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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1783, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transportation problems are known barriers to health care and can result in late arrivals and delayed or missed care. Groups already prone to greater social and economic disadvantage, including low-income individuals and people with chronic conditions, encounter more transportation barriers and experience greater negative health care consequences. Addressing transportation barriers is important not only for mitigating adverse health care outcomes among patients, but also for avoiding additional costs to the health care system. In this study, we investigate transportation barriers to accessing health care services during the COVID-19 pandemic among high-frequency health care users. METHODS: A web-based survey was administered to North Carolina residents aged 18 and older in the UNC Health system who were enrolled in Medicaid or Medicare and had at least six outpatient medical appointments in the past year. 323 complete responses were analyzed to investigate the prevalence of reporting transportation barriers that resulted in having arrived late to, delayed, or missed care, as well as relationships between demographic and other independent variables and transportation barriers. Qualitative analyses were performed on text response data to explain transportation barriers. RESULTS: Approximately 1 in 3 respondents experienced transportation barriers to health care between June 2020 and June 2021. Multivariate logistic regressions indicate individuals aged 18-64, people with disabilities, and people without a household vehicle were significantly more likely to encounter transportation barriers. Costs of traveling for medical appointments and a lack of driver or car availability emerged as major transportation barriers; however, respondents explained that barriers were often complex, involving circumstantial problems related to one's ability to access and pay for transportation as well as to personal health. CONCLUSIONS: To address transportation barriers, we recommend more coordination between transportation and health professionals and the implementation of programs that expand access to and improve patient awareness of health care mobility services. We also recommend transportation and health entities direct resources to address transportation barriers equitably, as barriers disproportionately burden younger adults under age 65 enrolled in public insurance programs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Medicare , Meios de Transporte , Estados Unidos
2.
Otol Neurotol ; 43(9): e1000-e1007, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical application of five recently published cochlear implant (CI) candidacy evaluation (CICE) referral screening tools through external validation. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary otology/neurotology practice. PATIENTS: Adults who underwent CICE between December 2020 and September 2021. INTERVENTIONS: CICE referral screening tools versus CI candidacy criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CICE screening tool performance, based on the ability to identify patients who met the CI candidacy criteria, was evaluated. CI candidacy criteria were defined as best-aided AzBio sentences at +10 signal-to-noise ratio and either 60% or less accuracy to reflect traditional criteria used in clinical settings or 40% or less accuracy (only patients 65 years or older) to reflect Medicare-eligible criteria. RESULTS: Screening criteria of proposed CICE referral tools vary widely across pure-tone average and word recognition scores. When screened by traditional criteria, the sensitivities and specificities of these referral tools varied from 40 to 77% and from 22 to 86%, respectively. When screened by Medicare-eligible criteria, sensitivities and specificities varied from 41 to 81% and from 24 to 91%, respectively. The screening tool proposed by Zwolan et al. ( Otol Neurotol 2020;41(7):895-900) demonstrated the best overall performance for traditional (Youden's J , 0.37; sensitivity, 62%; specificity, 75%) and Medicare-eligible patients (Youden's J , 0.44; sensitivity, 66%; specificity, 78%). All screening tools performed worse on the validation cohort compared with their respective development cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Current tools for determining CICE referral have diverse screening criteria. These combinations of pure-tone average and word recognition score are modestly successful at identifying CI candidates.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Medicare , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
3.
Otol Neurotol ; 43(9): e992-e999, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the influence of expanding indications on the profile of adults undergoing cochlear implantation (CI) at a high-volume CI center. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: 774 adults undergoing CI evaluation from August 2015 to August 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographics; audiometry; speech recognition; speech, spatial, and qualities of hearing scale (SSQ-12). RESULTS: Of 745 (96.3%) patients qualifying for implantation, 642 (86.6%) pursued surgery. Median age at evaluation was 69 years; 56.3% were men; 88.2% were Caucasian. Median distance to our center was 95 miles. The majority (51.8%) had public insurance (Medicare, Medicaid), followed by private (47.8%) and military (0.4%). Mean PTA, CNC, and AzBio in quiet and noise for the ear to be implanted were 85.2 dB HL, 15.0%, and 19.2% and 3.5%, respectively. Hybrid/EAS criteria were met by 138 (18.5%) CI candidates, and 436 (77.0%) unilateral CI recipients had aidable contralateral hearing for bimodal hearing configurations. Younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.93-0.99) and non-Caucasian race (OR, 6.95; 95% confidence interval, 3.22-14.98) predicted candidacy. Likelihood of surgery increased for Caucasian (OR, 8.08; 95% confidence interval, 4.85-13.47) and married (OR, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-3.47) patients and decreased for those with public insurance (OR, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.69). A lower SSQ-12 score predicted both candidacy and surgery. CONCLUSION: Despite expansions in criteria, speech understanding remained extremely low at CI evaluation. Younger age and non-Caucasian race predicted candidacy, and Caucasian, married patients with private insurance and lower SSQ scores were more likely to pursue surgery.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Audição , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Otol Neurotol ; 43(9): 1033-1040, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report speech outcomes after cochlear implantation (CI) for asymmetric hearing loss (AHL) and assess the influence of contralateral hearing. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: One hundred eighty-eight adults (mean age, 70 yr) undergoing CI for AHL from 2015 to 2020. Candidacy included pure-tone average (PTA) at least 70 dB hearing level and AzBio in quiet 60% or less in the implanted ear and AzBio in quiet greater than 40% in the contralateral ear. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PTA; Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant (CNC) word, AzBio sentences scores; Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ). RESULTS: Mean preoperative PTA and AzBio in the implanted and contralateral ears were 85.2 and 68.1 dB hearing level and 24.7% and 69.2%, respectively. Mean CNC in the implanted ear increased from 18.3% preoperatively to 44.4% ( p < 0.0001) at 6 months and 49.3% ( p < 0.0001) at 12 months. Mean AzBio in the implanted ear improved from 24.7% preoperatively to 60.3% ( p < 0.0001) at 6 months and 64.3% ( p < 0.0001) at 12 months. Patients demonstrated significant improvement in all SSQ domains at 6 and 12 months. When comparing patients with preoperative contralateral AzBio greater than 60% versus 41% to 60%, no significant differences existed in postoperative CNC scores (6-mo: 47% versus 41%, p = 0.276; 12-mo: 51% versus 47%, p = 0.543). There were no significant differences in 6-month ( p = 0.936) or 12-month ( p = 0.792) CNC scores between patients with AHL (contralateral ear AzBio >40%) and 169 unilateral CI patients meeting the traditional Medicare criteria (contralateral ear AzBio ≤40%). CONCLUSION: CI recipients with AHL derive significant speech improvements, supporting individual ear consideration for CI candidacy and patient benefit outside of current Medicare criteria.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Perda Auditiva , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Idoso , Perda Auditiva/cirurgia , Humanos , Medicare , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2231898, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112374

