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1.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 8: e2200034, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749676

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Access to essential cancer medicines is a major determinant of childhood cancer outcomes globally. The degree to which pediatric oncologists deem medicines listed on WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (EMLc) essential is unknown, as is the extent to which such medicines are accessible on the front lines of clinical care. METHODS: An electronic survey developed was distributed through the International Society of Pediatric Oncology mailing list to members from 87 countries. Respondents were asked to select 10 cancer medicines that would provide the greatest benefit to patients in their context; subsequent questions explored medicine availability and cost. Descriptive and bivariate statistics compared access to medicines between low- and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs), upper-middle-income countries (UMICs), and high-income countries (HICs). RESULTS: Among 159 respondents from 44 countries, 43 (27%) were from LMICs, 79 (50%) from UMICs, and 37 (23%) from HICs. The top five medicines were methotrexate (75%), vincristine (74%), doxorubicin (74%), cyclophosphamide (69%), and cytarabine (65%). Of the priority medicines identified, 87% (27 of 31) are represented on the 2021 EMLc and 77% (24 of 31) were common to the lists generated by LMIC, UMIC, and HIC respondents. The proportion of respondents indicating universal availability for each of the top medicines ranged from 9% to 46% for LMIC, 25% to 89% for UMIC, and 67% to 100% for HIC. Risk of catastrophic expenditure was more common in LMIC (8%-20%), compared with UMIC (0%-28%) and HIC (0%). CONCLUSION: Most medicines that oncologists deem essential for childhood cancer treatment are currently included on the EMLc. Barriers remain in access to these medicines, characterized by gaps in availability and risks of catastrophic expenditure for families that are most pronounced in low-income settings but evident across all income contexts.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Neoplasias , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Medicamentos Essenciais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Oncologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Health Hum Rights ; 24(1): 49-58, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35747285

RESUMO

Access to medicines and the right to health continues to be widely discussed in academic literature. United Nations human rights bodies have done much work to elaborate on the normative content of the right to health and the obligations of states to uphold this right, although translating this into tangible benefits to the public at national level remains a challenge. This paper explores the case of Peru to evaluate prominent decisions of the Constitutional Court that have been instructive in clarifying the state's obligations in relation to health. I argue that the court's rights-based approach offers lessons that other states can draw on to meet their obligations to ensure the right to health by securing access to essential medicines.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Direitos Humanos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Peru , Nações Unidas , Estados Unidos
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(6): 2471-2479, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649033

RESUMO

Compliance with legal deadlines for the assessment and incorporation of technologies in Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS) is essential to ensure public access to essential medicines. The scope of this paper was to analyze the compliance with legal deadlines for incorporation and availability of medicines in the SUS, comparing Oncology and the Specialized Component of Pharmaceutical Assistance (SCPA). A comparison was made of the drugs incorporated that were submitted to Conitec in the period from January 1, 2017, to April 30, 2020. A total of 85 drugs were recommended for incorporation by Conitec, of which 15 (17.64%) were for Oncology and 70 (82.36%) were for SCPA. The time between analysis and recommendation by Conitec until the publication of the decision by the Ministry of Health was, on average, 86 days longer for oncological drugs and the availability timeframe of technologies incorporated in the oncology area was, on average, 389 days longer than for SCPA. The major progress achieved with the creation of Conitec in Brazil is acknowledged, but the results of this study point to a pressing need to improve the process of making available technologies incorporated into the SUS, especially in oncology.


O cumprimento dos prazos legais para incorporação e disponibilização de tecnologias no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) é fundamental para o acesso da população aos medicamentos considerados essenciais. Objetivou-se analisar o cumprimento destes prazos comparando a Oncologia e o Componente Especializado de Assistência Farmacêutica (CEAF). Comparou-se os processos de incorporação de medicamentos no SUS da Oncologia e do CEAF que foram submetidos à Conitec no período de 01 de janeiro de 2017 a 30 de abril de 2020. No período, 83 processos de incorporação de medicamentos foram recomendados para incorporação pela Conitec, dos quais 13 (15,66%) eram da Oncologia e 70 (84,34%) eram do CEAF. Verifica-se que o tempo de análise e recomendação pela Conitec até a publicação da decisão pelo Ministério da Saúde foi, em média, 15 dias maior para processos que continham medicamentos oncológicos e o tempo para disponibilização das tecnologias incorporadas da área da oncologia foi, em média, 389 dias maior que do CEAF. Reconhece-se o importante avanço obtido com a criação da Conitec no Brasil, porém os resultados deste estudo apontam para a necessidade de aprimoramento do processo de disponibilização de tecnologias incorporadas no SUS, em especial da Oncologia.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Assistência Farmacêutica , Brasil , Programas Governamentais , Humanos
4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(5)2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35589156

