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1.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256429, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415962

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global pandemic since its outbreak in Wuhan, China. It is an urgent task to prevent and treat COVID-19 effectively early. In China's experience combating the COVID-19 pandemic, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has played an indispensable role. A large number of epidemiological investigations have shown that mild to moderate COVID-19 accounts for the largest proportion of cases. It is of great importance to treat such COVID-19 cases, which can help control epidemic progression. Many trials have shown that CHM combined with conventional therapy in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 was superior to conventional therapy alone. This review was designed to evaluate the add-on effect of CHM in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19. METHODS: Eight electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Clinical Trials.gov website, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), Wanfang Database and China Biology Medicine (CBM) were searched from December 2019 to March 2021 without language restrictions. Two reviewers searched and selected studies, and extracted data according to inclusion and exclusion criteria independently. Cochrane Risk of Bias (ROB) tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the included RCTs. Review Manager 5.3.0 software was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Twelve eligible RCTs including 1393 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Our meta-analyses found that lung CT parameters [RR = 1.26, 95% CI (1.15, 1.38), P<0.00001] and the clinical cure rate [RR = 1.26, 95%CI (1.16, 1.38), P<0.00001] of CHM combined with conventional therapy in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 were better than those of conventional therapy. The rate of conversion to severe cases [RR = 0.48, 95%CI (0.32, 0.73), P = 0.0005], TCM symptom score of fever [MD = -0.62, 95%CI (-0.79, -0.45), P<0.00001], cough cases [RR = 1.43, 95%CI (1.16, 1.75), P = 0.0006], TCM symptom score of cough[MD = -1.07, 95%CI (-1.29, -0.85), P<0.00001], TCM symptom score of fatigue[MD = -0.66, 95%CI (-1.05, -0.28), P = 0.0007], and CRP[MD = -5.46, 95%CI (-8.19, -2.72), P<0.0001] of combination therapy was significantly lower than that of conventional therapy. The WBC count was significantly higher than that of conventional therapy[MD = 0.38, 95%CI (0.31, 0.44), P<0.00001]. Our meta-analysis results were robust through sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSION: Chinese herbal medicine combined with conventional therapy may be effective and safe in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19. More high-quality RCTs are needed in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/etiologia , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Tosse/virologia , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/virologia , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/virologia , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Vômito/induzido quimicamente
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16307, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381116

RESUMO

Structure-based drug design targeting the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been greatly facilitated by available virus-related protein structures. However, there is an urgent need for effective, safe small-molecule drugs to control the spread of the virus and variants. While many efforts are devoted to searching for compounds that selectively target individual proteins, we investigated the potential interactions between eight proteins related to SARS-CoV-2 and more than 600 compounds from a traditional Chinese medicine which has proven effective at treating the viral infection. Our original ensemble docking and cooperative docking approaches, followed by a total of over 16-micorsecond molecular simulations, have identified at least 9 compounds that may generally bind to key SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Further, we found evidence that some of these compounds can simultaneously bind to the same target, potentially leading to cooperative inhibition to SARS-CoV-2 proteins like the Spike protein and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. These results not only present a useful computational methodology to systematically assess the anti-viral potential of small molecules, but also point out a new avenue to seek cooperative compounds toward cocktail therapeutics to target more SARS-CoV-2-related proteins.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Gatos , Biologia Computacional , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Fitoterapia ; 153: 104994, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273439

RESUMO

Three new pairs of benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline (BIQ) alkaloid epimers, Seco-neferine A-F (1-6), were isolated from an EtOH extract of Plumula Nelumbinis. The structures of these compounds were identified by a combination of NMR, HR-ESI-MS, circular dichroism, UV spectroscopic analyses and specific rotations. The structure of compounds 1-6 possesses high similarity with neferine, because these three pairs of epimers have the same skeleton as neferine. Compounds 1,2 and 5,6 are open-loop compounds of position 1' and 1 of neferine respectively. The H connects with position 2' N of compounds 1,2 is replaced by methyl, forming the structure of compounds 3,4. Moreover, six compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell. Compound 6 displayed moderate inhibitory effects on breast cancer with IC50 of 38.96 µM, while compounds 2,3,4 show certain inhibitory effects.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Benzilisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Nelumbo/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Benzilisoquinolinas/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281284