RESUMO

Importance: Cost barriers discourage many US residents from seeking medical care and many who obtain it experience financial hardship. However, little is known about the association between medical debt and social determinants of health (SDOH). Objective: To determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with medical debt and the association of medical debt with subsequent changes in the key SDOH of food and housing security. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analyses using multivariable logistic regression models controlled for demographic, financial, insurance, and health-related factors, and prospective cohort analyses assessing changes over time using the 2018, 2019, and 2020 Surveys of Income and Program Participation. Participants were nationally representative samples of US adults surveyed for 1 to 3 years. Exposures: Insurance-related and health-related characteristics as risk factors for medical debt; Newly incurred medical debt as a risk factor for deterioration in SDOHs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence and amounts of medical debt; 4 SDOHs: inability to pay rent or mortgage or utilities; eviction or foreclosure; and food insecurity. Results: Among 51 872 adults surveyed regarding 2017, 40 784 regarding 2018 and 43 220 regarding 2019, 51.6% were female, 16.8% Hispanic, 6.0% were non-Hispanic Asian, 11.9% non-Hispanic Black, 62.6% non-Hispanic White, and 2.18% other non-Hispanic. A total of 10.8% (95% CI, 10.6-11.0) of individuals and approximately 18.1% of households carried medical debt. Persons with low and middle incomes had similar rates: 15.3%; (95% CI,14.4-16.2) of uninsured persons had debt, as did 10.5% (95% CI, 10.2-18.8) of the privately-insured. In 2018 the mean medical debt was $21 687/debtor (median $2000 [IQR, $597-$5000]). In cross-sectional analyses, hospitalization, disability, and having private high-deductible, Medicare Advantage, or no coverage were risk factors associated with medical indebtedness; residing in a Medicaid-expansion state was protective (2019 odds ratio [OR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.70-0.83). Prospective findings were similar, eg, losing insurance coverage between 2017 and 2019 was associated with acquiring medical debt by 2019 (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.23-2.14), as was becoming newly disabled (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.95-3.00) or newly hospitalized (OR, 2.95; 95% CI, 2.40-3.62). Acquiring medical debt between 2017 and 2019 was a risk factor associated with worsening SDOHs, with ORs of 2.20 (95% CI,1.58-3.05) for becoming food insecure; 2.29 (95% CI, 1.73-3.03) for losing ability to pay rent or mortgage; 2.37 (95% CI, 1.75-3.23) for losing ability to pay utilities; and 2.95 (95% CI, 1.38-6.31) for eviction or foreclosure in 2019. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional and cohort study, medical indebtedness was common, even among insured individuals. Acquiring such debt may worsen SDOHs. Expanded and improved health coverage could ameliorate financial distress, and improve housing and food security.


