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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27143, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477169

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Limited evidence exists regarding the relationships between adherence, as defined in Pharmacy Quality Alliance (PQA) medication adherence measures, health care utilization, and economic outcomes. PQA adherence measures for hypertension, cholesterol, and diabetes are of particular interest given their use in Medicare Star Ratings to evaluate health plan performance.The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between adherence and utilization and cost among Medicare Supplemental beneficiaries included in the aforementioned PQA measures over a 1-year period.Retrospective cohort study.Three cohorts (hypertension, cholesterol, and diabetes) of eligible individuals from the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Research Databases (2009-2015) were used to assess associations between adherence and health care expenditure and utilization for Medicare Supplemental beneficiaries.Generalized linear models with log link and negative binomial (utilization) or gamma (expenditure) distributions assessed relationships between adherence (≥80% proportion of days covered) and health care utilization and expenditure (in 2015 US dollars) while adjusting for confounding variables. Beta coefficients were used to compute cost ratios and rate ratios.Adherence for all 3 disease cohorts was associated with lower outpatient and inpatient visits. During the 1-year study period, adherence was associated with lower outpatient, inpatient, and total expenditures across the cohorts, ranging from 9% lower outpatient costs (diabetes cohort) to 41.9% lower inpatient costs (hypertension cohort). Savings of up to $324.53 per member per month in total expenditure were observed for the hypertension cohort.Our findings indicate adherence is associated with lower health care utilization and expenditures within 1 year.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/economia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/economia , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Adesão à Medicação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
2.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 344, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to disruptions in elective and outpatient procedures. Guidance from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services provided a framework for gradual reopening of outpatient clinical operations. As the infrastructure to restart endoscopy has been more clearly described, patient concerns regarding viral transmission during the procedure have been identified. Moreover, the efficacy of the measures in preventing transmission have not been clearly delineated. METHODS: We identified patients with pandemic-related procedure cancellations from 3/16/2020 to 4/20/2020. Patients were stratified into tier groups (1-4) by urgency. Procedures were performed using our hospital risk mitigation strategies to minimize transmission risk. Patients who subsequently developed symptoms or tested for COVID-19 were recorded. RESULTS: Among patients requiring emergent procedures, 57.14% could be scheduled at their originally intended interval. COVID-19 concerns represented the most common rescheduling barrier. No patients who underwent post-procedure testing were positive for COVID-19. No cases of endoscopy staff transmission were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Non-COVID-19 related patient care during the pandemic is a challenging process that evolved with the spread of infection, requiring dynamic monitoring and protocol optimization. We describe our successful model for reopening endoscopy suites using a tier-based system for safe reintroduction of elective procedures while minimizing transmission to patients and staff. Important barriers included financial and transmission concerns that need to be addressed to enable the return to pre-pandemic utilization of elective endoscopic procedures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , Endoscopia , Humanos , Medicare , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
3.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(9): 1457-1464, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495730

RESUMO

Concerns about avoidance or delays in seeking emergency care during the COVID-19 pandemic are widespread, but national data on emergency department (ED) visits and subsequent rates of hospitalization and outcomes are lacking. Using data on all traditional Medicare beneficiaries in the US from October 1, 2018, to September 30, 2020, we examined trends in ED visits and rates of hospitalization and thirty-day mortality conditional on an ED visit for non-COVID-19 conditions during several stages of the pandemic and for areas that were considered COVID-19 hot spots versus those that were not. We found reductions in ED visits that were largest by the first week of April 2020 (52 percent relative decrease), with volume recovering somewhat by mid-June (25 percent relative decrease). These reductions were of similar magnitude in counties that were and were not designated as COVID-19 hot spots. There was an early increase in hospitalizations and in the relative risk for thirty-day mortality, starting with the first surge of the pandemic, peaking at just over a 2-percentage-point increase. These results suggest that patients were presenting with more serious illness, perhaps related to delays in seeking care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Medicare , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(19): 1302-1314, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517399

