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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3399-3405, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602901

RESUMO

Tripterygium wilfordii is widely used in the treatment of rheumatism with curative effect. However,its toxicity and adverse reactions,especially the hepatotoxicity,rank the first in the herbs induced liver injury,is the key factors hindering its clinical application. This paper reviewed the literatures related to the hepatotoxicity of T. wilfordii in recent 20 years,and summarized the characteristic of hepatotoxicity induced by T. wilfordii,the factors causing liver injury,the mechanism of toxicity,and the measures to reduce toxicity. In animal experiments,the T. wilfordii induced-hepatotoxicity in physiological state was more serious than pathological state. The T. wilfordii induced-hepatotoxicity is related to various toxic components contained in it,but alkaloids are the most toxic one.Overdose and cumulative overdose are the lead causing of hepatotoxicity induced by T. wilfordii. The theory of oxidative stress is still an important mechanism of T. wilfordii induced-hepatotoxicity,and Nrf2,as a key regulatory enzyme of oxidative stress,has become an important target for drugs to against T. wilfordii induced-hepatotoxicity. Mitochondrial autophagy and liver hypersensitivity are new mechanisms of liver injury induced by T. wilfordii. The measures such as dosage control,drug compatibility and dosage form variations can help to reduce the hepatotoxicity induced by T. wilfordii. This paper clarified the current situation and shortcomings of safety research on T. wilfordii,so as to propose new research strategies and provide ideas for rational evaluation of safety and clinical safe drug use of T. wilfordii.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Animais
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3406-3414, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602902

RESUMO

This paper summarizes the research progress of reproductive toxicity of Tripterygium wilfordii from 1979,and the toxicity characterization,damage mechanism,and attenuated measures are summarized. It was found that,the reproductive toxicity caused by T. wilfordii is mainly distributed on components of Tripterygium glycosides,triptolide,tripchlorolide,and clinically preparations,such as Leigongteng Tablets and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets. Adverse reactions to male reproductive system caused by Tripterygium preparations mainly include decreased sperm motility,oligospermia or spermatozoa,decreased fertility or infertility,etc. Long-term drug use may also lead to testicular atrophy and decreased sexual desire. Adverse reactions to women are mainly manifested as menstrual disorders,decreased menstrual volume or even amenorrhea,decreased sexual desire,infertility,etc. The reproductive toxicity of T. wilfordii is related to apoptosis of reproductive cells,disturbance of spermatogenesis or oogenesis,damage of testis and ovary in reproductive target tissues,and changes of internal environment in gonad tissues( hormones,hormone synthesis rate-limiting enzymes and energy metabolism). Drug compatibility,hormone replacement,medication duration and dosage form changes can help reduce the damage of T. wilfordii to the reproductive system. In addition,in view of the existing problems in the current study,the author proposes new directions in clinical studies,pharmacological metabolism mechanism,preparation quality standards and new therapeutic effects,etc.,to provide a basis for the safe and reasonable clinical application of T. wilfordii.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Genitália/efeitos dos fármacos , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3468-3477, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602911

RESUMO

Tripterygium wilfordii multiglycoside( GTW),an extract derived from T. wilfordii,has been used for rheumatoid arthritis and other immune diseases in China. However its potential hepatotoxicity has not been investigated completely. Firstly,the content of triptolid( TP) in GTW was 0. 008% confirmed by a LC method. Then after oral administration of GTW( 100,150 mg·kg-1) and TP( 12 µg·kg-1) in female Wistar rats for 24 h,it was found that 150 mg·kg-1 GTW showed more serious acute liver injury than 12 µg·kg-1 TP,with the significantly increased lever of serum ALT,AST,TBA,TBi L,TG and bile duct hyperplasia even hepatocyte apoptosis. The expression of mRNA and proteins of liver bile acid transporters such as BSEP,MRP2,NTCP and OATP were down-regulated significantly by GTW to inhibit bile acid excretion and absorption,resulting in cholestatic liver injury. Moreover,GTW was considered to be involved in hepatic oxidative stress injury,although it down-regulated SOD1 and GPX-1 mRNA expression without significant difference in MDA and GSH levels. In vitro,we found that TP was the main toxic component in GTW,which could inhibit cell viability up to 80% in Hep G2 and LO2 cells at the dose of 0. 1 µmol·L-1. Next a LC-MS/MS method was used to detect the concentration of triptolid in plasma from rats,interestingly,we found that the content of TP in GTW was always higher than in the same amount of TP,suggesting the other components in GTW may affect the TP metabolism. Finally,we screened the substrate of p-glycoprotein( p-gp) in Caco-2 cells treated with components except TP extrated from GTW,finding that wilforgine,wilforine and wilfordine was the substrate of p-gp. Thus,we speculated that wilforgine,wilforine and wilfordine may competitively inhibit the excretion of TP to bile through p-gp,leading to the enhanced hepatotoxity caused by GTW than the same amount of TP.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Diterpenos/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Fenantrenos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Cromatografia Líquida , Compostos de Epóxi/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3486-3493, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602913