Assuntos
Medicare , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 733, 2022 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of older adults with physical multi-morbidity is increasing. As Internet-based eHealth and mHealth increasingly require patients to use technology, it is important to examine the use of Internet/health information technology (HIT) among older adults with physical multi-morbidity. Here we examine the distribution of physical multi-morbidity, Internet use, and HIT use, and further explored the factors associated with Internet use and HIT use among older adults with physical multi-morbidity. METHODS: One wave of data from the 2018 US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) was analysed. We included respondents aged 65 years and older. We used 13 physical non-communicable diseases to measure physical multi-morbidity. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models, with sociodemographic factors, health status, health insurance, health care service use, and satisfaction with health care as covariates, were used to examine the research questions. RESULTS: Of 72,746 respondents in NHIS, 7060 were eligible for our analysis. 5380 (76.2%) eligible respondents had physical multi-morbidity in this study. Overall, 60% of older adults reported using the Internet, with 38.9% using eHealth services (defined as looking up health information online, filling a prescription, scheduling an appointment with a health care provider, or communicating with a health care provider via email). Gender, age, marital status, region, race, education, and family income were significant factors associated with the Internet and HIT use among people with multi-morbidity. The study also showed that after adjusting for confounders, good health status, having Medicare, receiving home care from a health professional, and low satisfaction with health care were positive predictors of the Internet and HIT use. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our study found that Internet and HIT use among older patients with chronic diseases is far from the Healthy People 2030 target. Internet and HIT use vary depending on a number of sociodemographic factors. Relevant influencing factors should be fully considered in health education interventions promoted.


Assuntos
Uso da Internet , Informática Médica , Idoso , Humanos , Internet , Medicare , Multimorbidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 23(9): 1499-1502, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Major life changes can trigger a traumatic stress response in older adults causing trauma symptoms to resurface. In 2019, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services released the requirement, without specific guidance, for trauma-informed care (TIC) as part of person-centered care in long-term care. DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 722 new admissions at one nursing home in metro Atlanta between November 2019 and July 2021. METHODS: We developed a "TRAUMA" framework for TIC screening based on Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration resources. The admissions nurse conducted TIC screening within 48 hours of new admissions, including reported trauma and necessary modifications to care plans. Demographic information was derived from electronic records. Analysis included independent sample t-tests, binary logistic regression, and χ2 tests. All data were analyzed using SPSS v. 28. RESULTS: Of 722 new admissions, 45 (6.2%) indicated experiencing trauma. There was no significant association with being Black or non-White and experiencing trauma, but there was a significant association with being female and experiencing trauma (χ2 (1) = 5.206, P = .022). Only men reported child physical abuse and war trauma and only women reported adult sexual assault, child sexual assault, adult domestic violence, school or community violence, adult nonintimate partner violence, and other trauma. There was a small, significant negative association of age and trauma (ß = -0.037; SE = 0.11; P < .001). The most-reported trauma category was medical trauma, including COVID-related trauma. More than half (51%) requested spiritual intervention and only 2 requested medical intervention with medication as initial interventions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our experience suggests that knowing the patient and their trauma history allowed the admissions nurse and interdisciplinary care team to modify the person-centered care plan to best meet the patient's needs. Our results also emphasize the need for using universal trauma precautions in all interactions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Casas de Saúde , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Kidney360 ; 3(5): 883-890, 2022 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128476

RESUMO

Background: Increasing use of peritoneal dialysis (PD) will likely lead to increasing numbers of patients transitioning from PD to hemodialysis (HD). We describe the characteristics of patients who discontinued PD and converted to HD, trajectories of acute-care encounter rates and the total cost of care both before and after PD discontinuation, and the incidence of modality-related outcomes after PD discontinuation. Methods: We analyzed data in the United States Renal Data System to identify patients aged ≥12 years who were newly diagnosed with ESKD in 2001-2017, initiated PD during the first year of ESKD, and discontinued PD in 2009-2018. We estimated monthly rates of hospital admissions, observation stays, emergency department encounters, and Medicare Parts A and B costs during the 12 months before and after conversion from PD to HD, and the incidence of home HD initiation, death, and kidney transplantation after conversion to in-facility HD. Results: Among 232,699 patients who initiated PD, there were 124,213 patients who discontinued PD. Among them, 68,743 (55%) converted to HD. In this subgroup, monthly rates of acute-care encounters and total costs of care to Medicare sharply increased during the 6 months preceding PD discontinuation, peaking at 96.2 acute-care encounters per 100 patient-months and $20,701 per patient in the last month of PD. After conversion, rates decreased, but remained higher than before conversion. Among patients who converted to in-facility HD, the cumulative incidence of home HD initiation, death, and kidney transplantation at 24 months was 3%, 25%, and 7%, respectively. Conclusions: The transition from PD to HD is characterized by high rates of acute-care encounters and health-care expenditures. Quality improvement efforts should be aimed at improving transitions and encouraging both home HD and kidney transplantation after PD discontinuation.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Diálise Peritoneal , Idoso , Hemodiálise no Domicílio , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Medicare , Diálise Renal , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Kidney360 ; 3(5): 922-925, 2022 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128498

RESUMO

Integrating a pharmacist into a hemodialysis unit significantly reduced medication discrepancies and medication-related problems over time.Medication reconciliation for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services End-Stage Renal Disease Quality Incentive Program can be optimally performed by a dialysis pharmacist.