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Universal availability and affordability of essential medicines are determined by effective design and implementation of relevant policies, typically involving multiple stakeholders. This paper examined stakeholder engagements, powers and resultant influences over design and implementation of four medicines pricing policies in Ghana: Health Commodity Supply Chain Master Plan, framework contracting for high demand medicines, Value Added Tax (VAT) exemptions for selected essential medicines, and ring-fencing medicines for local manufacturing. METHODS: Data were collected using reviews of policy documentation (n=16), consultative meetings with key policy actors (n=5) and in-depth interviews (n=29) with purposefully identified national-level policymakers, public and private health professionals including members of the National Medicine Pricing Committee, pharmaceutical wholesalers and importers. Data were analysed using thematic framework. RESULTS: A total of 46 stakeholders were identified, including representatives from the Ministry of Health, other government agencies, development partners, pharmaceutical industry and professional bodies. The Ministry of Health coordinated policy processes, utilising its bureaucratic mandate and exerted high influences over each policy. Most stakeholders were highly engaged in policy processes. Whereas some led or coproduced the policies in the design stage and participated in policy implementation, others were consulted for their inputs, views and opinions. Stakeholder powers reflected their expertise, bureaucratic mandates and through participation in national level consultation meetings, influences policy contents and implementation. A wider range of stakeholders were involved in the VAT exemption policies, reflecting their multisectoral nature. A minority of stakeholders, such as service providers were not engaged despite their interest in medicines pricing, and consequently did not influence policies. CONCLUSIONS: Stakeholder powers were central to their engagements in, and resultant influences over medicine pricing policy processes. Effective leadership is important for inclusive and participatory policymaking, and one should be cognisant of the nature of policy issues and approaches to policy design and implementation.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Formulação de Políticas , Custos e Análise de Custo , Gana , Humanos , Políticas
5.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 31: e34, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543395