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to observe the toxic effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets( TG) on the reproductive system of Ⅱ type collagen induced arthritis( CIA) male rats,and to explore the toxic mechanism preliminarily. Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group( Con),model group( CIA),Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets clinical equivalent dose groups of 1,2,4 times( 9,18,36 mg·kg-1),10 rats in each group,and were given by gavage once a day for 42 days after the first immunization.The organ indexes of uterine and ovarian were calculated on days 21 and 42. Histopathological and morphological changes of uterine and ovarian were observed under optical microscope. The concentration of estradiol( E2),follicle-stimulating hormone( FSH),luteinizing hormone( LH),17α-hydroxylase( CYP17 A1) and cytochrome P450 19 A1( CYP19 A1) in serum were detected by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 related proteins in the apoptosis pathway of uterus and ovary. The results showed that compared with the Con group,CIA group could reduce the number of uterine glands( P<0.05),but no significant changes were observed in other groups. Compared with the CIA group,there were no significant changes in the coefficients of uterus and ovary in the Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets groups. The number of uterine glands,total follicles in the ovary,mature follicles and corpus luteum,the distribution of blood vessels and mitochondria had a certain inhibitory trend,and also slightly increased the number of atresia follicles,but the histopathological quantitative indicators were not statistically different. Except that 2 times clinical dose of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets could significantly reduce the content of CYP19 A1( P<0. 05) after 42 d administration,there were no significant changes in serum estrogen E2,FSH,LH and estrogen synthesis key enzymes CYP17 A1 in each administration group. Medium and high doses of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets could increase the expression of apoptotic protein Bax in uterine and ovarian tissues( P<0. 05,P<0. 01),and all the administration groups could inhibit the expression of apoptotic inhibiting protein Bcl-2( P <0. 05,P<0. 01,P<0.001),42 d was more obvious than 21 d. In conclusion,4 times and less than 4 times Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets did not cause obvious toxicity and histopathological changes in the reproductive organs of CIA rats,but it could reduce the level of serum estrogen synthesis key enzyme CYP19 A1 and affect the content of apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2 in uterus and ovary tissues. The relevant mechanism needs further study.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Genitália Feminina/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/química , Animais , Apoptose , Aromatase/metabolismo , Artrite Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Feminino , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Comprimidos
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3494-3501, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602914

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to compare the performance of acute liver injury in mice induced by Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets from 6 different manufacturers,and to explore the toxicity mechanism from the perspective of oxidative stress and apoptosis preliminarily. Male or female mice were randomly divided into normal group,Zhejiang group,Hunan group,Hubei group,Shanghai group,Jiangsu group and Fujian group. Mice in Tripgerygium Glycosides Tablets groups were given 16 times the clinical equivalent dose( 300 mg·kg-1) Tripgerygium Glycosides Tablets by oral administration for one time,mice were executed in 24 h after lavaged.Then the visceral brain coefficient of the organ was calculated. Histopathological changes of liver were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Td T-mediated d UTP nick-end labeling was used to detect the apoptosis of the liver cells and the protein content of oxidative stress related factors in liver homogenate. Nuclear transcription factor E2-related factor( Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1( HO-1) as well as mitochondrial mediated apoptosis-related protein expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 in hepatic tissue were measured by Western blot.Within 24 hours of administration,6 male mice in Jiangsu group and 2 female mice in Zhejiang group were dying; compared with normal ones,liver coefficients of mice in Zhejiang,Shanghai,Jiangsu and Hunan groups were significantly increased,thymus coefficients in the first two groups were significantly reduced,as well as the lung coefficients of Fujian group mice,the rest was normal. In addition to Hubei group,serum AST,ALT or ALP levels of mice were increased,while TBi L were not being affected. Histopathological changes and apoptosis of liver cells were observed in all mice,and the degree of severity was ranked as Jiangsu,Zhejiang,Shanghai,Hunan,Hubei and Fujian group. All Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets increased the MDA and reduced the content of T-SOD,CAT or GSH in liver tissue while inhibited Nrf2,HO-1 and Bcl-2,increased the protein expression level of Bax( except Hunan group). Tripgerygium Glycosides Tablets from 6 manufacturers all resulted in liver function damage and liver histopathological changes,especially in Jiangsu,Hubei and Fujian,and the mechanism may related to inhibit Nrf2/HO-1 oxidative stress pathway and activate Bax/Bcl-2 apoptosis pathway to mediate lipid peroxidation and induce liver cell apoptosis. Triptolide A may be one of the main toxic components of Tripgerygium Glycosides Tablets that causing drug-induced liver injury. This study was conducted on normal mice with super dose medication,so the relevant results are for reference only.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose , Feminino , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Comprimidos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3502-3511, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602915