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of the Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD). OBJECTIVE: To determine causes of and independent risk factors for 30- and 90-day readmission in a cohort of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Identifying populations at high-risk of 30-day readmission is a priority in healthcare reform so as to reduce cost and patient morbidity. However, among patients undergoing ACDF, nationally-representative data have been limited, and have seldom described 90-day readmissions, early reoperation, or socioeconomic influences. METHODS: We queried the NRD, which longitudinally tracks 49.3% of hospitalizations, for all adult patients undergoing ACDF. We calculated the rates of, and determined reasons for, readmission and reoperation at 30 and 90 days, and determined risk factors for readmission at each timepoint. RESULTS: We identified 50,126 patients between January and September 2014. Of these, 2294 (4.6%) and 4152 (8.3%) were readmitted within 30 and 90 days of discharge, respectively, and were most commonly readmitted for infections, medical complications, and dysphagia. The characteristics most strongly associated with readmission were Medicare or Medicaid insurance, length of stay greater than or equal to 4 days, three or more comorbidities, and non-routine discharge, whereas surgical factors (e.g., greater number of vertebrae fused) were more modest. By 30 and 90 days, 8.2% and 11.7% of readmitted patients underwent an additional spinal procedure, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our analysis uses the NRD to thoroughly characterize readmission in the general ACDF population. Readmissions are often delayed (after 30 days), strongly associated with insurance status, and many result in reoperation. Our results are crucial for risk-stratifying future ACDF patients and developing interventions to reduce readmission.Level of Evidence: 3.


Assuntos
Readmissão do Paciente , Fusão Vertebral , Adulto , Idoso , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Discotomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Medicare , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
J Opioid Manag ; 17(4): 343-352, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533829

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hospital resource utilization is reported to be higher among patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) compared with those without OUD at national and local levels. However, utilization of healthcare services associated with OUD in North Carolina (NC) has not been adequately characterized. We describe inpatient hospital resource utilization among adults with an OUD-diagnosed in NC and the United States (US). We hypothesize that hospitalized adults with OUD will have longer hospital stays, more frequent use of emergency services, a higher number of diagnoses, and comparable hospital charges compared with hospitalized adults without OUD. DESIGN: A retrospective cross-sectional study analyzing hospital discharge abstracts included in the 2016 NC State Inpatient Databases (SIDs) and the 2016 National Inpatient Sample (NIS). OUD and non-OUD groups were compared using the Student's t-test for continuous variables and the χ2 test for categorical variables. PARTICIPANTS: Adults 18 years and older from SID (n = 25,871) and NIS (n = 148,255) databases were included in the analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Length of stay (LOS), use of emergency services, discharge diagnosis, and hospital charge among hospitalized adults with OUD. RESULTS: In NC, patients with OUD were younger (age 18-35), more likely to be white, and more likely to be hospitalized in areas with the lowest median income compared with patients without OUD. Compared to the US, twice as many NC OUD patients were self-payers. Hispanic patients, Medicare beneficiaries, and those in the highest income areas experienced the longest LOS and highest hospital charge. Patients with OUD were more likely to have five or more diagnoses and those with five or more diagnoses had higher LOS and hospital charges. OUD hospitalizations were also associated with more frequent use of emergency services. The most common co-occurring diagnoses were psychoses, substance abuse or dependence, and septicemia or severe sepsis. CONCLUSION: High percentages of self-payers and lower-income OUD patients indicate the need for Medicaid eligibility outreach programs in NC. High LOS and hospital charges among Hispanic, Medicare-covered, and high-income OUD patients call for a more detailed examination to identify underlying causes of disproportionate resource utilization in NC hospitals.


Assuntos
Medicare , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Hospitalização , Humanos , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
AMIA Annu Symp Proc ; 2021: 644-652, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457180

RESUMO

Medicaid is a significant health insurance plan providing healthcare coverage to up to a third of the population of the United Sates. We describe two different formats of Medicaid data within Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Virtual Research Data Center. We analyze record length, age and enrollment justification among patients for both data formats. As of December 2016, the total size of Medicaid population available from CMS is 92,953,389; 45% of patients are aged 0 to 18, 26.6% are aged 19-35 and 23.2% are aged 36-64. In terms of Medicaid eligibility, 35.6% qualify due to (child) age and 26.8% qualify due to income. We also compare the volume of Medicaid to Medicare for year 2016. We conclude that Medicaid data includes patients with significant record lengths and relatively well documented enrollment justification, which are high value assets for data reuse researchers that are willing to balance known data limitations with careful analysis design and interpretation.