Assuntos
Reconciliação de Medicamentos , Farmacêuticos , Idoso , Unidades Hospitalares de Hemodiálise , Humanos , Medicare , Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Diálise Renal , Estados Unidos
11.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 28(10): 1149-1160, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is associated with a high risk of recurrence. Although RCC has been shown to impose a substantial burden on patients, little is known about the incremental clinical and economic burden attributable to disease recurrence. With recent advances in the RCC-therapeutic landscape, including adjuvant therapies, it is important to quantify the clinical and economic burden associated with RCC recurrence to better evaluate the potential impact of treatment in this patient population. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the incremental clinical and economic burden associated with disease recurrence among patients with intermediate high-risk and high-risk RCC postnephrectomy. METHODS: Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database (2007-2016) were used to identify patients with newly diagnosed, intermediate high-risk or high-risk RCC following nephrectomy. Patients with a diagnosis of metastatic disease or repeat nephrectomy or initiating a systemic treatment for advanced RCC were grouped as the recurrence cohort; patients without evidence of recurrence were grouped as the cohort without recurrence. Health care resource utilization (HRU), health care costs (2019 US dollars), and overall survival (OS) were compared between cohorts with and without recurrence, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 269 patients with recurrence and 374 patients without recurrence were analyzed. Mean age was 75.2 and 75.7 years (P = 0.383), respectively, and 64.7% and 57.8% (P = 0.076) of patients were male, respectively. Median follow-up duration was 17 and 28 months, respectively. Patients with recurrence had a significantly shorter OS relative to patients without recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio = 6.00; 95% CI = 4.24-8.48; P < 0.001). Additionally, compared with patients without recurrence, patients with recurrence had significantly more inpatient admissions (0.16 vs 0.04 admissions per person-month [PM]; adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] = 3.88; 95% CI = 3.12-4.81), outpatient visits (3.06 vs 1.77 visits per PM; aIRR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.56-1.81), emergency department visits (0.10 vs 0.05 visits per PM; aIRR = 2.11; 95% CI = 1.66-2.68), and days hospitalized (1.40 vs 0.35 days per PM; aIRR = 6.73; 95% CI = 4.95-9.15) per patient per month (all P < 0.001). Adjusted mean monthly health care costs per patient were significantly higher among patients with recurrence vs patients without recurrence (differences of all-cause total costs, total medical costs, and pharmacy cost per month: $6,320, $4,924, and $1,387; all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: RCC recurrence is associated with a significant increase in mortality, HRU, and health care costs, highlighting the substantial unmet need in patients with intermediate high-risk and high-risk RCC postnephrectomy when adjuvant therapies are not widely available. DISCLOSURES: Dr Sundaram is an employee of Merck Sharp & Dohme LLC., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., and holds stock in AbbVie, Abbott, Johnson & Johnson, Bristol Myers Squibb, and Merck & Co., Inc. Dr Bhattacharya is an employee of Merck Sharp & Dohme LLC., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., and holds stock in Merck & Co., Inc. Dr Adejoro and Dr Rogerio were employees of Merck Sharp & Dohme LLC., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc. at the time of study conduct. Dr Adejoro holds stock in Johnson & Johnson. Dr Song, Dr Zhang, Mr Carley, and Dr Signorovitch are employees of Analysis Group, Inc., a consulting firm that received funding from Merck & Co., Inc. for the conduct of this research. Ms Zhu was an employee of Analysis Group, Inc. at the time of study conduct. Dr Haas is a Professor of Medicine at the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania and also serves on the advisory board for Aveo, Calithera and Exelixis, Co. Financial support for this study was provided by Merck & Co., Inc. The study sponsor was involved in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, interpretation of data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Feminino , Estresse Financeiro , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Medicare , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Nefrectomia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 15(9): e008592, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Care fragmentation is associated with higher rates of infection after durable left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implant. Less is known about the relationship between care fragmentation and total spending, and whether this relationship is mediated by infections. METHODS: Total payments were captured from admission to 180 days post-discharge. Drawing on network theory, a measure of care fragmentation was developed based on the number of shared patients among providers (ie, anesthesiologists, cardiac surgeons, cardiologists, critical care specialists, nurse practitioners, physician assistants) caring for 4,987 Medicare beneficiaries undergoing LVAD implantation between July 2009 - April 2017. Care fragmentation was measured using average path length, which describes how efficiently information flows among network members; longer path length indicates greater fragmentation. Terciles based on the level of care fragmentation and multivariable regression were used to analyze the relationship between care fragmentation and LVAD payments and mediation analysis was used to evaluate the role of post-implant infections. RESULTS: The patient cohort was 81% male, 73% white, 11% Intermacs Profile 1 with mean (SD) age of 63.1 years (11.1). The mean (SD) level of care fragmentation in provider networks was 1.7 (0.2) and mean (SD) payment from admission to 180 days post-discharge was $246,905 ($109,872). Mean (SD) total payments at the lower, middle, and upper terciles of care fragmentation were $250,135 ($111,924), $243,288 ($109,376), and $247,290 ($108,241), respectively. In mediation analysis, the indirect effect of care fragmentation on total payments, through infections, was positive and statistically significant (ß=16032.5, p=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Greater care fragmentation in the delivery of care surrounding durable LVAD implantation is associated with a higher incidence of infections, and consequently, higher payments for Medicare beneficiaries. Interventions to reduce care fragmentation may reduce the incidence of infections and in turn enhance the value of care for patients undergoing durable LVAD implantation.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Coração Auxiliar , Cirurgiões , Assistência ao Convalescente , Idoso , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Mediação , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 15(9): e008901, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although rapid response teams have been widely promoted as a strategy to reduce unexpected hospital deaths, most studies of rapid response teams have not adjusted for secular trends in mortality before their implementation. We examined whether implementation of a rapid response team was associated with a reduction in hospital mortality after accounting for preimplementation mortality trends. METHODS: Among 56 hospitals in Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation linked to Medicare, we calculated the annual rates of case mix-adjusted mortality for each hospital during 2000 to 2014. We constructed a hierarchical log-binomial regression model of mortality over time (calendar-year), incorporating terms to capture the effect of rapid response teams, to determine whether implementation of rapid response teams was associated with reduction in hospital mortality that was larger than expected based on preimplementation trends, while adjusting for hospital case mix index. RESULTS: The median annual number of Medicare admissions was 5214 (range, 408-18 398). The median duration of preimplementation and postimplementation period was 7.6 years (≈2.5 million admissions) and 7.2 years (≈2.6 million admissions), respectively. Hospital mortality was decreasing by 2.7% annually during the preimplementation period. Implementation of rapid response teams was not associated with a change in mortality during the initial year (relative risk for model intercept, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.94-1.02]; P=0.30) or in the mortality trend (relative risk for model slope, 1.01 per year [95% CI, 0.99-1.02]; P=0.30). Among individual hospitals, implementation of a rapid response team was associated with a lower-than-expected mortality at only 4 (7.1%) and higher-than-expected mortality at 2 (3.7%) hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Among a large and diverse sample of US hospitals, we did not find implementation of rapid response teams to be associated with reduction in hospital mortality. Studies are needed to understand best practices for rapid response team implementation, to ensure that hospital investment in these teams improves patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca , Equipe de Respostas Rápidas de Hospitais , Idoso , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Medicare , Ressuscitação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(18): e026411, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102221