RESUMO

Progressive diabetic nephropathy (DN) in diabetes leads to major morbidity and mortality. The major pathological alterations of DN include mesangial expansion, extracellular matrix alterations, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and glomerular sclerosis. Polygoni avicularis is widely used in traditional oriental medicine and has long been used as a diuretic, astringent, insecticide and antihypertensive. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the effects of the ethanolic extract from rhizome of Polygoni avicularis (ER-PA) on DN have not yet been assessed. The present study aimed to identify the effect of ER-PA on renal dysfunction, which has been implicated in DN in human renal mesangial cells and db/db mice and investigate its mechanism of action. The in vivo experiment was performed using Polygoni avicularis-ethanol soluble fraction (ER-PA) and was administrated to db/db mice at 10 and 50 mg/kg dose. For the in vitro experiments, the human renal mesangial cells were induced by high glucose (HG, 25 mM). The ER-PA group showed significant amelioration in oral glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance index. ER-PA significantly improved the albumin excretion and markedly reduced plasma creatinine, kidney injury molecule-1 and C-reactive protein. In addition, ER-PA significantly suppressed inflammatory cytokines. Histopathologically, ER-PA attenuated glomerular expansion and tubular fibrosis in db/db mice. Furthermore, ER-PA suppressed the expression of renal fibrosis biomarkers (TGF and Collagen IV). ER-PA also reduced the NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammatory factor level. These results suggest that ER-PA has a protective effect against renal dysfunction through improved insulin resistance as well as the inhibition of nephritis and fibrosis in DN.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Polygonum/química , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fibrose , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Células Mesangiais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Mesangiais/metabolismo , Células Mesangiais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rizoma/química
5.
J Chromatogr A ; 1652: 462354, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214834

RESUMO

Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) are popularly used in clinical practice. Though the composition is complex, the quality of CPM is usually evaluated by the contents of a few main compounds. In this study, a two-leveled metabolomics strategy was proposed to discover minor marker compounds for different CPM products. Zhenqi Fuzheng (ZQFZ) granule was studied an example, where 15 batches from 3 producers were analyzed. The samples were separated using UHPLC on an Acquity UPLC® HSS T3 column, and then detected using Q-Orbitrap-MS. In the first level, 1475 common peaks were extracted and 95 compounds were identified using diagnostic ions and a homemade database. In the second level, the data were subjected to a two-way hierarchical clustering analysis and screened by variable importance value. In total 14 marker compounds were discovered which were responsible for the grouping of different ZQFZ products. Echinacoside (22), oleoside (13), loganic acid (5), salidroside (7), ligustrosidic acid (42), 6α-hydroxygeniposide (28), and oleoside 11-methyl ester (15) could be used to reflect the quality difference for ZQFZ granule products. The proposed strategy could also contribute to the discovery of quality control markers for other CPMs.


Assuntos
Metabolômica/métodos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/química , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/normas , Biomarcadores/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Controle de Qualidade
6.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 57, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper aimed to verify how a supplementation of rower's diet with Astragalus Membranaceus Root (AMR) modulated their immune system response to maximal physical exertion. METHODS: The double-blind study included 18 members of the Polish Rowing Team assigned to the supplemented group (n = 10), and the placebo group (n = 8). The participants performed a 2000 m test on a rowing ergometer at the beginning and at the end of the six-week of intensive training camp during which the supplemented group received 500 mg of AMR. Blood samples were obtained prior to, 1 min after completing, and 24 h after the exertion test. The levels of interleukin 2 (IL2), interleukin 4 (IL4), interleukin 10 (IL10), interferon ɤ (IFN-É£), and lactic acid were determined. Subpopulations of T regulatory lymphocytes [CD4+/CD25+/CD127-] (Treg), cytotoxic lymphocytes [CD8+/TCRαß+] (CTL), natural killer cells [CD3-/CD16+/CD56+] (NK), and TCRδγ-positive cells (Tδγ) were determined with flow cytometry. RESULTS: After the camp, the initial NK and Treg levels sustained at the baseline, while Tδγ counts increased relative to the levels in the placebo group. In the supplemented subgroup, a decrease in IL2 level in reaction to maximal exertion clearly deepened while the change in IL-2/IL-10 level induced by the recovery after this exertion clearly increased, relative to the changes in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: AMR restored the immunological balance in strenuously trained athlets through a stabilization of NK and Treg cells with a positive trend in Tδγ towards Th1 response during restitution by cytokine IL2 modulation.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Tolerância Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Esportes Aquáticos/fisiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Interleucina-4 , Interleucinas/sangue , Células Matadoras Naturais , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280712

RESUMO

The complexity of ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) makes it challenging to clarify its efficacy in an acceptable and scientific approach. The present study was aimed to use quantification results from targeted cellular metabolomics to evaluate anti-aging efficacy of a famous Chinese medicine formula, Erzhi Wan (EZW), and screen possible effective extracts, depending on the developed strategy integrating multivariate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). In this study, senescent NRK cells induced by D-galactose were treated with drug-containing serum of EZW and four kinds of extracts (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, butanol and water). Intermediates of two major metabolic pathways for energy synthesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and glycolysis, were accurately quantified by GC-MS/MS to identify discriminate metabolites for clarifying therapeutic mechanism of EZW based on multivariate statistical analysis. Senescent and non-senescent cells were successfully distinguished using these metabolites by ROC curve analysis. Next, these metabolites were used as evaluation indexes to quantitatively reflect different effect of EZW and its extracts, according to the role of them in distinguishing groups and in conjunction with AHP. In vitro detection of senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal) activity was used to verify the reliability of evaluation results. The reversal after treatment of drug-containing serum of EZW and extracts was observed, and the petroleum ether extract might be the potential active extract responsible for the major anti-aging effect of EZW, which was in agreement with in vitro experiments. Altogether, metabolomics was a powerful approach for evaluation efficacy and elucidation action mechanisms of TCM. The integrated evaluation strategy in this paper with properties of high practicality, feasibility and effectivity was expected to provide a new insight into comprehensive and quantitative efficacy evaluation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Metabolômica , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146768

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are poisonous secondary fungal toxic metabolites and harmful to human health. Traditional Chinese medicinal materials (TCMs), including more than two hundred functional foods, are vulnerably bred fungi, causing spoilage and multi-mycotoxins contamination. This study established a simultaneous analytical method by using multi-mycotoxins immunoaffinity column (multi-IAC) and HPLC-MS/MS to evaluate mycotoxins' contamination levels and natural incidence in TCMs. Aflatoxins (AFs, including AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and T-2 toxins in three TCMs or functional foods of Polygalae Radix (PR), Coicis Semen (CS) and Eupolyphaga Steleophaga (ES) were detected. The systematically investigated results of 30 batch AFB1 positive samples revealed co-occurrence and correlation of multi-mycotoxins are significant differences in various matrices. All the samples in this study contain more than 5 mycotoxins. AFB1-AFs, AFB1-FBs, AFB1-DON, and AFB1-T-2 are the most observed co-occurrence, AFB1-OTA is also of concern due to its synergistic toxicity. This study's results can be used to establish guidelines for screening mycotoxin contaminants and limitations on acceptable levels in TCMs. Simultaneously, mycotoxin's correlation results in different matrices can also provide a reference for the standardization of TCM production and processing.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Micotoxinas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Phytomedicine ; 88: 153605, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107409

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is the process of bone loss, particular after menopause, when the production of estrogen in women is decreaing. Bioenergetic function is one of the critical roles in bone remodeling. Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is an herbal mixture containing Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), and which is consumed for "Qi-invigorating", i.e., stimulating energy metabolism, as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, the role of DBT in metabolism of osteoblast has not been examined. Here, we employed a metabolic flux to examine the mitochondrial functions of cultured osteoblast in the presence of herbal extracts, including DBT, ASR, AR, AR + ASR (single mixing of two herbal extracts), as well as DBT∆cal (a DBT extract depeleting calycosin), to examine their roles in osteoblastic metabolism, e.g. glycolysis and energy kinetics. By revealing the rates of oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification of mitochrondia, the DBT-treated osteoblasts were markedly strengthened with increases of maximal respiration, spare capacity, glycolysis capacity and glycolysis reserve, in comparing to other herbal extracts. In addition, the bioenergetic metabolism was modulated by DBT via the signaling of cellular Ca2+ and reactive oxgen species (ROS). Furthermore, DBT affected the morphology of mitochondria, as well as mitochondrial dynamic. Here, we propose that DBT can be regarded as benefit herbal extract in improving osteoblastic metabolism for bone disorders via central energy metabolism and mitochondrial bioenergetics.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Fosforilação Oxidativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Phytomedicine ; 87: 153581, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xiaoyaosan (XYS), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription that contained eight Chinese herbs, has been used for treating depression for thousands of years. Yet, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear, which need to be investigated from various perspectives. Disassembling a prescription is one of the effective approaches to study the effects and the mechanisms of TCM prescriptions. By disassembling the prescription, we can find effective combinations of individual herbs to simplify the scale of a given prescription. Accordingly, herein, XYS was disassembled into Shugan and Jianpi groups. PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the anti-depressive effects of XYS and its disassembled groups on the digestive system functions and the cecal microbiota of rats. METHODS: XYS was divided into two efficacy groups, i.e., the Shugan (SG) and the Jianpi (JP) groups. A depression model was applied by using the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) method. Various classic behavioral tests were performed to assess the anti-depressive effects of the XYS, the SG, and the JP. Afterward, the effects of the three groups on the digestive system functions and the cecum microbiota of depression rats were evaluated. On top of this, correlation analyses between behavioral and digestive system function indexes and cecum microbiota were conducted. RESULTS: The XYS, the SG, and the JP had significant callback effects on depressive behaviors and gastrointestinal dysfunctions of CUMS rats. The compositions of the gut bacterial community were variable among the five groups. The community composition of the SG was the most similar to that of NC, followed by the XYS and the JP. At phylum, family, and genus levels, 31 potential microbial biomarkers associated with CUMS were identified. Twenty biomarkers were significantly reversed by the SG while 16 and 11 biomarkers were reversed by the XYS and the JP, respectively. The results of degrees of regulatory effects showed that the SG had the highest efficacy index (EI) than the XYS and the JP. CONCLUSION: Regarding the regulation of cecal microbiota of depression rats, the SG treatment was better than XYS and JP. Therefore, SG could be used individually for the clinical treatment of depression, especially in patients with gastrointestinal and gut microbiota disorders.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/microbiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Disbiose/microbiologia , Esvaziamento Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/microbiologia
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 2074-2087, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097961

RESUMO

Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are known for their beneficial effects on diabetes, NAFLD and related chronic metabolic diseases induced by high-fat diet (HFD). However, the relevant researches are mainly about the whole crude polysaccharides, the specific active ingredient of LBPs and its bioactivity have been rarely explored. Herein, a homogeneous polysaccharide (LBP-W) was isolated and purified from crude LBPs. Structure characterizations indicated that LBP-W contained a main chain consisting of a repeated unit of →6)-ß-Galp(1 â†’ residues with branches composed of α-Araf, ß-Galp and α-Rhap residues at position C-3. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-obesogenic effect of LBP-W and figure out the underlying mechanisms. In vivo efficacy trial illustrated that LBP-W supplements can alleviate HFD-induced mice obesity significantly. Gut microbiota analysis showed that LBP-W not only improved community diversity of intestinal flora, but also regulated their specific genera. Moreover, LBP-W can increase the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), a metabolite of the intestinal flora. In summary, all these results demonstrated that the homogeneous polysaccharide purified from L. barbarum could be used as a prebiotic agent to improve obesity by modulating the composition of intestinal flora and the metabolism of SCFAs.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Prebióticos , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Arabinose/química , Arabinose/farmacologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Disbiose , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Galactose/química , Galactose/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estrutura Molecular , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/microbiologia , Ramnose/química , Ramnose/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(5): 1017-1044, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107860

RESUMO

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic calls for effective control and prevention. Chinese medicine (CM) has developed systematic theories and approaches for infectious disease prevention over 2000 years. Here, we review and analyze Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) used in infectious disease prevention from ancient pestilences to modern epidemics and pandemics to share cumulative preventive medical experience. A total of 829 formulas, including 329 herbs from 189 ancient books, 131 formulas with 152 herbs, and 13 Chinese patent medicines (CPM) from 30 official Chinese prevention programs used in ancient epidemics, SARS, influenza and COVID-19 prevention, were reviewed and analyzed. Preventive CHM mainly has four functions and can be taken orally or applied externally. CHM that kill pathogens (Realgar [Xionghuang], Cyrtomium Fortunei J. Sm[Guanzhong]) were commonly used externally for disinfection in ancient prevention while CHM tonifying Qi (Astragali Radix [Huangq], Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma [Gancao]) are used for modern prevention. Taking CHM that expel pathogens (Realgar [Xionghuang], Lonicerae Japonicae Flos[Jinyinhua]) and CHM eliminating dampness (Atractylodis Rhizoma [Cangzhu], Pogostemonis Herba[Guanghuoxiang]) have been commonly used from ancient times to COVID-19. Damp toxins are a common characteristic of infectious diseases such as SARS and COVID-19. Thus, taking CHM expelling damp toxins and tonifying Qi are the main methods for SARS and COVID-19 prevention. CHM with different approaches have been widely used in infectious disease prevention from ancient times to the present. Multiple CM prevention methods may provide new perspectives for future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pandemias
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130203

RESUMO

San Miao Wan (SMW), composed of Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex, Atractylodis Lanceae Rhizoma and Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, is widely used for the treatment of gout, hyperuricemia and other diseases. In the present study, an overall identification strategy based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem Q-Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap/MS) method was established to characterize the multiple chemical constituents of SMW and its metabolites in rat plasma after oral administration of SMW. A total of 76 constituents including alkaloids, organic acids, lactones, terpenes, saponins, sterones and others types of components were identified in the extract of SMW. After the oral administration of SMW, 47 prototype constituents and 66 metabolites were identified in rat plasma samples. The related metabolic pathways mainly involved reduction, demethylation, hydroxylation, methylation and glucuronide conjunction. The proposed method could be a useful approach to identify the chemical constituents of SMW and its metabolic components. Our study provide a universal strategy for the analysis of the components and metabolites of the traditional Chinese medicine prescription (TCP) extracts and plasma after administration using UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap/MS method. It will assist with clarifying the substance basis of effective components in SMW. It also provides a rapid method for overall analysis of chemical constituents and metabolites of SMW.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Administração Oral , Alcaloides/sangue , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Carboxílicos/sangue , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Lactonas/sangue , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130204

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine injections (TCMIs) containing complex constituents frequently cause unpredictable adverse reactions. The residual heterologous proteins in TCMIs may be one kind of the sensitized constituents. However, few methods were developed to identify and monitor the residual proteins of TCMIs in industry. Here, we described a method combining the advantages of ultrafiltration and mass spectrometry-based proteomics for monitoring the potential residual proteins in Re Du Ning injection (RDNI) intermediates and preparations. We identified and quantified both de novo peptides and the proteins matched against databases of three raw plants by using PEAKS software. Interesting, we found there was a significant decrease of peptides and proteins in No. 3-5 of RDNI intermediates and some even disappeared. Besides, we found this method could greatly reduce the interference of contaminants in proteomics experiments. The rapid and accurate method proposed in this paper could be used for monitoring potential residual proteins in TCMIs to guarantee their quality and safety.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Proteínas , Proteômica/métodos , Ultrafiltração/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Células HeLa , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Nanotecnologia , Proteínas/análise , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1651: 462307, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161837

RESUMO

The difficulty of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) researches lies in the complexity of components, metabolites, and bioactivities. For a long time, there has been a lack of connections among the three parts, which is not conducive to the systematic elucidation of TCM effectiveness. To overcome this problem, a classification-based methodology for simplifying TCM researches was refined from literature in the past 10 years (2011-2020). The theoretical basis of this methodology is set theory, and its core concept is classification. Its starting point is that "although TCM may contain hundreds of compounds, the vast majority of these compounds are structurally similar". The methodology is composed by research strategies for components, metabolites and bioactivities of TCM, which are the three main parts of the review. Technical route, key steps and difficulty are introduced in each part. Two perspectives are highlighted in this review: set theory is a theoretical basis for all strategies from a conceptual perspective, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a common tool for all strategies from a technical perspective. The significance of these strategies is to simplify complex TCM researches, integrate isolated TCM researches, and build a bridge between traditional medicines and modern medicines. Potential research hotspots in the future, such as discovery of bioactive ingredients from TCM metabolites, are also discussed. The classification-based methodology is a summary of research experience in the past 10 years. We believe it will definitely provide support and reference for the following TCM researches.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/tendências , Técnicas de Química Analítica/tendências , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
16.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(6): 473-480, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092298

RESUMO

Huashi Baidu prescription (HSBDF), recommended in the Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia (On Trials, the Seventh Edition), was clinically used to treat severe corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with cough, blood-stained sputum, inhibited defecation, red tongue etc. symptoms. This study was aimed to elucidate and profile the knowledge on its chemical constituents and the potential anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. In the study, the chemical constituents in extract of HSBDF were characterized by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS in both negative and positive modes, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to determine the effects of HSBDF in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that a total of 217 chemical constituents were tentativedly characterized in HSBDF. Moreover, HSBDF could alleviate the expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the cell models, indicating that the antiviral effects of HSBDF might be associated with regulation of the inflammatory cytokines production in RAW264.7 cells. We hope that the results could be served as the basic data for further study of HSBDF on anti-COVID-19 effect.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antivirais/química , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
17.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(16): 4247-4253, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950274

RESUMO

Aristolochic acid analogues (AAAs), naturally existing in herbal Aristolochia and Asarum genera, were once widely used in traditional pharmacopeias because of their anti-inflammatory properties, but lately they were identified as potential nephrotoxins and mutagens. A method for rapid characterization of AAAs in serum was developed using ion mobility spectrometry coupled with mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). Five AAAs, containing four aristolochic acids and one aristolactam, were separated and identified within milliseconds. AAAs were separated in gas phase based on the difference of their ion mobility (K0), and then identified based on their K0 values, m/z, and product ions from MS/MS. Quantitative analysis of AAAs was performed using an internal standard with a satisfactory sensitivity. Limits of detection (signal-to-noise = 3) and quantification (signal-to-noise = 10) were 1-5 ng/mL and 3-8 ng/mL, respectively. The method was validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetics study of AAAs in rats, offering a promising way for fast screening and evaluation of AAAs in biological samples.


Assuntos
Ácidos Aristolóquicos/sangue , Animais , Aristolochia/química , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/química , Asarum/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica/economia , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Mutagênicos/química , Mutagênicos/farmacocinética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 59(7): 606-617, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sinomenii Caulis (QingFengTeng) and Ramulus Cinnamomi (GuiZhi) are traditional Chinese drugs that have been used for anti-inflammation. In this study, the team plans to find out the material basis of a Chinese herb combination composed of the two herbs with different ratios. METHODS: The extracts of the herbal compound with various ratios obtained from ethanol extraction were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry to identify the basic chemical compounds. Simultaneously, the contents of the eight main components (sinomenine, magnoflorine, laurifoline, dauricine, coumarin, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamic acid and cinnamaldehyde) from herb formula were determined by gradient elution by high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, the content of sinomenine and cinnamaldehyde were determined by isocratic elution, respectively. RESULTS: Eighteen compounds in the herb formula were identified by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS. The components in the GuiZhi are mostly volatile oils and the kinds of compounds isolated from the formula in the ratio of 4:1 were the most. Wherein eight compounds were identified as the main detection targets in the content determination. CONCLUSION: The extraction rate of sinomenine in QingFengTeng was related to the proportion of GuiZhi in the drug pairs. Synchronously, the addition of sinomenine in different proportions also had some influence on the extraction of cinnamaldehyde in GuiZhi. Furthermore, the series of methods was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of chemical compounds in different samples of QingFengTeng-GuiZhi decoction.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Acroleína/análise , Acroleína/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Morfinanos/análise , Morfinanos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 1715-1722, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044030

RESUMO

Radix Astragali polysaccharide RAP has been reported to play a crucial role in hematopoiesis without a clear mechanism. In this study, RAP's effects to enhance the recovery of cyclophosphamide (Cy)-suppressed bone marrow and blood cells is confirmed in vivo first. Confocal micrographs demonstrated the interesting direct binding of FITC-RAP to hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in bone marrow. RAP protects both mice and human HSC in terms of cell morphology, proliferation, and apoptosis. RNA-sequencing and shRNA approaches revealed FOS to be a key regulator in RAP's protection. These evidences provide an unreported mechanism that RAP directly protects hematopoietic stem cells from chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression by increasing FOS expression.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Hematopoese , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/química , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Regulação para Cima
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 140: 111767, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycythemia vera (PV) is a refractory hematological disease that lack of effective therapy. Chinese traditional medicine Longchai Jiangxue formula (LCJX) has showed the powerful effects on PV. However, the active ingredients and mechanisms of this formula have not been elucidated. We explored the active ingredients and mechanisms of LCJX for treating PV. METHODS: The chemical constituents of LCJX were qualitatively analyzed by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS. On this basis, the TCMSP, ETCM, PubChem BioAssay and ChEMBL databases were searched to predict the potential targets of chemical components of LCJX. Then Genecards, GEO, DisGeNET, and OMIM databases were used to retrieve data of targets related to PV. Drug-disease-target network and protein-protein-interaction (PPI) network were built. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis were performed. Finally, Molecular docking, CCK-8 assay, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and western blot were processed so as to screen the active components related to PV and elucidate its mechanisms. RESULTS: A total of 84 compounds were identified from LCJX by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS. After removed duplicate items, there were 143 targets linked to both disease and drugs. Crucial genes, such as MTOR, HIF1A, JAK2, VEGFA, STAT3, AKT1, TERT, MAPK1, were shown in PPI network. GO enrichment indicated that oxidative stress process, tyrosine kinase activity and phosphatase binding function, and cell membrane structure were in reference to LCJX against PV. KEGG enrichment showed that JAK-STAT signaling pathway and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, were put in an important position of the treatment. Furthermore, Molecular docking, CCK-8 assay, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and western blot technique proved the therapeutic effect of Saikosaponin A, main ingredient of LCJX. CONCLUSION: This study, combined with UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS, network pharmacology and molecular biology, provides a reference for the identification of effective components, screening of quality markers and analysis of its action mechanism of LCJX.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Policitemia Vera/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Policitemia Vera/genética , Policitemia Vera/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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