Assuntos
Medicaid , Medicare , Adulto , Idoso , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. , Criança , Definição da Elegibilidade , Humanos , Renda , Cobertura do Seguro , Estados Unidos
8.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(18): 1264-1270, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435990

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand the potential correlation of the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey response time on reported satisfaction following spine surgery hospitalization. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: With increasing emphasis on patient satisfaction metrics, such as HCAHPS, hospital reputations, and reimbursements are being affected by the results of such surveys. HCAHPS is a 32-question survey about patient experience in the hospital and after discharge. METHODS: HCAHPS surveys were routinely sent to all patients admitted after spine surgery at an academic medical center between January 2013 and August 2017. Survey data, survey return time, patient demographics, and 30-day postoperative outcomes were gathered for all spine surgery patients who returned the survey. Multivariate regression analysis controlling for age, sex, BMI, functional status, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, education, and race was used to determine whether there were differences in rates of "Top Box" response between different time ranges of survey return. RESULTS: In total, 1495 consecutive spinal surgery patients who returned their HCAHPS survey were identified. Of these, 31.51% returned their surveys within 21 days, 48.09% returned them between 22 to 42 days, 13.58% returned them between 43 to 64 days, and 6.82% returned them ≥65 days after distribution. Multivariate regression demonstrated no statistical differences in reported satisfaction between surveys returned between days 0 to 21 and days 22 to 42. However, there were significantly lower scores reported by surveys returned on days 43 to 64 and 65 plus days. CONCLUSION: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services only considers HCAHPS surveys returned within the first 42 days. It appears that the survey responses are similar over this time period. Beyond this time, lower scores are reported. Further attention to this less satisfied, later HCAHPS survey returning group seems warranted.Level of Evidence: 2.


Assuntos
Satisfação do Paciente , Satisfação Pessoal , Idoso , Humanos , Medicare , Tempo de Reação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 874, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has found that social risk factors are associated with an increased risk of 30-day readmission. We aimed to assess the association of 5 social risk factors (living alone, lack of social support, marginal housing, substance abuse, and low income) with 30-day Heart Failure (HF) hospital readmissions within the Veterans Health Affairs (VA) and the impact of their inclusion on hospital readmission model performance. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using chart review and VA and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) administrative data from a random sample of 1,500 elderly (≥ 65 years) Veterans hospitalized for HF in 2012. Using logistic regression, we examined whether any of the social risk factors were associated with 30-day readmission after adjusting for age alone and clinical variables used by CMS in its 30-day risk stratified readmission model. The impact of these five social risk factors on readmission model performance was assessed by comparing c-statistics, likelihood ratio tests, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic. RESULTS: The prevalence varied among the 5 risk factors; low income (47 % vs. 47 %), lives alone (18 % vs. 19 %), substance abuse (14 % vs. 16 %), lacks social support (2 % vs. <1 %), and marginal housing (< 1 % vs. 3 %) among readmitted and non-readmitted patients, respectively. Controlling for clinical factors contained in CMS readmission models, a lack of social support was found to be associated with an increased risk of 30-day readmission (OR 4.8, 95 %CI 1.35-17.88), while marginal housing was noted to decrease readmission risk (OR 0.21, 95 %CI 0.03-0.87). Living alone (OR: 0.9, 95 %CI 0.64-1.26), substance abuse (OR 0.91, 95 %CI 0.67-1.22), and having low income (OR 1.01, 95 %CI 0.77-1.31) had no association with HF readmissions. Adding the five social risk factors to a CMS-based model (age and comorbid conditions; c-statistic 0.62) did not improve model performance (c-statistic: 0.62). CONCLUSIONS: While a lack of social support was associated with 30-day readmission in the VA, its prevalence was low. Moreover, the inclusion of some social risk factors did not improve readmission model performance. In an integrated healthcare system like the VA, social risk factors may have a limited effect on 30-day readmission outcomes.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Pneumonia , Idoso , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Medicare , Readmissão do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde dos Veteranos
10.
Sr Care Pharm ; 36(9): 433-438, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452652