RESUMO

Background Rheumatic immune mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are associated with high risk of acute coronary syndrome. The long-term prognosis of acute coronary syndrome in patients with rheumatic IMIDs is not well studied. Methods and Results We identified Medicare beneficiaries admitted with a primary diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) from 2014 to 2019. Outcomes of patients with MI and concomitant rheumatic IMIDs including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, or psoriasis were compared with propensity matched control patients without rheumatic IMIDs. One-to-three propensity-score matching was done for exact age, sex, race, ST-segment-elevation MI, and non-ST-segment-elevation MI variables and greedy approach on other comorbidities. The study primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The study cohort included 1 654 862 patients with 3.6% prevalence of rheumatic IMIDs, the most common of which was rheumatoid arthritis, followed by systemic lupus erythematosus. Patients with rheumatic IMIDs were younger, more likely to be women, and more likely to present with non-ST-segment-elevation MI. Patients with rheumatic IMIDs were less likely to undergo coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting. After propensity-score matching, at median follow up of 24 months (interquartile range 9-45), the risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.15 [95% CI, 1.14-1.17]), heart failure (HR, 1.12 [95% CI 1.09-1.14]), recurrent MI (HR, 1.08 [95% CI 1.06-1.11]), and coronary reintervention (HR, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.01-1.13]) (P<0.05 for all) was higher in patients with versus without rheumatic IMIDs. Conclusions Patients with MI and rheumatic IMIDs have higher risk of mortality, heart failure, recurrent MI, and need for coronary reintervention during follow-up compared with patients without rheumatic IMIDs.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Artrite Reumatoide , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Infarto do Miocárdio , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(18): e7743, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102226

RESUMO

Background The AHA Registry (American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry) captures detailed information on hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The registry, however, does not capture information on social determinants of health or long-term outcomes. Here we describe the linkage of the AHA Registry with external data sources, including fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare claims, to fill these gaps and assess the representativeness of linked registry patients to the broader Medicare FFS population hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods and Results We linked AHA Registry records of adults ≥65 years from March 2020 to September 2021 with Medicare FFS claims using a deterministic linkage algorithm and with the American Hospital Association Annual Survey, Rural Urban Commuting Area codes, and the Social Vulnerability Index using hospital and geographic identifiers. We compared linked individuals with unlinked FFS beneficiaries hospitalized with COVID-19 to assess the representativeness of the AHA Registry. A total of 10 010 (47.0%) records in the AHA Registry were successfully linked to FFS Medicare claims. Linked and unlinked FFS beneficiaries were similar with respect to mean age (78.1 versus 77.9, absolute standardized difference [ASD] 0.03); female sex (48.3% versus 50.2%, ASD 0.04); Black race (15.1% versus 12.0%, ASD 0.09); dual-eligibility status (26.1% versus 23.2%, ASD 0.07); and comorbidity burden. Linked patients were more likely to live in the northeastern United States (35.7% versus 18.2%, ASD 0.40) and urban/metropolitan areas (83.9% versus 76.8%, ASD 0.18). There were also differences in hospital-level characteristics between cohorts. However, in-hospital outcomes were similar (mortality, 23.3% versus 20.1%, ASD 0.08; home discharge, 45.5% versus 50.7%, ASD 0.10; skilled nursing facility discharge, 24.4% versus 22.2%, ASD 0.05). Conclusions Linkage of the AHA Registry with external data sources such as Medicare FFS claims creates a unique and generalizable resource to evaluate long-term health outcomes after COVID-19 hospitalization.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Idoso , American Heart Association , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Medicare , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Am J Manag Care ; 28(9): 465-471, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Medicare beneficiaries dually eligible for Medicaid are a low-income group who are often in poor health. Little research has examined sex differences in patient experience by dual/low-income subsidy (LIS) status. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison by sex and low-income status. METHODS: We used linear regression to compare 6 case mix-adjusted patient experience measures (on a 0-100 scale) by sex within non-dual/LIS and dual/LIS beneficiary groups among 549,603 respondents 65 years and older to the 2016-2017 Medicare Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems surveys of beneficiary experience with Medicare (mail with telephone follow-up of nonrespondents, 42% response rate). RESULTS: Dual/LIS male beneficiaries reported worse patient experiences on all 6 measures than female beneficiaries, with scores 1 to 2 percentage points lower for 3 measures and less than 1 percentage point lower for the other 3 measures. For 4 of the 6 measures, sex differences among dual/LIS beneficiaries were significantly larger than those among non-dual/LIS beneficiaries. In all 4 instances, the gaps between men and women among dual/LIS beneficiaries favored women; P < .05 for all differences discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Low-income male Medicare beneficiaries are more likely to report poor patient experiences, possibly because of lower health literacy, less patient activation, and smaller social networks, along with provider responses to these characteristics. Efforts to address these patient-level factors should happen in parallel with structural-level approaches to train and prepare providers to ensure attentive, respectful patient-centered care for all patients. Additionally, targeted use of ombudsmen and interventions may help reduce inequities.