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to compare the properties of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets from dose-effect-toxicity on type Ⅱ collagen-induced arthritis( CIA) in rats. SD rats were randomly divided into eight groups,including normal group,model group,Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets groups( 1 times equivalent dose 0.009 g·kg-1,4 times equivalent dose 0.036 g·kg-1,16 times equivalent dose 0.144 g·kg-1),Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets groups( 1 times equivalent dose 0.007 5 mg·kg-1,4 times equivalent dose 0.030 mg·kg-1,16 times equivalent dose 0.120 mg·kg-1). Beginning on the first immunization,Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets administered intraperitoneally once a day. After the second immunization,the symptoms such as redness and swelling of joints were observed,and the clinical score and incidence of arthritis were evaluated. HE and Masson staining were used to examine the histopathological changes of joints. The expression level of anti-type Ⅱ collagen antibody Ig G in serum was detected by ELISA,routine testing of blood components,the concentration of ALP( alkaline phosphatase),ALT( alanine aminotransferase),AST( aspartate aminotransferase),GGT( gamma-glutamyltransferase),TBi L( total bilirubin),CRE( creatinine) and UREA( urea) in serum were detected by enzymatic assay. The rate of sperm deformity in the epididymis was evaluated under light microscope. The extent of damage to the testis and ovarian tissue was assessed by HE staining. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets attenuated the inflammation,redness,swelling and deformity of joints and reduced the clinical score and incidence of arthritis in CIA rats. Meanwhile,it also exhibited obvious reduction in all pathological features such as joint synovitis,pannus,cartilage erosion and bone destruction. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets reduced Ig G in a dose-dependent manner,and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets is better than Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets( P<0.05 or P<0.01). The high doses of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets could significantly increase the organ coefficient of liver and spleen and reduced RBC and HGB in CIA rats( P<0.01),and severity leading to death. Gastric mucosal injury and morphological changes of liver and kidney were not observed in CIA rats of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets treatment group. The 4 and 16 times doses of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets could significantly increase serum ALT,GGT and decrease CRE( P<0.05 or P<0.01). Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets could increase the sperm deformity rate and damage the testicular seminiferous tubules of CIA male rats. Severity increased with dose and time increasing. The effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets( 16 times) is more significant than Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets( 16 times). Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets significantly delayed onset of arthritis and inhibited the paw edema and arthritic score. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets also caused male reproductive damage,high dose affected hematopoiesis,and maximum dose leading to death. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets all depended on dose-effect-toxicity manner. Anti-arthritis effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets is better than Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets,but the toxicity of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets maximum dose is more obvious. The relevant conclusions of our study will provide experimental references for clinical rational use of drugs,and further clinical studies are needed to confirm our conclusions.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/administração & dosagem , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Comprimidos
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3512-3519, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602916