RESUMO

Objective To evaluate the impact of opioid safety edits on opioid utilization. Design Retrospective review. Setting Senior Care Action Network (SCAN) Health Plan, a Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug Plan. Patients, Participants The opioid safety edits reviewed included edits for the following: initial opioid fill more than 7 days' supply (DS), cumulative opioid doses 90 or greater and 240 or greater morphine milligram equivalent (MME), concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine (COB) use. Members with prescription drug claims meeting these criteria pre- and postedit implementation and those with prescription drug claim rejections resulting from the edits were included in the review. Results 15,232 members experienced claim rejections resulting from the edits. Comparison of utilization pre and postedit implementation revealed the following results (P < 0.001): 41% decrease in the proportion of members with an initial opioid fill for more than 7 DS; 18% decrease in the proportion of members on opioid doses 90 MME or more; 26% decrease in the proportion of members on opioid doses 240 MME or more; 18% decrease in the proportion of members with COB. Conclusion Opioid safety edits are an effective way to combat overuse and misuse. They serve as a means for increasing collaboration between plans, prescribers, pharmacists, and members which improves care coordination, reduces adverse risks, and helps keep members safe.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Medicare , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
JAMA ; 326(7): 628-636, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402828

RESUMO

Importance: There are racial inequities in health care access and quality in the United States. It is unknown whether such differences for racial and ethnic minority beneficiaries differ between Medicare Advantage and traditional Medicare or whether access and quality are better for minority beneficiaries in 1 of the 2 programs. Objective: To compare differences in rates of enrollment, ambulatory care access, and ambulatory care quality by race and ethnicity in Medicare Advantage vs traditional Medicare. Design, Setting, and Participants: Exploratory observational cohort study of a nationally representative sample of 45 833 person-years (26 887 persons) in the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey from 2015 to 2018, comparing differences in program enrollment and measures of access and quality by race and ethnicity. Exposures: Minority race and ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, Native American, or Asian/Pacific Islander) vs White or multiracial; Medicare Advantage vs traditional Medicare enrollment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Six patient-reported measures of ambulatory care access (whether a beneficiary had a usual source of care in the past year, had a primary care clinician usual source of care, or had a specialist visit) and quality (influenza vaccination, pneumonia vaccination, and colon cancer screening). Results: The final sample included 6023 persons (mean age, 68.9 [SD, 12.6] years; 57.3% women) from minority groups and 20 864 persons (mean age, 71.9 [SD, 10.8] years; 54.9% women) from White or multiracial groups, who accounted for 9816 and 36 017 person-years, respectively. Comparing Medicare Advantage vs traditional Medicare among minority beneficiaries, those in Medicare Advantage had significantly better rates of access to a primary care clinician usual source of care (79.1% vs 72.5%; adjusted marginal difference, 4.0%; 95% CI, 1.0%-6.9%), influenza vaccinations (67.3% vs 63.0%; adjusted marginal difference, 5.2%; 95% CI, 1.9%-8.5%), pneumonia vaccinations (70.7% vs 64.6%; adjusted marginal difference, 6.1%; 95% CI, 2.7%-9.4%), and colon cancer screenings (69.4% vs 61.1%; adjusted marginal difference, 7.1%; 95% CI, 3.8%-10.3%). Comparing minority vs White or multiracial beneficiaries across both programs, minority beneficiaries had significantly lower rates of access to a primary care clinician usual source of care (adjusted marginal difference, 4.7%; 95% CI, 2.5%-6.8%), specialist visits (adjusted marginal difference, 10.8%; 95% CI, 8.3%-13.3%), influenza vaccinations (adjusted marginal difference, 4.3%; 95% CI, 1.2%-7.4%), and pneumonia vaccinations (adjusted marginal difference, 6.4%; 95% CI, 3.9%-9.0%). The interaction of race and ethnicity with insurance type was not statistically significant for any of the 6 outcome measures. Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory study of Medicare beneficiaries in 2015-2018, enrollment in Medicare Advantage vs traditional Medicare was significantly associated with better outcomes for access and quality among minority beneficiaries; however, minority beneficiaries were significantly more likely to experience worse outcomes for most access and quality measures than White or multiracial beneficiaries in both programs.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/etnologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Medicare Part C , Medicare , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Estados Unidos
13.
Ann Plast Surg ; 87(3): 232-237, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast reconstruction is commonly performed for a multitude of noncancerous indications, such as correction of congenital deformities, acquired tissue disease, burns, and trauma. However, breast reconstruction for noncancerous indications is often considered cosmetic or not explicitly mentioned in insurance policies. The goal of this study was to assess variability in insurance coverage of breast reconstruction for noncancerous indications. METHODS: The authors conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 102 US insurance companies, including Medicare and Medicaid, for coverage of breast reconstruction for noncancerous indications (Poland syndrome, fibrocystic breast disease, burns and trauma). Insurance companies were selected based on their state enrollment data and market share. A Web-based search and individual telephone interviews were conducted to identify the policy. Medical necessity criteria were abstracted from publicly available policies. RESULTS: Half of the insurers (49%, n = 50) had no policy for Poland syndrome, 46% (n = 47) had no policy for burns and trauma, and 82% (n = 84) had no policy for fibrocystic breast disease. Fifty-two percent (n = 22) of policies providing coverage for Poland syndrome, 24% (n = 13) of policies providing coverage for burns and trauma, and 58% (n = 7) of policies providing coverage for fibrocystic breast disease had specific, stringent criteria for medical necessity. Thirty-six percent (n = 15) of policies covering Poland syndrome, 47% (n = 26) of policies covering burns and trauma, and 33% (n = 4) of policies covering fibrocystic breast disease include coverage of the contralateral breast. CONCLUSIONS: There is a paucity of publicly available information on insurance coverage of breast reconstruction for noncancerous indications and a lack of consensus between top US insurance companies on what constitutes medical necessity for surgical correction.