RESUMO

Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders are associated with substantial impairment and disability. Lack of treatment adherence is a major issue, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite growing evidence supporting second-generation long-acting antipsychotics (LAIs) as an effective strategy to ensure continued maintenance treatment in schizophrenia, access to these technologies has been very limited in constrained-resource settings. Including second-generation LAIs in national and international essential medicines lists and evidence-based guidelines, promoting public health-oriented patent pooling and extending their availability to primary health care settings, are key actions that should urgently be implemented to increase access to long-acting technologies. Implementing these policy actions can pragmatically improve treatment adherence, ultimately tackling schizophrenia-related impairment and disability in LMICs, which can be regarded as a global health priority.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Medicamentos Essenciais , Esquizofrenia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Políticas , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 643, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In spite of being the 'pharmacy of the world', access to essential medicines for a large majority of Indians is constrained by both physical and financial reasons. According to an estimate, medicines account for 69% of household out-of-pocket spending on health care. To make quality generic medicine affordable, India's People's Medicine Scheme (Jan Aushadhi) was launched in 2008 and then revamped and rebranded as Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Ausadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP) in 2015. The current study focuses on the availability, affordability and acceptability aspects of PMBJP essential medicines. METHODS: We have used a mixed-methods approach, with the survey-based quantitative component supplemented by a qualitative component consisting of in-depth interviews (IDIs). The survey was conducted in 11 PMBJP pharmacies in Mumbai and Palghar. Data were gathered on the availability, stock-outs, price and affordability of 35 essential medicines and 2 consumables. RESULTS: Apart from the limited coverage of essential medicines and the significant presence of Fixed dose combinations (FDCs) in the PMBJP medicine list, the availability of surveyed essential drugs was also found to be low (47%) in PMBJP outlets. Across Mumbai and Palghar districts, around 50% and 42% of medicines were found to be out of stock for the period of 3-6 months respectively. The cost of generic medicines of PMBJP outlets for treating various conditions range from 0.01 days' wages to 0.47 days' wages for the lowest paid unskilled worker in Maharashtra. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings show that PMBJP's unbranded generics offer great opportunities for substantial cost savings. But, in order to fully realise the potential of this scheme, some policy actions are urgently required. First, the PMBJP drug list must include all essential drugs that feature in NLEM. Second, BPPI should procure only those drugs that pass the bioequivalence test. Third, compulsory de-branding of generics should be done in a phased manner. Fourth, PMBJP's medicine procurement and distribution policies must be reviewed to address the supply chain issues. Moreover, there is a need for major pharmaceutical policy reforms to promote generic medicines in a big way. Regulations to support mandatory generic prescribing and generic substitution by pharmacists are needed.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Medicamentos Genéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 524, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to life-saving medicines for maternal health remains a major challenge in numerous developing nations. Periodic and continuous assessment of access to lifesaving commodities is of enormous importance to measure progress and ensure sustainable supply. This study aimed to assess the availability and affordability of priority lifesaving maternal medicines in Addis Ababa in January 2021. METHODS: An institutional-based cross-sectional study design was employed to assess 33 representative private pharmacies, public health facilities, NGO and private hospitals providing maternal health care and dispensing medicines from January 12 to 27, 2021 in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. WHO and Health Action International procedures were followed to determine sample size, sampling of health facilities, and data collection. WHO and UNFPA priority lifesaving maternal health medicines included in the Ethiopia essential medicine list were included in the study. Data were cleaned and entered into SPSS version 25 for analysis. RESULT: The overall mean availability of maternal health medicines was fairly high, 59% (range 6%-94%), as per the WHO availability index. Among the four sectors, the private pharmacy had the lowest availability (40%), while the mean availability in private hospitals, public and NGO/mission sector facilities were 70%, 72% and 72% respectively. Medicines used only for the management of maternal health conditions had lower availability (47%) compared to commodities used for the broader indication (65%). Compared based on source, the average availability of maternal health medicines which could be sourced locally was (68%) higher than imported medicines (55%). Affordability was not an issue in the public sector, public facilities offered maternal health medicines at no cost to the client. On the other hand, the private hospitals dispensed only 13% of the medicines at affordable prices followed by the private pharmacies (17%) and NGO/Mission facilities (29%). Furthermore, key challenges to access maternal health medicines were frequent stockouts in the public sector and the high cost of medicines in the private sector. CONCLUSION: Even though it was below the recommended 80% availability, fairly high availability with variabilities across sectors was observed. Except in the public sector, maternal health medicines were unaffordable in Addis Ababa.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Saúde Materna , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos
9.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 31: e22, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438063