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to systematically evaluate the toxicity-reducing effect of Tripterygium-licorice in animal experiments,and also to provide evidence for basic research on the toxicity reduction of Tripterygium wilfordii. The PubMed,EMbase,Web of Science,CBM,CNKI and Wan Fang Databases from their establishment to August 31 th,2018 were searched. Two independent reviewers screened the papers,extracted the data,assessed the risk of bias using SYRCLE assessment tool and conducted Meta-analysis with Rev Man 5. 3 software. A total of 10 papers involving 31 studies were finally included,15 studies of which were used for Meta-analysis. Four studies were included for chronic hepatotoxicity animal model. In experimental group( 34 animals),Tripterygium was administered at dose of 0. 09-0. 1 mg·kg-1·d-1,and glycyrrhizic acid was administered at dose of 90-100 mg·kg-1,both for 2 weeks; in control group( 34 animals),glycyrrhizic acid was replaced with equal volume of normal saline. Eleven studies were included for acute hepatotoxicity animal model. In experimental group( 66 animals),glycyrrhizic acid was administered at dose of 75-480 mg·kg-1 for 7 days,then glycyrrhizic acid was stopped,and Tripterygium began to be administered at dose of 0. 6-1. 0 mg·kg-1 per 24 h or 48 h for a total of 1-2 times; in control group( 66 animals),glycyrrhizic acid was replaced with equal volume of normal saline or corresponding solvent. The results of Meta-analysis showed that in both chronic hepatotoxicity animal model and acute hepatotoxicity animal model,the transaminase levels in the experimental group were lower than those in the control group( P < 0. 05). Subgroup analysis of acute hepatotoxicity animal model showed that the transaminase levels in the experimental group were lower than those in the control group for every subgroup except " glycyrrhizic acid 75 mg·kg-1" subgroup. However,in terms of the mean difference( MD) and confidence interval( CI),there was no significant difference in transaminase decline between each subgroup. Low dose of glycyrrhizic acid( 90-100 mg·kg-1) has a toxicity-reduction effect on chronic hepatotoxicity induced by tripterygium( 0. 09-0. 10 mg·kg-1). Middle and high doses of glycyrrhizic acid( 120-480 mg·kg-1) have a toxicity-reduction effect on acute hepatotoxicity induced by tripterygium( 0. 6-1. 0 mg·kg-1),but with no significant dose-effect relationship.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Ácido Glicirrízico/administração & dosagem , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Glycyrrhiza , Tripterygium/química
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3695-3704, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602941

RESUMO

Aconitums,represented by Aconite Radix,Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Aconiti Kusnezoffh Folium,is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine with a long medicinal history in China. They possess the significant toxicity and therapeutic effects simultaneously. Their potent effects of rescuing from dying,curing rheumatism,anti-inflammation,and analgesia make Aconitums highly regarded by physicians and pharmacists of various dynasties. However,countless poisoning cases caused by an irrational use of Aconitums were reported. In case of improper application and exceeding the therapeutic window,the acute cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity would be caused,seriously threatening health and even life of the users. Therefore,the clinical application of Aconitums is limited to some extent. To avoid its toxicity and ensure the safety of medicinal use,Aconitums is usually used in a form of its processed products instead of the crude herbs,or combined with some other traditional Chinese medicines in a normal prescription. A proper processing and compatibility method can detoxicate its severe toxicity,reduce the adverse reactions,and also significantly broaden the indications and application range of Aconitums. This provides a guarantee for the secondary exploitation and utilization of Aconitums. In this paper,the traditional processing methods of Aconitums,along with the modern advancement were reviewed,and the mechanisms of detoxification by processing and compatibility were also illuminated. The physical detoxification mode and chemical detoxification mode were found as two main detoxification ways for Aconitums. In particular,the detoxification by hydrolysis,ion-pair,and saponification were three main means. The mechanisms illustrated in this paper can be a reference to the development of modern processing method and a guidance for appropriate use of Aconitums in clinical application.


Assuntos
Aconitum/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Aconitum/toxicidade , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3763-3772, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602951