Assuntos
Mamoplastia , Medicare , Idoso , Mama , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Estados Unidos
14.
N Engl J Med ; 385(7): 618-627, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation launched the Medicare Bundled Payments for Care Improvement-Advanced (BPCI-A) program for hospitals in October 2018. Information is needed about the effects of the program on health care utilization and Medicare payments. METHODS: We conducted a modified segmented regression analysis using Medicare claims and including patients with discharge dates from January 2017 through September 2019 to assess differences between BPCI-A participants and two control groups: hospitals that never joined the BPCI-A program (nonjoining hospitals) and hospitals that joined the BPCI-A program in January 2020, after the conclusion of the intervention period (late-joining hospitals). The primary outcomes were the differences in changes in quarterly trends in 90-day per-episode Medicare payments and the percentage of patients with readmission within 90 days after discharge. Secondary outcomes were mortality, volume, and case mix. RESULTS: A total of 826 BPCI-A participant hospitals were compared with 2016 nonjoining hospitals and 334 late-joining hospitals. Among BPCI-A hospitals, the mean baseline 90-day per-episode Medicare payment was $27,315; the change in the quarterly trends in the intervention period as compared with baseline was -$78 per quarter. Among nonjoining hospitals, the mean baseline 90-day per-episode Medicare payment was $25,994; the change in quarterly trends as compared with baseline was -$26 per quarter (difference between nonjoining hospitals and BPCI-A hospitals, $52 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 34 to 70] per quarter; P<0.001; 0.2% of the baseline payment). Among late-joining hospitals, the mean baseline 90-day per-episode Medicare payment was $26,807; the change in the quarterly trends as compared with baseline was $4 per quarter (difference between late-joining hospitals and BPCI-A hospitals, $82 [95% CI, 41 to 122] per quarter; P<0.001; 0.3% of the baseline payment). There were no meaningful differences in the changes with regard to readmission, mortality, volume, or case mix. CONCLUSIONS: The BPCI-A program was associated with small reductions in Medicare payments among participating hospitals as compared with control hospitals. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.).


Assuntos
Economia Hospitalar , Medicare/economia , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Melhoria de Qualidade/economia , Mecanismo de Reembolso , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados , Cuidado Periódico , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitais/normas , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão , Estados Unidos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348540

RESUMO

Background: There has been no comprehensive longitudinal study of pulmonary functions (PFTS) in ALS determining which measure is most sensitive to declines in respiratory muscle strength. Objective: To determine the longitudinal decline of PFTS in ALS and which measure supports Medicare criteria for NIV initiation first. Methods: Serial PFTs (maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), maximum inspiratory pressure measured by mouth (MIP) or nasal sniff pressure (SNIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)) were performed over 12 months on 73 ALS subjects to determine which measure showed the sentinel decline in pulmonary function. The rate of decline for each measure was determined as the median slope of the decrease over time. Medicare-based NIV initiation criteria were met if %FVC was ≤ 50% predicted or MIP was ≤ 60 cMH2O. Results: 65 subjects with at least 3 visits were included for analyses. All median slopes were significantly different than zero. MEP and sitting FVC demonstrated the largest rate of decline. Seventy subjects were analyzed for NIV initiation criteria, 69 met MIP criteria first; 11 FVC and MIP criteria simultaneously and none FVC criteria first. Conclusions: MEP demonstrated a steeper decline compared to other measures suggesting expiratory muscle strength declines earliest and faster and the use of airway clearance interventions should be initiated early. When Medicare criteria for NIV initiation are considered, MIP criteria are met earliest. These results suggest that pressure-based measurements are important in assessing the timing of NIV and the use of pulmonary clearance interventions.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Idoso , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pressões Respiratórias Máximas , Medicare , Estados Unidos , Capacidade Vital
17.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(8): 1286-1293, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339237

