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1.
J Surg Res ; 257: 107-117, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Necrotizing soft-tissue infections (NSTIs) encompass a group of severe, life-threatening diseases with high morbidity and mortality. Evidence suggests advanced age is associated with worse outcomes. To date, no large data sets exist describing outcomes in older individuals, and risk factor identification is lacking. METHODS: Retrospective data were obtained from the 2015 Medicare 100% sample. Included in the analysis were those aged ≥65 y with a primary diagnosis of an NSTI (gas gangrene, necrotizing fasciitis, cutaneous gangrene, or Fournier's gangrene). Risk factors for in-hospital mortality and discharge disposition were examined. Continuous variables were assessed using central tendency, t-tests, and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Categorical variables were assessed using the chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. RESULTS: 1427 patient records were reviewed. 59% of patients were male, and the overall mean age was 75.4±8.6 y. 1385 (97.0%) patients required emergency surgery for their NSTI diagnosis. The overall mortality was 5.3%. Several underlying comorbidities were associated with higher rates of mortality including cancer (OR: 3.50, P = 0.0009), liver disease (OR: 2.97, P = 0.03), and kidney disease (OR: 2.15, P = 0.01). While associated with high in-hospital mortality, these diagnoses were not associated with a difference in the rate of discharge to home compared with skilled nursing or rehab. Overall, patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities or rehab had higher rates of underlying comorbidities than patients who were discharged home (3 or more comorbid illness 84.3% versus 68.6%, P < 0.0001); however, no individual comorbid illness was associated with discharge location. CONCLUSIONS: In our Medicare data set, we identified several medical comorbidities that are associated with increased rates of in-hospital mortality. Patients with underlying cancers had the highest odds of increased mortality. The effect on outcomes of the potentially immunosuppressive cancer treatments in these patients is unknown. These data suggest that patients with underlying illnesses, especially cancer, kidney disease, or liver disease have higher mortalities and are more likely to be discharged to skilled nursing facilities or rehab. It is unclear why these illnesses were associated with these worse outcomes while others including diabetes and heart disease were not. These data suggest that these particular comorbid illnesses may have special prognostic implications, although further analysis is necessary to identify the causative factors.


Assuntos
Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/patologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Fasciite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Fasciite Necrosante/cirurgia , Feminino , Gangrena de Fournier/epidemiologia , Gangrena de Fournier/cirurgia , Gangrena Gasosa/epidemiologia , Gangrena Gasosa/cirurgia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Medicare/economia , Necrose , Alta do Paciente , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 16(3): 232-240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133360

RESUMO

In an effort to curb excessive health care spending and incentivize high-quality care, many payers have implemented value-based payment reforms designed to pay for the quality rather than the quantity of health care services. Medicare, the largest payer in the United States, has implemented numerous value-based payment policies over the past decade, many of which affect cardiovascular care. In this review, we discuss some of these major nationwide value-based payment reforms as they relate to cardiovascular care and what we may expect in the future from cardiovascular value-based policies.


Assuntos
Cardiologia/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Medicare/economia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Seguro de Saúde Baseado em Valor/economia , Aquisição Baseada em Valor/economia , Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis/economia , Cardiologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Medicare/legislação & jurisprudência , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Formulação de Políticas , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Aquisição Baseada em Valor/legislação & jurisprudência
3.
JAMA ; 324(18): 1869-1877, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170241