RESUMO

The detection of drug-induced anaphylactoid reactions remains a global challenge,still lacking mature and reliable animal models or test methods. Therefore,the purpose of this paper is to explore and establish the test methods and evaluation standards for anaphylactoid reactions that apply to injection drugs. Based on the anaphylactoid reaction symptoms of mice induced by intravenous injection drugs C48/40 and Tween 80,a list of systemic anaphylactoid reaction symptoms in mice was sorted out and an evaluation standard of anaphylactoid reactions symptoms was established by applying symptom intensity coefficient K( that can represent these verity of anaphylactoid reaction symptoms) and its calculation formula Accordingly,histamine,tryptase,and Ig E were selected as blood indicators of anaphylactoid reactions,so that a test method combining symptoms evaluation and blood makers detection was established.This test method could be used to evaluate the characteristics of anaphylactoid reactions: coefficient K,blood histamine levels were highly and positively correlated with C48/80 and Tween 80 dose; The log value of histamine was highly and positively correlated with K; tryptase level may rise,or remain steady,or drop,possibly associated with the characteristics of the tested object and time for blood taking; and Ig E level would drop or remain steady,but it would not rise,which can be clearly distinguished from type I allergic reactions. On this basis,tiohexol,iopromide,paclitaxel,Xuesaitong Injection,Shuanghuanglian Injection and Shengmai Injection were used to investigate the applicability. The testing results showed a high degree of consistency with the actual clinical situation. The results suggest that the method of systemic anaphylaxis test in mice has high sensitivity,specificity and good consistency with clinical practice.It is suggested to be further validated and popularized.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/induzido quimicamente , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Histamina/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Injeções Intravenosas , Camundongos , Choque/induzido quimicamente , Choque/diagnóstico , Testes de Toxicidade , Triptases/sangue
10.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 166, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the pharmaceutical safety of Myelophil, an ethanol extract of a mixture of Astragali Radix and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix, using both acute and repeated toxicological studies. METHODS: A total of 40 beagle dogs (20 each male and female) were fed doses up to 5,000 mg/kg for the acute study and up to 1,250 mg/kg for the 13-week repeated dose toxicological study. Adverse effects were examined intensively by comparing the differences between normal and drug-administered groups using clinical signs, autopsies, histopathological findings, hematology, urinalysis, and biochemical analysis. RESULTS: No mortality or drug-related clinical signs were observed in the Myelophil-treated groups, except for vomiting due to an excessive dose (5,000 mg/kg). Likewise, in the repeated toxicity test, compound-colored stools in the Myelophil-treated groups and soft stools in all groups, including the control, were observed. No drug-related abnormalities were found in the histopathology, hematology, urinalysis, and biochemical analyses for any doses of Myelophil. CONCLUSION: These results support the safety of Myelophil with a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 1250 mg/kg in beagle dogs, which corresponds to a human equivalent dose (HED) of 694 g/kg.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
11.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 172: 149-166, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048141

RESUMO

Dianthrone derivatives are minor constituents of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PM). These derivatives are potential hepatotoxic components in PM. Fraction D6 contains many dianthrone derivatives and was successfully enriched using an efficient three-step approach. An effective and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique coupled with ultraviolet detection (UV) and a linear ion trap FT-ICR hybrid mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV/LTQ-FT-ICR-MS) method were successfully developed to separate and identify the dianthrones of the fraction D6. The characteristic diagnostic fragment ions and characteristic fragmentation pathway of the seven dianthrone standards, namely, Polygonumnolide B1 (S1), Polygonumnolide C3 (S2), Polygonumnolide C2 (S3), Polygonumnolide E (S4), Polygonumnolide A1 (S5), Polygonumnolide A2 (S6) and cis-emodin dianthrones (S7), were compared with unknown compounds in fraction D6, and 45 dianthrone derivatives were characterized or tentatively identified. Of these derivatives, 32 new dianthrone derivatives were tentatively characterized in PM. Therefore, LTQ-FT-ICR-MS combined with a selective enrichment method provided a powerful means for analyzing dianthrone derivatives. This study provides a meaningful basis for correcting some mistakes in previous studies, as well as further quality control and pharmacological and toxicological research.


Assuntos
Antracenos/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Fallopia multiflora/química , Glicosídeos/análise , Antracenos/toxicidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Fallopia multiflora/toxicidade , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/toxicidade , Controle de Qualidade
12.
Biochimie ; 162: 176-184, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051209

RESUMO

Palmatine is a natural isoquinoline alkaloid and has been widely used in pharmaceutical field. The purpose of this review is to provide the latest and comprehensive information on the pharmacology, toxicity and pharmacokinetics of palmatine in the past, to explore the therapeutic potential of this compound and look for ways to reduce toxicity. Information on palmatine was collected from the internet database PubMed, Elsevier, ResearchGate, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library and Europe PMC using a combination of keywords including "pharmacology", "toxicology", "pharmacokinetics". All studies of this genus were included in this review until March 2019. Palmatine has a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects, including anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotection, anti-bacterial, anti-viral and regulating blood lipids. However, palmatine has obvious DNA toxicity, and has a complex effect on metabolic enzymes in the liver. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that glucuronidation and sulfation are the main metabolic pathways of palmatine. Palmatine can be used in many diseases. Future research directions include: how the concentration of palmatine affects pharmacological effects and toxicity; the mechanism of synergy between palmatine and other protoberberine alkaloid; Structural modification of palmatine is one of the key methods to enhance pharmacological activity and reduce activity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides de Berberina , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Alcaloides de Berberina/farmacocinética , Alcaloides de Berberina/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Berberina/toxicidade , Células Cultivadas , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Humanos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Coelhos , Ratos
13.
Am J Chin Med ; 47(4): 709-726, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091974

RESUMO

Pancreatic fibrosis is the main pathologic characteristic in chronic pancreatitis (CP), a common disease that arises from surgery. Pancreatitis is caused by various etiologies, but the mechanism of fibrosis is not completely understood. Existing clinical approaches mainly focus on mitigating the symptoms and therefore do not cure the phenomena. In recent years, there has been a heightened interest in the use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHMs) in the prevention and cure of CP as expressed by increasing numbers of clinical and experimental research. Despite early cell culture and animal models, CHMs are able to interact with plenty of molecular targets involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic fibrosis mostly via the TGF- ß /Smads pathway; however, integrated and up-to-date communication in this domain is unavailable. This review focuses on the research progress of CHMs against pancreatic fibrosis due to CP in vitro and in vivo and summarizes the potential mechanisms. We also outlined the toxicology of some CHMs for fibrosis treatment in order to provide a fuller understanding of drug safety. This review may provide reference for further innovative drug research and the future development of treatments for CP with pancreatic fibrosis.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Pâncreas/patologia , Pancreatite Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Pancreatite Crônica/patologia , Animais , Antraquinonas , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Células Cultivadas , Cumarínicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Composição de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Emodina , Fibrose , Humanos , Pancreatite Crônica/etiologia , Resveratrol , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Smad , Taurina , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(8): 1710-1714, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090339

RESUMO

In recent years,the safety of " toxic" traditional Chinese medicine has received great attention. Similarly,the safety of " toxic" Chinese medicines for external use should not be ignored. In this paper,the adverse reactions of toxic Chinese medicine for external use were systematically studied; the causes for adverse reactions were analyzed; and the key problems on the external use of toxic Chinese medicine in modern clinical practice were put forward. For example,usage dosage(time,area),specific efficacy of external use,early warning index of toxicity,toxic dose,adverse effects,toxic symptoms and corresponding treatment measures all had no reference basis,lacking a systematic toxicity evaluation medication criteria for clinical external use of toxic Chinese medicine. Attention shall be paid to the toxicity of toxic Chinese medicine for external use,and the theory of toxicity evaluation should be established for the external use of " toxic" traditional Chinese medicine under specific conditions. The early warning mechanism for toxic and adverse effects were clarified,and relevant early warning sensitive indicators applicable to clinical use were established in this study to control its risk factors. The study on the mechanism of pharmacodynamics and toxicology of " toxic" traditional Chinese medicine for external use was strengthened to clarify the usage and specific effects of external use. On the basis of this,the study of synergism and reduction of toxicity was carried out to maximize the efficacy of external use of traditional Chinese medicine under specific conditions. A toxicity standard of " toxic" Chinese medicines for external use was put forward,which was of great significance to guide clinical safety,rationality,effectiveness as well as the research and development of new dosage forms for external use of traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pesquisa
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(5): 1010-1018, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989863

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to provide reference for the clinical safety use of aconite through the retrieval of literature about adverse reactions,predict its mechanism of cardiac toxicity by using network pharmacology,and provide ideas for the studies on toxicity mechanism of toxic Chinese medicines. The papers on adverse reactions of aconite were searched to established a database and summarize the adverse reactions of aconite. The results of literature review showed that the main causes for adverse reactions in clinical use of aconite included overdose use,short cooking time,consumption of medicinal liquor/medicinal diet,external use and misuse and so on. Therefore,the dosage of aconite should be strictly followed in clinical application,and the decoction method should be notified to the patients in detail to avoid taking the medicinal liquor and diet containing aconite,so as to prevent the occurrence of adverse reactions as much as possible,and make the best use of aconite in clinical application in avoid its toxicity. At the same time,based on the results of literature review,the network construction and visual analysis of cardio toxicity produced by aconite were carried out by using the network pharmacology technologies. RESULTS: showed that aconite can be applied to eight biological processes such as action potential of cardiac myocytes,cardiac conduction-related cell signal transduction,cardiac myocytes contraction,action potential involved in cardiac myocytes contraction,and signal transduction from atrial myocardial cells to atrioventricular node cells,and three target genes(SCN5 A,GJA1,GJA5). It was predicted that Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata may influence cardiomyocyte depolarization,intercellular information transmission and material exchange by acting on three target genes(SCN5 A,GJA1,GJA5) and regulating the sodium channel protein and the expression of gap junction protein,thus affecting the heart rhythm as well as its structure and function and causing cardiac toxicity.