RESUMO

AIMS: To provide a cross-country analysis of selection, availability, prices and affordability of essential medicines for mental health conditions, aiming to identify areas for improvement. METHODS: We used the World Health Organization (WHO) online repository of national essential medicines lists (EMLs) to extract information on the inclusion of essential psychotropic medicines within each country's EML. Data on psychotropic medicine availability, price and affordability were obtained from the Health Action International global database. Additional information on country availability, prices and affordability of essential medicines for mental disorders was identified by searching, up to January 2021, PubMed/Medline, CINAHIL, Scopus and the WHO Regional Databases. We summarised and compared the indicators across lowest-price generic and originator brand medicines in the public and private sectors, and by country income groups. RESULTS: A total of 112 national EMLs were analysed, and data on psychotropic medicine availability, price and affordability were obtained from 87 surveys. While some WHO essential psychotropic medicines, such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, amitriptyline, carbamazepine and diazepam, were selected by most national lists, irrespective of the country income level, other essential medicines, such as risperidone or clozapine, were included by most national lists in high-income countries, but only by a minority of lists in low-income countries. Up to 40% of low-income countries did not include medicines that have been in the WHO list for decades, such as long-acting fluphenazine, lithium carbonate and clomipramine. The availability of generic and originator psychotropic medicines in the public sector was below 50% for all medicines, with low-income countries showing rates lower than the overall average. Analysis of price data revealed that procurement prices were lower than patient prices in the public sector, and medicines in the private sector were associated with the highest prices. In low-income countries, the average patient price for amitriptyline and fluoxetine was three times the international unit reference price, while the average patient price for diazepam was ten times the international unit reference price. Affordability was higher in the public than the private sector, and in high-income than low-income countries. CONCLUSION: Access to medicines for mental health conditions is an ongoing challenge for health systems worldwide, and no countries can claim to be fully aligned with the general principle of providing full access to essential psychotropic medicines. Low availability and high costs are major barriers to the use of and adherence to essential psychotropic medicines, particularly in low-and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Saúde Mental , Amitriptilina , Custos e Análise de Custo , Diazepam , Medicamentos Genéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos
10.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266715, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to describe trends and estimate impact of county-level universal health coverage expansion in Kenya on household availability of non-communicable disease medicines, medicine obtainment at public hospitals and proportion of medicines obtained free of charge. METHODS: Data from phone surveillance of households in eight Kenyan counties between December 2016 and September 2019 were used. Three primary outcomes related to access were assessed based on patient report: availability of non-communicable disease medicines at the household; non-communicable disease medicine obtainment at a public hospital versus a different outlet; and non-communicable disease medicine obtainment free of cost versus at a non-zero price. Mixed models adjusting for fixed and random effects were used to estimate associations between outcomes of interest and UHC exposure. RESULTS: The 197 respondents with universal health coverage were similar on all demographic factors to the 415 respondents with no universal health coverage. Private chemists were the most popular place of purchase throughout the study. Adjusting for demographic factors, county and time fixed effects, there was a significant increase in free medicines (aOR 2.55, 95% CI 1.73, 3.76), significant decrease in medicine obtainment at public hospitals (aOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.47, 0.97), and no impact on the availability of non-communicable disease medicines in households (aß -0.004, 95% CI -0.058, 0.050) with universal health coverage. CONCLUSIONS: Access to universal health coverage caused a significant increase in free non-communicable disease medicines, indicating financial risk protection. Interestingly, this is not accompanied with increases in public hospitals purchases or household availability of non-communicable disease medicines, with public health centers playing a greater role in supply of free medicines. This raises the question as to the status of supply-side investments at the public hospitals, to facilitate availability of quality-assured medicines.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Quênia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Assistência de Saúde Universal
11.
Cancer Cell ; 40(3): 238-240, 2022 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245448

RESUMO

The phase III JUPITER-6 trial showed superior progression-free survival and overall survival for toripalimab plus chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, in previously untreated patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. This provides solid evidence that immune checkpoint inhibitors are key drugs for the first-line treatment of advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Essenciais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/mortalidade , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35328999

