63(2): 406-14, 2015 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25573460

RESUMO

Pastures with diverse botanical composition may enhance animal-derived product quality. A recent study demonstrated high vitamin concentrations and yields in some forb species. The objectives of the present study were to investigate interrelations between herbage yields, vitamin concentrations, protein and fiber contents and analyze the effect of harvest date. We hypothesized that interrelations would be similar across investigated forage species. Four nonleguminous forbs: salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), caraway (Carum carvi), chicory (Cichorium intybus), and ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), three legumes: yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)-white clover (Trifolium repens) mixture were sown in a field trial with two replicated and randomized blocks. Forage in 1.5 m × 9 m plots was grown in two consecutive years and cut four times per year (May-October). Analyses of variance were performed. In most herbages, α-tocopherol and ß-carotene were positively correlated as were ß-carotene and lutein; all vitamins were negatively correlated with fiber content and herbage yield. ß-Carotene was positively correlated with protein content. α-Tocopherol and ß-carotene contents were generally highest in October and lowest in July. Our results showed similar interrelationships in most investigated species, and we suggest that these species may be mixed when designing novel biodiverse mixtures for particular product quality characteristics.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fabaceae/química , Luteína/análise , Medicago/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Poaceae/química , alfa-Tocoferol/análise , beta Caroteno/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Luteína/metabolismo , Medicago/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicago/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Vitaminas/análise , Vitaminas/metabolismo , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA