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1.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eGS4442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the legal demands of tiotropium bromide to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: We included secondary data from the pharmaceutical care management systems made available by the Paraná State Drug Center. RESULTS: Public interest civil action and ordinary procedures, among others, were the most common used by the patients to obtain the medicine. Two Health Centers in Paraná (Londrina and Umuarama) concentrated more than 50% of the actions. The most common specialty of physicians who prescribed (33.8%) was pulmonology. There is a small financial impact of tiotropium bromide on general costs with medicines of the Paraná State Drug Center. However, a significant individual financial impact was observed because one unit of the medicine represents 38% of the Brazilian minimum wage. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the need of incorporating this medicine in the class of long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator in the Brazilian public health system.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/economia , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Função Jurisdicional , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/economia , Brometo de Tiotrópio/economia , Brasil , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 12(12): 1099-1106, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760892

RESUMO

Introduction: Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) studies of antibiotics in pediatrics are limited. Pediatric dosing regimens for many antimicrobial drugs have been historically derived from adult pharmacokinetic data. Most pediatric formularies and dosing guidelines globally are expert-based and provide no rationale for the recommended doses, leading to heterogeneous guidance.Areas covered: We systematically reviewed the current dosing for 28 antibiotics listed in the Access and Watch groups of the 2019 World Health Organization (WHO) Essential Medicines List for children (EMLc). PubMed and EMBASE were searched for all PK-PD and pharmacological studies in pediatrics up to May 2018. In total, 262 pediatric related articles were deemed eligible. The most studied drugs were those where therapeutic drug monitoring is routine (aminoglycosides, glycopeptides) and study reporting detail was variable, with only 60.0% using the PK-PD results in make dosing recommendations. Based on this evidence, dose recommendations for each antibiotic were made.Expert opinion: We provide an up-to-date review of the limited available evidence on pediatric dosing for the 28 commonly prescribed antibiotics in the 2019 WHO EMLc. We propose synthesized dosing recommendations for those antibiotics administered systemically for the treatment of serious infections. Further PK-PD studies in children, particularly with underlying conditions, are needed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Fatores Etários , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Medicamentos Essenciais , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Organização Mundial da Saúde
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 706, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing burden of diabetes in Uganda, little is known about the quality of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) care especially in rural areas. Poor quality of care is a serious limitation to the control of diabetes and its complications. This study assessed the quality of care and barriers to service delivery in two rural districts in Eastern Uganda. METHODS: This was a mixed methods cross-sectional study, conducted in six facilities. A randomly selected sample of 377 people with diabetes was interviewed using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Key informant interviews were also conducted with diabetes care providers. Data was collected on health outcomes, processes of care and foundations for high quality health systems. The study included three health outcomes, six elements of competent care under processes and 16 elements of tools/resources and workforce under foundations. Descriptive statistics were computed to determine performance under each domain, and thematic content analysis was used for qualitative data. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 49 years (±11.7 years) with a median duration of diabetes of 4 years (inter-quartile range = 2.7 years). The overall facility readiness score was 73.9%. Inadequacies were found in health worker training in standard diabetes care, availability of medicines, and management systems for services. These were also the key barriers to provision and access to care in addition to lack of affordability. Screening of clients for blood cholesterol and microvascular complications was very low. Regarding outcomes; 56.8% of participants had controlled blood glucose, 49.3% had controlled blood pressure; and 84.0% reported having at least one complication. CONCLUSION: The quality of T2DM care provided in these rural facilities is sub-optimal, especially the process of care. The consequences include sub-optimal blood glucose and blood pressure control. Improving availability of essential medicines and basic technologies and competence of health workers can improve the care process leading to better outcomes.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/normas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Tardio , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Medicamentos Essenciais , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Recursos em Saúde , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Saúde da População Rural , Uganda
6.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1670014, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573421

RESUMO

Universal Health Coverage is key to reach the overall health-related Sustainable Development Goal, and within this, access to safe, effective, quality, and affordable essential medicines is critical. Currently, medicines for noncommunicable diseases in many countries are not available when needed and if they are present, are unaffordable. Countries face the challenges of rising prevalence of noncommunicable diseases due to increasing risk factors and ageing populations, along with under-diagnosis and under-treatment. Providing noncommunicable disease medicines is only one piece of a complex picture of providing care within Universal Health Coverage that requires strengthening health-care systems, as well as financial resources, priority setting, and monitoring and evaluation systems. Financing for Universal Health Coverage needs to enable adequate resources to be allocated for medicines with a focus on equity as well as priority setting for noncommunicable diseases medicines for reimbursement in benefits packages, efficient procurement and distribution of these medicines, supported by price regulation. These processes need to be evidence-based, transparent and grounded on national values and priorities. Monitoring and evaluation of availability and affordability are key components of sustainable reimbursement systems. With the current Universal Health Coverage agenda, the World Health Organization and countries can no longer ignore the issue of access to medicines for noncommunicable disease and need to develop the appropriate responses in order to guarantee equitable access.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Assistência à Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
Global Health ; 15(1): 57, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533850

RESUMO

In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee approved the addition of 16 cancer medicines to the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), bringing the total number of cancer medicines on the list to 46. This change represented the first major revision to the EML oncology section in recent history and reinforces international recognition of the need to ensure access and affordability for cancer treatments. Importantly, many low and middle-income countries rely on the EML, as well as the children's EML, as a guide to establish national formularies, and moreover use these lists as tools to negotiate medicine pricing. However, EML inclusion is only one component that impacts cancer treatment access. More specifically, factors such as intellectual property rights and international trade agreements can interact with EML inclusion, drug pricing, and accessibility. To better understand this dynamic, we conducted an interdisciplinary review of the patent status of EML cancer medicines compared to other EML noncommunicable disease medicines using the 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st editions of the list. We also explored the interaction of intellectual property rights with the international trade regime and how trade agreements can and do impact cancer treatment access and affordability. Based on this analysis, we conclude that patent status is simply one factor in the complex international environment of health systems, IPR policies, and trade regimes and that aligning these oftentimes disparate interests will require shared global governance across the cancer care continuum.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Comércio/organização & administração , Medicamentos Essenciais , Propriedade Intelectual , Cooperação Internacional , Políticas , Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/provisão & distribução , Custos e Análise de Custo , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Organização Mundial da Saúde
11.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 29(3): 401-408, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447509

RESUMO

Background: Frequent stock-out of drugs in the public hospitals causes National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) enrollees to purchase most of their medicines out-of-pocket in community pharmacies, thereby imposing financial constraints on them against the main objective of the scheme. The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the level of participation of private retail community pharmacies (PRCPs) in the NHIS of Nigeria and Ghana, to describe their spatial distribution, and to highlight from literature major factors that would influence the participation of these pharmacies in the scheme. Methods: PRCPs data were collected from the Nigerian NHIS active secondary healthcare providers list of 1st July 2017 and the Ghanaian NHIS active providers online list of 2018. PRCPs densities at the national levels were calculated from last published national coverage data for each country. Results: The total number of PRCP accredited by NHIS of both Nigeria and Ghana is 964(639[66.3% versus 325[33.7%]). NHIS accredited PRCPs densities for Nigeria and Ghana were 1 PRCP per 9, 390 enrollees and 1 PRCP per 33, 108 enrollees respectively. Across the Nigerian States, it was noted that Lagos State has the highest proportion (21.4%, n = 137) of community pharmacy participation in the scheme whereas, in Ghan, Greater Accra Region has the highest participation (34.2%, n = 111). Conclusion: This study revealed low participation of PRCPs and skewed spatial distribution between urban and rural areas of both countries, although there was higher participation of these pharmacies in Nigeria due to Nigerian lower NHIS coverage data compared to Ghana.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Farmácias/organização & administração , Gana , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nigéria , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Privado/organização & administração , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(8): 2939-2950, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389541

RESUMO

This paper presents a descriptive review of laws and regulations on the management of drugs and the residues thereof adopted by countries in Europe, the Americas and Australia. This review integrates relevant points of official documents of regulatory agencies in these countries, as well as important scientific works. All countries surveyed carry out drug management concomitant with the management of the residues thereof, ranging from awareness programs on the rational use and the risks of drugs through to the collection and safe disposal of such residues. Germany, the USA and Sweden demand a prior assessment of the environmental impact caused by a given drug as a criterion for its registration. Sweden is noteworthy in that it periodically updates a list of essential drugs based on risk assessment and the environmental risks posed by the residues thereof. In Brazil, the legal measures proposed including rational prescription and reverse logistics have not yet been effectively implemented. Prior environmental impact assessment safeguards the risks to human health and the wild biota caused by exposure to drug residues. Therefore, these international models could serve as a basis for discussion and/or legal and regulatory changes in Brazil.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Drogas/toxicidade , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes , Medição de Risco/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicamentos Essenciais/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos Essenciais/efeitos adversos , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos
13.
BMJ ; 366: l4257, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the trends, drivers, and potential modifiers of increased spending by US Medicare beneficiaries on medicines deemed essential by the World Health Organization. DESIGN: Retrospective cost analysis of Medicare Part D Prescriber Public Use File, detailing annual generic and brand name drug prescribing and spending from 2011 through 2015 by Medicare Part D participants who filled prescriptions for WHO essential medicines. SETTING: US Medicare System. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total and per beneficiary Medicare spending, total and per beneficiary out-of-pocket patient spending, cumulative beneficiary count, claim count, and per unit drug cost. All spending measures were adjusted for inflation and reported in 2015 US dollars. RESULTS: Medicare Part D expenditures on 265 WHO essential medicines between 2011 and 2015 was $87.2bn (£68.4bn; €76.5bn), with annual spending increasing from $11.9bn in 2011 to $25.8bn in 2015 (116%). Patients' out-of-pocket spending for essential medicines over the same period was $12.1bn. Total annual out-of-pocket spending increased from $2.0bn to $2.9bn (47%), and annual per beneficiary out-of-pocket spending on these drugs increased from $20.42 to $21.17 (4%). Total prescription count increased from 376.1m to 498.9m (33%), and cumulative beneficiary count grew from 95.9m to 135.8m (42%). Of the essential medicines included in the study, the per unit cost of 133 (50%) agents increased faster than the average inflation rate during this period. Overall, approximately 58% of the increase in total spending during this period can be attributed to the introduction of novel agents. CONCLUSIONS: Spending associated with essential medicines grew substantially from 2011 to 2015, driven largely by the increased use of two expensive novel drugs used in treating hepatitis C. Approximately 22% of increased total spending during this period can be attributed to increases in per unit cost of existing drugs. These trends may limit patients' access to essential drugs while also increasing healthcare system costs.


Assuntos
Medicare Part D/economia , Medicare/economia , Organização Mundial da Saúde/economia , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medicare/tendências , Medicare Part D/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Bull World Health Organ ; 97(6): 394-404C, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210677

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the medicines included in national essential medicines lists with the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Model list of essential medicines, and assess the extent to which countries' characteristics, such as WHO region, size and health care expenditure, account for the differences. Methods: We searched the WHO's Essential Medicines and Health Products Information Portal for national essential medicines lists. We compared each national list of essential medicines with both the 2017 WHO model list and other national lists. We used linear regression to determine whether differences were dependent on WHO Region, population size, life expectancy, infant mortality, gross domestic product and health-care expenditure. Findings: We identified 137 national lists of essential medicines that collectively included 2068 unique medicines. Each national list contained between 44 and 983 medicines (median 310: interquartile range, IQR: 269 to 422). The number of differences between each country's essential medicines list and WHO's model list ranged from 93 to 815 (median: 296; IQR: 265 to 381). Linear regression showed that only WHO region and health-care expenditure were significantly associated with the number of differences (adjusted R2 : 0.33; P < 0.05). Most medicines (1248; 60%) were listed by no more than 10% (14) of countries. Conclusion: The substantial differences between national lists of essential medicines are only partly explained by differences in country characteristics and thus may not be related to different priority needs. This information helps to identify opportunities to improve essential medicines lists.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos Essenciais , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Europa (Continente) , Produto Interno Bruto , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Análise de Regressão , Organização Mundial da Saúde
15.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 68, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The valuation of medicines as health needs vary depending on the stakeholders involved (users, prescribers, managers, etc.) and their expectations. These factors modulate the role of medicines as a health need and influence access to medicines, and could be useful to explain the rising of Judicialization of access to medicines. AIM: To conduct a comparative analysis of the causes and consequences of judicialization of access to medicines in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Chile from the perspective of medicines as health needs. METHODS: A qualitative, cross-country study was carried out in these 4 countries. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 representatives of the different stakeholders involved in the judicialization of access to medicines, including Executive branch, Judiciary, health system managers, patient organizations. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis used a framework approach based on the theoretical model for medicines as health needs. FINDINGS: Representatives from Argentina, Brazil and Colombia considered judicialization of access to medicines as a widespread phenomenon in their respective countries. Meanwhile in Chile, the respondents highlighted that most lawsuits related to the right to health were filed against private insurers because of unjustified increases in the insurance premiums. The comparative analysis showed that judicialization of access to medicines emerged in the four countries regardless of the constitutional protection or the health system population coverage. Among the causes were mentioned difficulties in guaranteeing access to covered medicines and the influence of pharmaceutical marketing on needs assessment and prescription behaviours. The interviewees highlighted the pressure to health system managers to fulfil their responsibilities as a positive impact of litigation. In contrast, the funding of medicines without evidence of efficacy or safety was considered a negative impact. Only in Brazil, judicialization has had impact on R&D policies. In Colombia, litigation also encouraged the recognition of the right to health as a fundamental right and the development of policies for controlling medicines prices. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that applying the adopted theoretical model creates the possibility of identifying critical points to guide policy makers to improve the health systems performances and to control lawsuits for access to medicines.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Legislação de Medicamentos , Política de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 383, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown limited availability of medicines in health facilities in Bangladesh. While medicines are dispensed for free in public facilities, they are paid out-of-pocket in private pharmacies. Availability, price and affordability are key concerns for access to medicines in Bangladesh. METHODS: The World Health Organization/Health Action International survey methodology was used to determine price, availability and affordability of 61 lowest price generic (LPG) and originator branded medicines in public facilities, private retail pharmacies and private clinics across 6 regions of Bangladesh. Medicines for non-communicable and infectious diseases, and both on and off the national Essential Medicines List were included. Prices were compared internationally using Median Price Ratio (MPR). RESULTS: Mean LPG (originator brand) availability in the public sector, private retail pharmacies, and private clinics was 37%, 63 (4) percent, and 54 (2) percent, respectively. Medicines for Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) and essential medicines were significantly less available than infectious disease medicines and non-essential medicines, respectively. Mean LPG (originator brand) MPR was 0.977 in the public sector, 1.700 (3.698) in private retail pharmacies and 1.740 (3.758) in private clinics. Six medicines were expensive by international standards across all sectors. The least affordable treatments in both private sectors were bisoprolol (hypertension), metformin (diabetes) and atorvastatin (hypercholesterolemia). CONCLUSION: Availability and affordability of NCD medicines are key concerns where the burden of NCD is rising. These findings show improvement from earlier studies, but room for further advances in availability and affordability of NCD medicines in Bangladesh. A small number of medicines are consistently expensive across sectors in Bangladesh, suggesting the need for strategies to address prices for certain medicines.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Bangladesh , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 89, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments can constitute a major barrier for affordable and equitable access to essential medicines. Household surveys in Kyrgyzstan pointed to a perceived growth in OOP payments for outpatient medicines, including those covered by the benefits package scheme (the Additional Drug Package, ADP). The study aimed to explore the extent of co-payments for ADP-listed medicines and to explain the reasons for developments. METHODS: A descriptive statistical analysis was performed on prices and volumes of prescribed ADP-listed medicines dispensed in pharmacies during 2013-2015 (1,041,777 prescriptions claimed, data provided by the Mandatory Health Insurance Fund). Additionally, data on the value and volume of imported medicines in 2013-2015 (obtained from the National Medicines Regulatory Agency) were analysed. RESULTS: In 2013-2015, co-payments for medicines dispensed under the ADP grew, on average, by 22.8%. Co-payments for ADP-listed medicines amounted to around 50% of a reimbursed baseline price, but as pharmacy retail prices were not regulated, co-payments tended to be higher in practice. The increase in co-payments coincided with a reduction in the number of prescriptions dispensed (by 14%) and an increase in average amounts reimbursed per prescription in nearly all therapeutic groups (by 22%) in the study period. While the decrease in prescriptions suggests possible underuse, as patients might forego filling prescriptions due to financial restraints, the growth in average amounts reimbursed could be an indication of inefficiencies in public funding. Variation between the regions suggests regional inequity. Devaluation of the national currency was observed, and the value of imported medicines increased by nearly 20%, whereas volumes of imports remained at around the same level in 2013-2015. Thus, patients and public procurers had to pay more for the same amount of medicines. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest an increase in pharmacy retail prices as the major driver for higher co-payments. The national currency devaluation contributed to the price increases, and the absence of medicine price regulation aggravated the effects of the depreciation. It is recommended that Kyrgyzstan should introduce medicine price regulation and exemptions for low-income people from co-payments to ensure a more affordable and equitable access to medicines.


Assuntos
Custos de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Financiamento Governamental/legislação & jurisprudência , Financiamento Governamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Quirguistão
19.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 50, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116239

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the regional allocation of the resources from the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program, taking into account the relative availability of the program and the potential needs of the region. METHODS: Data from the National Health Survey of the Annual Report of Social Information and the administrative database of the program were used to create a non-parametric indicator of coverage using multiple data envelopment analysis technique. This indicator considers the relative availability of the program, taking into account equal access to equal needs (equity based on regional needs). The analysis of this indicator shows if the regions that most need pharmaceutical assistance are those that receive more resources from the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program. RESULTS: The states belonging to the richest regions of the country, Southeast and South, present wider relative coverage of the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program compared to poorer localities. In addition, the inequalities observed between locations are better explained by inefficiency in the transfer of resources to the basic component of pharmaceutical care than by the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program itself. According to the model, a 43.76% increase in the transfer to the basic component of pharmaceutical care would be required in order to improve equity, whereas the increase required by the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program is equivalent to 22.71%. CONCLUSIONS: Although the Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program seeks to reduce the socioeconomic inequalities observed in access to pharmaceutical care, which integrates health care services, regional disparities in access to medicine persist. These regional differences are attributed mostly to allocation failures and problems in managing the conventional pharmaceutical care cycle provided through SUS pharmacies.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Equidade em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Alocação de Recursos/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Orçamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/economia , Equidade em Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Valores de Referência , Alocação de Recursos/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial
20.
Arch. Health Invest ; 8(5): 237-244, maio 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1022254

RESUMO

Introdução: A prescrição de medicamentos é uma ordem escrita e dirigida ao farmacêutico, que defini como o fármaco deve ser dispensado para o paciente. Objetivo: Analisar qual o nível de conhecimento dos estudantes de odontologia do Centro Universitário de João Pessoa ­ UNIPÊ sobre prescrição de medicamentos. Metodologia: Foi realizada uma pesquisa quantitativa e descritiva com alunos do 5º ao 10º período do curso de Odontologia do Centro Universitário de João Pessoa ­ UNIPÊ, localizado na Br 230, Km 22, Água Fria, João Pessoa, Paraíba. Foi utilizado como instrumento de coleta de dados desta pesquisa um questionário, estruturado e elaborado pelo aluno pesquisador e pelo professor orientador com base na fundamentação teórica estudada. O questionário é composto por 12 questões objetivas. Os dados da pesquisa foram coletados e após, analisados pelo Programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) versão 13.0. Resultados: A maior parte da amostra correspondeu ao gênero feminino, tendo entre 15 e 25 anos, solteiros e que se sentiam seguros em prescrever, a maioria não conhecem os tipos de medicamentos que por eles possam ser prescritos nem a lista que oferece ao profissional base de uma prescrição segura elaborada pelo Sistema Único de Saúde, que é a Relação Nacional de Medicamentos essenciais (RENAME). Conclusão: Ainda é baixo o nível de conhecimento dos estudantes de odontologia do Centro Universitário de João Pessoa em relação a os medicamentos contidos na lista de medicamentos essenciais (RENAME) do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS)(AU)


Introduction: The prescription of medicines is a written order and addressed to the pharmacist, which defined how the drug should be dispensed for the patient. Objective: To analyze the level of knowledge of dentistry students of the University Center of João Pessoa - UNIPÊ on prescription of medications. Methodology: A quantitative and descriptive study was carried out with students from the 5th to 10th period of the Dentistry course of the University Center of João Pessoa - UNIPÊ, located at Br 230, Km 22, Água Fria, João Pessoa, Paraíba. It was used as a data collection instrument of this research a questionnaire, structured and elaborated by the student researcher and the guiding teacher based on the theoretical foundation studied. The questionnaire consists of 12 objective questions. The survey data were collected and then analyzed by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0. Results: The majority of the sample corresponded to the female gender, between 15 and 25 years old, who were unmarried and who felt safe to prescribe, most do not know the types of drugs that can be prescribed by them or the list that offers the professional base of a safe prescription elaborated by the Unified Health System, which is the National List of Essential Medicines (RENAME). Conclusion: The level of knowledge of the dentistry students of the University Center of João Pessoa is still low in relation to the medicines contained in the list of essential medicines (RENAME) of the Unified Health System (SUS)(AU)


Introducción: La prescripción de medicamentos es una orden escrita y dirigida al farmacéutico, que define como el fármaco debe ser dispensado para el paciente. Objetivo: Analizar el nivel de conocimiento de los estudiantes de odontología del Centro Universitario de João Pessoa - UNIPÊ sobre prescripción de medicamentos. Metodología: Se realizó una investigación cuantitativa y descriptiva con alumnos del 5º al 10º período del curso de Odontología del Centro Universitario de João Pessoa - UNIPÊ, ubicado en la Br 230, Km 22, Agua Fría, João Pessoa, Paraíba. Se utilizó como instrumento de recolección de datos de esta investigación un cuestionario, estructurado y elaborado por el alumno investigador y por el profesor orientador con base en la fundamentación teórica estudiada. El cuestionario se compone de 12 cuestiones objetivas. Los datos de la encuesta fueron recolectados y después, analizados por el Programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) versión 13.0. Resultados: La mayor parte de la muestra correspondió al género femenino, entre 15 y 25 años, solteros y que se sentían seguros en prescribir, la mayoría no conocen los tipos de medicamentos que por ellos puedan ser prescritos ni la lista que ofrece al profesional base de una prescripción segura elaborada por el Sistema Único de Salud, que es la Relación Nacional de Medicamentos esenciales (RENAME). Conclusión: Aún es bajo el nivel de conocimiento de los estudiantes de odontología del Centro Universitario de João Pessoa en relación a los medicamentos contenidos en la lista de medicamentos esenciales (RENAME) del Sistema Único de Salud (SUS)(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudantes de Odontologia , Prescrições , Sistema Único de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Medicamentos Essenciais
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