RESUMO

Despite impressive progress, nearly two billion people worldwide have no access to essential medicines. The COVID-19 pandemic revealed Africa's vulnerability due to its reliance on imports for most vaccines, medicines, and other health product needs. The vaccine manufacturing is complex and requires massive financial investments, with global, regional, and national regulatory structures introducing consistent and urgent reforms to assure the quality and safety of medicines. In 2020, there were approximately 600 pharmaceutical manufacturers in Africa, 80% of which were concentrated in eight countries: Egypt, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa. Only 4 countries had more than 50 manufacturers, while 22 countries had no local production. Out of the 600, around 25% were multinational companies. Africa is equally affected by modest scaled capacities substantially engaging in packaging and labelling, and occasionally fill and finish steps, facing criticalities in terms of solvent domestic markets. This article discusses the challenges in the development of a local pharmaceutical manufacturing in Africa and reflects on the importance of the momentum for strengthening the local medical production capacity in the continent as a critical opportunity for advancing universal health coverage (UHC).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicamentos Essenciais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Nigéria , Pandemias , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 377, 2022 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35317808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bangladesh ranks among the world's top ten countries in the number of diabetic patients. The prevention of this disease requires treating patients with essential medicines, and the first crucial step in the uptake of these medicines is availability. We aimed to assess the availability of essential medicines for diabetes (EM-Diabetes) and to explore health facility characteristics associated with the availability of those medicines. METHODS: We performed the analysis using nationally representative data from the two waves of the cross-sectional Bangladesh Health Facility Survey (BHFS) in 2014 and 2017. Data are available for 1548 and 1524 health facilities in the 2014 and 2017 BHFS. Study samples of this study were 217 facilities (73 from 2014 and 144 from 2017) that offer diabetes diagnosis and treatment services. The outcome variable 'EM-Diabetes availability' was calculated as a counting score of the tracer medicines: metformin, glibenclamide, injectable insulin, and injectable glucose solution. A multivariable Poisson regression model was used to identify the health facility characteristics (such as, managing authority, location, external supervision, regular quality assurance activities, national guidelines for diagnosis and management of diabetes, etc.) associated with EM-Diabetes availability. RESULTS: Since 2014, there have been minimal increases in Bangladeshi health facilities that provide diabetes screening and treatment services (from 4.7% to 9.4%). Among facilities offering diabetes services, 64.5% (BHFS 2014) and 55.7% (BHFS 2017) facilities had no EM-Diabetes on-site at all. Between 2014 and 2017, the availability of metformin increased (from 27.5% to 40.1%), but there was a decrease in the availability of glibenclamide (from 16.5% to 9.1%), injectable insulin (from 20.4% to 11.4%), and injectable glucose solution (from 20.4% to 19.2%). Furthermore, publicly owned facilities [relative risk (RR) = 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25-0.78 for 2014 and RR= 0.54, 95% CI: 0.41-0.71 for 2017] and facilities in rural settings [RR= 0.26, 95% CI: 0.12-0.55 for 2014 and RR= 0.60, 95% CI: 0.44-0.81 for 2017] were significantly associated with decreased availability of EM-Diabetes in both survey years. Moreover, routine user fees [RR=3.70, 95% CI: 1.86-7.38] and regular quality assurance activities [RR= 1.62, 95% CI: 1.12-2.34] were also significantly associated with increased EM-Diabetes availability in 2017 only. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the health facilities in Bangladesh had insufficient essential medicines for treating diabetes. In general, the availability of EM-Diabetes declined from 2014 to 2017, except for metformin. Policymakers should consider a wide range of policy implications, focusing on the management of public facilities, rural facilities, routine user fees, and quality assurance activities to improve the availability of EM-Diabetes at health facilities in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Medicamentos Essenciais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 275, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35232451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary health care is a critical foundation of high-quality health systems. Health facility management has been studied in high-income countries, but there are significant measurement gaps about facility management and primary health care performance in low and middle-income countries. A primary health care facility management evaluation tool (PRIME-Tool) was initially piloted in Ghana where better facility management was associated with higher performance on select primary health care outcomes such as essential drug availability, trust in providers, ease of following a provider's advice, and overall patient-reported quality rating. In this study, we sought to understand health facility management within Uganda's decentralized primary health care system. METHODS: We administered and analyzed a cross-sectional household and health facility survey conducted in Uganda in 2019, assessing facility management using the PRIME-Tool. RESULTS: Better facility management was associated with better essential drug availability but not better performance on measures of stocking equipment. Facilities with better PRIME-Tool management scores trended towards better performance on a number of experiential quality measures. We found significant disparities in the management performance of primary health care facilities. In particular, patients with greater wealth and education and those living in urban areas sought care at facilities that performed better on management. Private facilities and hospitals performed better on the management index than public facilities and health centers and clinics. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that investments in stronger facility management in Uganda may strengthen key aspects of facility readiness such as essential drug availability and potentially could affect experiential quality of care. Nevertheless, the stark disparities demonstrate that Uganda policymakers need to target investments strategically in order to improve primary health care equitably across socioeconomic status and geography. Moreover, other low and middle-income countries may benefit from the use of the PRIME-Tool to rapidly assess facility management with the goal of understanding and improving primary health care performance.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Instalações de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Uganda
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 1926184, 2022 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349379