Assuntos
Medicare , Caracteres Sexuais , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
17.
Am J Manag Care ; 28(9): e315-e324, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) affect 15% to 30% of patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics and have been associated with poor outcomes. This study examined the incidence and economic burden of EPS in patients with schizophrenia initiating atypical antipsychotics (AAPs). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of secondary deidentified administrative claims database. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia initiating AAPs with no prior EPS were identified in the MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Supplemental databases from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2018. Incidence of EPS (diagnosis or medication use) was assessed in the year following AAP initiation. Annual all-cause and schizophrenia-related health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs were assessed in cohorts who did or did not develop EPS in the year following first EPS claim (EPS cohort) or randomly assigned index date (non-EPS cohort). Multivariate regression was used to compare all-cause and schizophrenia-related total health care costs and inpatient admissions between cohorts. RESULTS: A total of 3558 patients with schizophrenia newly initiating AAPs were identified; 22.1% developed EPS in the year following AAP initiation (incidence: 26.9 cases per 100 person-years). Multivariate analyses revealed that patients with EPS had 34% higher odds of all-cause (odds ratio [OR], 1.3361; 95% CI, 1.0770-1.6575; P < .01) and 84% increased odds of schizophrenia-related (OR, 1.8436; 95% CI, 1.0434-2.4219; P < .0001) inpatient admission compared with the non-EPS cohort. The EPS cohort also evidenced significantly higher adjusted all-cause ($26,632 vs $21,273; P < .001) and schizophrenia-related ($9018 vs $4475; P < .0001) costs compared with the non-EPS cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The 20% of patients who developed EPS in the year following AAP initiation evidenced significantly increased HCRU and costs over the postindex period. Schizophrenia therapies with reduced EPS risk are needed to improve patient care.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Idoso , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Medicare , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 28(10): 1130-1137, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Available literature supports the use of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics over short-acting oral (SAO) formulations. The majority of evidence is centered on patients with schizophrenia insured under the Medicaid benefit. OBJECTIVE: To assess real-world clinical and economic outcomes of LAI compared with SAO antipsychotics in patients with psychiatric conditions insured under commercial, health care exchange, or Medicare plans. METHODS: In this exploratory treatmenteffectiveness study, a retrospective, before and after study design was used to evaluate differences in clinical and economic outcomes in patients switching from SAO to LAI antipsychotics. Patients who had at least 1 claim for an LAI antipsychotic and a psychiatric diagnosis were considered eligible for the study if they were continuously enrolled in a commercial, health care exchange, or Medicare plan for 12 months before (preperiod) and 12 months after (postperiod) their first LAI antipsychotic claim. During the preperiod, patients were required to have filled at least a 30-day supply of any SAO antipsychotic medication. Clinical outcomes included health care resource utilization (eg, hospitalizations per member per year [PMPY]), adherence measures, and medication switch trends. Economic outcomes included total per member per month (PMPM) spending across the medical benefit alone, the pharmacy benefit alone, and the combined spending across both benefits. Additionally, we examined patient costs and health plan spending within each of these categories. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in overall hospitalizations PMPY (1.80 vs 0.88; P < 0.001) and psychiatric hospitalizations PMPY (0.65 vs 0.20; P <0.001) when comparing patients treated with SAO antipsychotics in the preperiod to the same patients treated with LAI antipsychotics in the postperiod, respectively. No differences were observed in the percentage of days covered with SAO and LAI agents (87.4% vs 85.8%; P=0.312). More patients switched between SAO antipsychotics during the preperiod, as compared with the number who switched between LAI antipsychotics during the postperiod (57.4% vs 10.3%; P < 0.001). On average, patients switched medications sooner in the preperiod vs the postperiod (114.50 vs 211.26 days; P < 0.001). No difference was observed between the preperiod and postperiod in total spending PMPM ($3,798.76 vs $3,702.63; P = 0.826) CONCLUSIONS: Patients switching from SAO to LAI antipsychotics experienced fewer hospitalizations, with no change in overall spending. Adherence was similar, though fewer medication switches occurred and there was a longer time before switching medications with LAI compared with SAO antipsychotics DISCLOSURES: Funding for this study was provided by Highmark Inc., but the sponsor had no role in the study outside the final review of the submitted manuscript.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Idoso , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Humanos , Medicare , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2232118, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125812