RESUMO

The Bundled Payments for Care Improvement initiative Advanced Model (BPCI Advanced) is a voluntary Medicare bundled payment model in which hospitals may participate with third-party conveners-private consulting firms that share in the financial risk built into the program. We found that nonteaching and for-profit status was associated with a higher probability of hospital partnership with third-party conveners in BPCI Advanced. Among hospitals participating in at least one inpatient clinical episode, hospitals that partnered with third-party conveners were more likely to select episodes with higher target prices: A $1,000 increase in episode target price was associated with a 1.66-percentage-point increase in the probability of episode participation in BPCI Advanced compared with a 0.72-percentage-point increase for participating hospitals without third-party conveners. Hospitals with third-party conveners also were more likely than those without them to select inpatient clinical episodes with greater opportunities to reduce spending on postacute care and readmissions. These findings have important implications for understanding the role of private consulting firms in the program and for planning potential program modifications in the future.


Assuntos
Medicare , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Idoso , Hospitais , Humanos , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos , Estados Unidos
18.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(8): 1277-1285, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339245

RESUMO

The theory of hospital cost shifting posits that reductions in public prices lead to higher commercial prices. The cost-shifting narrative and the empirical strategies used to evaluate it typically assume no connection between public prices and the number of hospitals operating in the market (market structure). We raise the possibility of "consolidation-induced cost shifting," which recognizes that changes in public prices for hospital care can affect market structure and, through that mechanism, affect commercial prices. We investigated the first leg of that argument: that public payment may affect hospital market structure. After controlling for many confounders, we found that hospitals with a higher share of Medicare patients had lower and more rapidly declining profits and an increased likelihood of closure or acquisition compared with hospitals that were less reliant on Medicare. This is consistent with the existence of consolidation-induced cost shifting and implies that reductions in public prices must be undertaken cautiously. Mechanisms to limit closure- or acquisition-induced increases in commercial hospital prices may be important.


Assuntos
Custos Hospitalares , Medicare , Idoso , Alocação de Custos , Hospitais Privados , Humanos , Estados Unidos
19.
Epilepsy Behav ; 122: 108167, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine proportions, causes, and predictors of 30-day readmissions among older adults with epilepsy. Understanding predictors of readmissions may inform future interventions aimed at reducing avoidable hospitalizations in this vulnerable population. METHODS: Individuals 65 years or older with epilepsy were identified using previously validated ICD-9-CM codes in any diagnostic position in the 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database. Proportions of 30-day readmissions and causes of readmissions in older adults with epilepsy were compared to both older adults without and younger adults (18-64 years old) with epilepsy. We identified predictors of readmission in older adults with epilepsy using logistic regression. RESULTS: There were 92,030 older adults with, 3,166,852 older adults without, and 168,622 younger adults with epilepsy. Proportions of readmissions were higher in older adults with (16.2%) than older adults without (12.5%) and younger adults with epilepsy (15.1%). The main cause of readmission for older adults with and without epilepsy was septicemia, and epilepsy/seizure in younger adults with epilepsy. Predictors of 30-day readmissions in older adults with epilepsy were: non-elective admissions (OR 1.37, 95%CI 1.27-1.48), public insurance (Medicaid vs. private insurance OR 1.19, 95%CI 1.02-1.39; Medicare vs. private insurance OR 1.11, 95%CI 1.00-1.22), lower median household income for patient's zip code ($1-$39,999 vs. $66,000 + OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22), hospital location in large metropolitan areas (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.05-1.42), higher Charlson-Deyo comorbidity index (OR 1.11, 95%CI 1.10-1.02), and male sex (OR 1.04, 95%CI 1.00-1.09). SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that targeted interventions to reduce the risk of infection may potentially reduce readmission in older people with epilepsy, similarly to those without. Provision of coordinated care and appropriate discharge planning may reduce readmissions particularly in those who are males, are of lower socioeconomic status and with more comorbidities.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Readmissão do Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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