Assuntos
Aconitum/química , Cardiotoxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Aconitum/toxicidade , Humanos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/toxicidade
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 239: 111910, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026554

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Xian-Ling-Gu-Bao (XLGB) Fufang is an herbal formula that has been used in clinical settings to treat osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, aseptic bone necrosis, and climacteric syndrome. Despite its uses, XLGB treatment has been linked to potential liver injury. To date, there is a lack of clear demonstration of such toxicity in animal models. AIM OF THE STUDY: As animal models fail to reproduce the XLGB hepatotoxicity reported in humans, because human hepatocytes are clearly more sensitive to XLGB, this study was designed to investigate a more reliable animal model of such toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We randomized rats into five groups, as follows: CON (control), XLGB, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), L-XLGB/LPS (XLGB, 0.125 g/kg; LPS, 0.1 mg/kg), and XLGB/LPS (XLGB, 1.25 g/kg; LPS, 0.1 mg/kg). These groups were treated with 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na), XLGB suspension, normal saline, or LPS. The first administration of XLGB [0.125 g/kg or 1.25 g/kg, by mouth (PO)] or its solvent (0.5% CMC-Na) was delivered, and then food was removed. Twelve hours after the first administration of XLGB, rats received LPS [0.1 mg/kg, intravenously (IV)] or saline control. After 30 min, a second administration of XLGB (0.125 g/kg or 1.25 g/kg, PO) or solvent was administered. The rats were anesthetized at 12 h or 24 h following the second administration of XLGB. Liver function was evaluated by measuring liver weight, liver microscopy, serum biochemistry and plasma microRNA-122 (miR-122). The plasma levels of 27 cytokines were measured to evaluate inflammation. Moreover, the expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), nicotinic adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at protein levels were observed; immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to confirmed the hepatotoxicity of XLGB. RESULTS: Hepatotoxicity in male rats with moderate inflammation induced by XLGB was indicated by liver histopathology, serum biochemical analysis, serum miR-122 levels, and immunofluorescent assessments. We observed significant increases in liver weight and liver indexes in male rats with moderate inflammation in response to XLGB. Histopathological assessment further showed that extensive hepatocellular necrosis and inflammatory infiltration were evident in rats co-treated with XLGB/LPS. The levels of serum transaminases [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)], total bilirubin (TBIL) and triglyceride (TG), which are markers of liver function, were also significantly increased by XLGB/LPS treatment. Similarly, miR-122 was significantly elevated in XLGB/LPS treated rats relative to other groups. An immunofluorescent assessment showed extensive apoptosis in hepatocytes from these co-treated rats. What is more, XLGB can dose-dependently induce liver injury in male rats with moderate inflammation. Hepatic CYP2E1, neutrophil chemotactic factor (NCF-1), iNOS, and NOX-2 (an NADPH oxidase subunit) levels were increased in response to XLGB treatment, and staining for DMPO nitrone adducts further showed elevated oxidative stress level in XLGB/LPS-treated rats relative to the other experimental groups. CONCLUSION: LPS and XLGB co-treatment in rats led to marked hepatotoxicity. This toxicity was associated with disrupted lipid metabolism, extensive liver necrosis and inflammatory infiltration, apoptosis, and expression of oxidative stress-related proteins. These results demonstrate a valuable model for the study of iDILI in the context of XLGB treatment, and further provide insights into the potential mechanisms by which XLGB may induce hepatotoxicity in humans.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Citocinas/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 238: 111852, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954616

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Yongdamsagan-tang, a traditional herbal formula, is used widely for the treatment of inflammatory and viral diseases. However, the safety of Yongdamsagan-tang has not been established. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the subacute toxicity of Yongdamsagan-tang water extract (YSTE) in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the subacute toxicity of YSTE in male and female Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats (n = 5 per group). Rats were treated with YSTE at doses of 0, 1000, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg administered once a day by oral gavage for 4 weeks. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in mortality, body weight, food intake, serum biochemistry, or results of hematology and urinalysis after YSTE administration. However, all rats treated with 5000 mg/kg/day YSTE exhibited excessive salivation and discolored urine. Necropsy findings showed discoloration in the liver of both male (n = 1) and female (n = 3) rats treated with 5000 mg/kg/day YSTE, and an increase in the relative weights of kidney and liver was also found in male rats treated with 5000 mg/kg/day. In addition, decreases in serum creatinine, total bilirubin, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase were observed in male rats treated with 2000 or 5000 mg/kg/day YSTE. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities in some rats are considered to be independent of YSTE toxicity. Therefore, the results suggest that oral administration of YSTE in rats for 4 weeks is safe at doses of up to 5000 mg/kg/day.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Bilirrubina/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 236: 136-146, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851368