RESUMO

An uninterrupted supply of vaccines at different supply chain levels is a basic component of a functional immunization programme and care service. There can be no progress toward achieving universal health coverage and sustainable development without continuous availability of essential medicines and vaccines in healthcare facilities. Shortages of vaccines, particularly at health facility level is an issue of grave concern that requires urgent attention in South Africa. The causes of vaccine stock-outs are multifactorial and may be linked to a broader systems issue. These factors include challenges at higher levels such as delays in the delivery of stock from the pharmaceutical depot; health facility level factors, which include a lack of commitment from healthcare workers and managers; human resource factors, such as, staff shortages, and lack of skilled personnel. Therefore, there is a compelling need to address the factors associated with shortages of vaccines in health facilities. This paper highlights the challenges of vaccine availability in South Africa, the associated factors, the available interventions, and recommended interventions for the expanded programme on immunization in South Africa. We propose a system redesign approach as a potentially useful intervention.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Vacinas , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , África do Sul
17.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(3): e144-154, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240089

RESUMO

With the advent of innovative therapeutics for and the rising costs of cancer management, low-income and middle-income countries face increasing challenges to deliver effective and sustainable health care. Understanding of how countries are selecting and prioritising essential cancer interventions is poor, including in the formulation of policies for essential medicines. We did an in-depth subanalysis from a global dataset of national cancer control plans (NCCPs), aiming to identify possible determinants of inclusion of policies related to essential medicines in the NCCP. The results showed poor global comprehensiveness of NCCPs, and substantial deficits in policies for financial hardships due to cancer care, specifically for access to cancer medicines. Specification of budget allocations, policy of protection from catastrophic health expenditure, and national treatment guidelines in the NCCPs contributed to more consistent policies on essential cancer medicines. The bedrock to deliver effective cancer programmes resides in the assurance of comprehensive, consistent, and coherent policy formulation, to orient resource selection and health investments, ultimately delivering equitable health for all.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Neoplasias , Orçamentos , Atenção à Saúde , Medicamentos Essenciais/uso terapêutico , Gastos em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
18.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-02-25. (HSS/MT/COVID-19/22-0010).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55780

RESUMO

Estas orientaciones tienen por objetivo contribuir a que los sistemas de salud prioricen los medicamentos esenciales que deben estar disponibles y ser asequibles para manejar los pacientes en las unidades de cuidado intensivos durante las emergencias de salud. Esta nueva versión incluye una actualización sobre el tratamiento de pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado o sospecha de infección por la variante ómicron del SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Serviços de Saúde , Gestão de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação em Saúde , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-02-11. (OPS/HSS/MT/COVID-19/22-0009).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55734

RESUMO

Estas orientaciones tienen por objetivo contribuir a que los sistemas de salud prioricen los medicamentos esenciales que deben estar disponibles y ser asequibles para manejar los pacientes en las unidades de cuidado intensivos durante las emergencias de salud. Esta actualización incluye una sección sobre el tratamiento de pacientes graves o críticos, así como nuevos datos sobre la evidencia y la firmeza de las recomendaciones incluidas en versiones anteriores.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Serviços de Saúde , Gestão de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação em Saúde , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Glob Heart ; 17(1): 6, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35174047

RESUMO

Objective: The World Health Organization (WHO) included single-pill combination (SPC) antihypertensive medications on their 2019 essential medicines list (EML) to encourage uptake and improved hypertension control. We documented key national-level facilitators (SPCs on national EMLs, recommendation for SPCs in national hypertension guidelines and availability of SPCs on the market) supporting uptake of SPCs in the 30 most populous low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: A hierarchical information gathering strategy was used including literature and web searches, the use of organisational databases and personal communications with colleagues to obtain information on (1) whether SPC antihypertensives are on national EMLs, (2) whether SPC antihypertensives are recommended in national hypertension guidelines and (3) whether SPCs are available on the market. Results: Eleven of 30 LMICs had all facilitators in place being Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan, China, the Philippines, Thailand, Iran, Argentina, Colombia and Mexico. Twenty-six countries had national hypertension guidelines (or similar) in place with SPCs being recommended in 18 of these. Apart from Afghanistan, SPCs were available on the market in all countries. The facilitator least present was the inclusion of SPC antihypertensives on national EMLs at 12 of 29 (Turkey does not have an EML). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that many LMICs have made significant progress in their uptake of SPC antihypertensives and several had included SPCs on their EMLs and guidelines prior to their inclusion on the WHO EML. Despite this progress, the uptake of SPC antihypertensives in LMICs could be improved including through their further inclusion on EMLs.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Hipertensão , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Países em Desenvolvimento , Combinação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos Essenciais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia
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