RESUMO

Importance: Medicare finances health care for most US patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), regardless of age. The 2011 Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for dialysis reduced reimbursement for hemodialysis, and the 2014 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) Marketplace increased patient access to new private insurance options, potentially influencing organizations that provide health care, such as hospitals, nursing homes, and dialysis facilities, to adjust their payer mix away from Medicare sources. Objective: To describe Medicare enrollment trends among patients with incident ESKD in 2006 to 2016. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study involved US patients aged 18 to 64 years who were not enrolled in Medicare at dialysis initiation in 2006 to 2016, with 1-year follow-up through 2017. Data analysis was conducted April 2021 to June 2022. Exposures: The exposure of interest was a 3-category indicator of time, whether patients initiated dialysis before policies were enacted (2006-2010), in the first years of the Medicare ESKD PPS (2011-2013), or during the Medicare ESKD PPS and implementation of the ACA Marketplace (2014-2016). Main Outcomes and Measures: Patient-level Medicare enrollment through the first year of dialysis. Logistic regression and Cox models were used to examine associations of time, patient characteristics, and Medicare enrollment, adjusting for patient demographic, clinical, and market-level characteristics. Results: Of 335 157 patients aged 18 to 64 years with ESKD not actively enrolled in Medicare when they initiated dialysis in 2006 to 2016, the mean (SD) age was 49.9 (10.8) years, 198 164 (59.1%) were men, 188 290 (56.2%) were White, and 313 622 (93.6%) received in-center hemodialysis. New Medicare enrollment was higher in 2006 to 2010 (110 582 patients [73.1%]) than after the Medicare ESKD PPS and ACA Marketplace in 2014 to 2016 (55 382 patients [58.5%]). In adjusted analyses, declining Medicare enrollment was associated with implementation of 2011 Medicare ESKD PPS and 2014 ACA policies and was disproportionately lower among younger, racially minoritized, and ethnically Hispanic patients. Conclusions and Relevance: There was declining Medicare enrollment among new dialysis patients associated with the 2011 Medicare ESKD PPS and 2014 ACA Marketplace that raise concerns about benefits and harms to patients and payers and continued disparities in kidney care. As the dialysis payer mix moves toward higher proportions of patients not covered by Medicare, it will be important to understand the implications for health care system and patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Sistema de Pagamento Prospectivo , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Medicare , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Diálise Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
20.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 15(9): e011756, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In some patients, the alternative access route for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is utilized because the conventional transfemoral approach is not felt to be either feasible or optimal. However, accurate prognostication of patient risks is not well established. This study examines the associations between peripheral (transsubclavian/transaxillary, and transcarotid) versus central access (transapical and transaortic) in alternative access TAVR and 30-day and 1-year end points of mortality and stroke for all valve platforms. METHODS: Using data from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry with linkage to Medicare claims, patients who underwent alternative access TAVR from June 1, 2015 to June 30, 2018 were identified. Adjusted and unadjusted Cox proportional hazards modeling were performed to determine the association between alternate access TAVR site and 30-day and 1-year end points of mortality and stroke. RESULTS: Of 7187 alternative access TAVR patients, 3725 (52%) had peripheral access and 3462 (48%) had central access. All-cause mortality was significantly lower in peripheral access versus central access group at in-hospital and 1 year (2.9% versus 6.3% and 20.3% versus 26.6%, respectively), but stroke rates were higher (5.0% versus 2.8% and 7.3% versus 5.5%, respectively; all P<0.001). These results persisted after 1-year adjustment (death adjusted hazard ratio, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.62-0.85] and stroke adjusted hazard ratio, 2.92 [95% CI, 2.21-3.85]). When broken down by individual subtypes, compared with transaxillary/subclavian access patients, transapical, and transaortic access patients had higher all-cause mortality but less stroke (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this real-world, contemporary, nationally representative benchmarking study of alternate access TAVR sites, peripheral access was associated with favorable mortality and morbidity outcomes compared with central access, at the expense of higher stroke. These findings may allow for accurate prognostication of risk for patient counseling and decision-making for the heart team with regard to alternative access TAVR.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Cardiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Cirurgiões , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Humanos , Medicare , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
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