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Licorice and Yuanhua are both famous herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and their combination is used by some TCM doctors to treat renal and gastrointestinal diseases as well as tumors. On the other hand, the compatibility theory of TCM warns that toxic effects might be triggered by Licorice-Yuanhua combination. The usability of Licorice-Yuanhua combination has long been controversial due to lack of evidence and mechanism illustration. Colonic hydrogen sulfide (H2S) metabolism imbalance is closely related with colonic inflammation, tumor promotion and many other diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was carried out to investigate if licorice-Yuanhua combination could induce potential toxic effects in the aspect of colonic H2S metabolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Normal mice were treated with high or low doses of Licorice, Yuanhua and Licorice-Yuanhua combination. Fecal H2S concentration was measured by colorimetric method, colon sulfomucin production was compared through tissue staining, fecal microbiota and microbial metagenomes were analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing and data mining. RESULTS: Data shows that although licorice cannot change colonic H2S concentration, it can exacerbate Yuanhua induced H2S rising. Licorice or Yuanhua increases colon sulfomucin production, and their combination further enhances this effect. 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that licorice or Yuanhua has little influence on gut microbiota, however, licorice-Yuanhua combination can impact gut microbiota structural balance and increase the abundance of Desulfovibrio genus and other related genera. Moreover, the combination extensively changes microbial metagenomes, influencing 1172 genes that cannot be changed by individual licorice or Yuanhua. By searching in KEGG database, ten genes are annotated with H2S producing gene, and these genes are remarkably increased by licorice-Yuanhua combination, more significantly than licorice or Yuanhua. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidences and mechanisms for licorice induced risks, which is related with colonic H2S metabolism disturbance, gut microbiota and microbial metagenomes. More risk assessment should be evaluated when licorice was used in combination with foods, herbs or drugs. The study provides an example where healthy risks can be induced by combination of food additive, herbs or drugs, through regulating gut microbiota and its metagenomes.


Assuntos
Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Daphne/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glycyrrhiza/química , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Desulfovibrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Desulfovibrio/genética , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/química , Flores/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Metagenoma/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Raízes de Plantas/química
19.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(8): 3317-3326, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895364

RESUMO

A vast array of plant-based compounds has enriched red biotechnology to serve the human health and food. A peculiar medicinal plant which was an element of traditional Chinese medicine for centuries as a liver and kidney tonic, for life longevity and hair blackening, is Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PM) which is popularly known as "He shou wu" or "Fo-ti" and is rich in chemical components like stilbenes, quinones, and flavonoids which have been used as anti-aging, anti-alopecia, anti-cancer, anti-oxidative, anti-bacterial, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-atherosclerosis, and immunomodulating and hepatoprotective agents in the modern medicine. The health benefits from PM are attained since long through commercial products such as PM root powder, extract, capsules, tincture, shampoo, and body sprays in the market. Currently, the production of these pharmaceuticals and functional foods possessing stilbenes, quinones, and flavonoids is through cell and organ cultures to meet the commercial demand. However, hepatotoxic effects of PM-based products are the stumbling blocks for its long-term usage. The current review encompasses a comprehensive account of bioactive compounds of PM roots, their biological activities as well as efficacy and toxicity issues of PM ingredients and future perspectives.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fallopia multiflora/química , Biotecnologia/tendências , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Fallopia multiflora/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/toxicidade , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Estrutura Molecular , Raízes de Plantas/química , Quinonas/química , Quinonas/metabolismo , Quinonas/farmacologia , Quinonas/toxicidade , Estilbenos/química , Estilbenos/metabolismo , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Estilbenos/toxicidade
20.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(3): 161-186, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910054

RESUMO

Chimonanthus plants widely distributed in southern area of China, which have a long history of edibles and medicine. Phytochemical investigations have shown that Chimonanthus produced 143 non-volatile constituents, including alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and others, which exhibit significant anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and other biological activities. On the basis of systematic reviewing of literatures, this article overviews the non-volatile constituents and pharmacology of Chimonanthus from domestic and foreign over the last 30 years (until June 2018), and may provide a useful reference for the further development of Chimonanthus.


Assuntos
Calycanthaceae/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Fitoterapia
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