RESUMO

Importance: Medicare recently concluded a national voluntary payment demonstration, Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) model 3, in which skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) assumed accountability for patients' Medicare spending for 90 days from initial SNF admission. There is little evidence on outcomes associated with this novel payment model. Objective: To evaluate the association of BPCI model 3 with spending, health care utilization, and patient outcomes for Medicare beneficiaries undergoing lower extremity joint replacement (LEJR). Design, Setting, and Participants: Observational difference-in-difference analysis using Medicare claims from 2013-2017 to evaluate the association of BPCI model 3 with outcomes for 80 648 patients undergoing LEJR. The preintervention period was from January 2013 through September 2013, which was 9 months prior to enrollment of the first BPCI cohort. The postintervention period extended from 3 months post-BPCI enrollment for each SNF through December 2017. BPCI SNFs were matched with control SNFs using propensity score matching on 2013 SNF characteristics. Exposures: Admission to a BPCI model 3-participating SNF. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was institutional spending, a combination of postacute care and hospital Medicare-allowed payments. Additional outcomes included other categories of spending, changes in case mix, admission volume, home health use, length of stay, and hospital use within 90 days of SNF admission. Results: There were 448 BPCI SNFs with 18 870 LEJR episodes among 16 837 patients (mean [SD] age, 77.5 [9.4] years; 12 173 [72.3%] women) matched with 1958 control SNFs with 72 005 LEJR episodes among 63 811 patients (mean [SD] age, 77.6 [9.4] years; 46 072 [72.2%] women) in the preintervention and postintervention periods. Seventy-nine percent of matched BPCI SNFs were for-profit facilities, 85% were located in an urban area, and 85% were part of a larger corporate chain. There were no systematic changes in patient case mix or episode volume between BPCI-participating SNFs and controls during the program. Institutional spending decreased from $17 956 to $15 746 in BPCI SNFs and from $17 765 to $16 563 in matched controls, a differential decrease of 5.6% (-$1008 [95% CI, -$1603 to -$414]; P < .001). This decrease was related to a decline in SNF days per beneficiary (from 26.2 to 21.3 days in BPCI SNFs and from 26.3 to 23.4 days in matched controls; differential change, -2.0 days [95% CI, -2.9 to -1.1]). There was no significant change in mortality or 90-day readmissions. Conclusions and Relevance: Among Medicare patients undergoing lower extremity joint replacement from 2013-2017, the BPCI model 3 was significantly associated with a decrease in mean institutional spending on episodes initiated by admission to SNFs. Further research is needed to assess bundled payments in other clinical contexts.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Substituição/economia , Medicare/economia , Mecanismo de Reembolso , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/economia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos/economia , Estados Unidos
6.
JAMA ; 324(10): 975-983, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897345

RESUMO

Importance: The US Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) is a major Medicare value-based payment program aimed at improving quality and reducing costs. Little is known about how physicians' performance varies by social risk of their patients. Objective: To determine the relationship between patient social risk and physicians' scores in the first year of MIPS. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study of physicians participating in MIPS in 2017. Exposures: Physicians in the highest quintile of proportion of dually eligible patients served; physicians in the 3 middle quintiles; and physicians in the lowest quintile. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the 2017 composite MIPS score (range, 0-100; higher scores indicate better performance). Payment rates were adjusted -4% to 4% based on scores. Results: The final sample included 284 544 physicians (76.1% men, 60.1% with ≥20 years in practice, 11.9% in rural location, 26.8% hospital-based, and 24.6% in primary care). The mean composite MIPS score was 73.3. Physicians in the highest risk quintile cared for 52.0% of dually eligible patients; those in the 3 middle risk quintiles, 21.8%; and those in the lowest risk quintile, 6.6%. After adjusting for medical complexity, the mean MIPS score for physicians in the highest risk quintile (64.7) was lower relative to scores for physicians in the middle 3 (75.4) and lowest (75.9) risk quintiles (difference for highest vs middle 3, -10.7 [95% CI, -11.0 to -10.4]; highest vs lowest, -11.2 [95% CI, -11.6 to -10.8]; P < .001). This relationship was found across specialties except psychiatry. Compared with physicians in the lowest risk quintile, physicians in the highest risk quintile were more likely to work in rural areas (12.7% vs 6.4%; difference, 6.3 percentage points [95% CI, 6.0 to 6.7]; P < .001) but less likely to care for more than 1000 Medicare beneficiaries (9.4% vs 17.8%; difference, -8.3 percentage points [95% CI, -8.7 to -8.0]; P < .001) or to have more than 20 years in practice (56.7% vs 70.6%; difference, -13.9 percentage points [95% CI, -14.4 to -13.3]; P < .001). For physicians in the highest risk quintile, several characteristics were associated with higher MIPS scores, including practicing in a larger group (mean score, 82.4 for more than 50 physicians vs 46.1 for 1-5 physicians; difference, 36.2 [95% CI, 35.3 to 37.2]; P < .001) and reporting through an alternative payment model (mean score, 79.5 for alternative payment model vs 59.9 for reporting as individual; difference, 19.7 [95% CI, 18.9 to 20.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional analysis of physicians who participated in the first year of the Medicare MIPS program, physicians with the highest proportion of patients dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid had significantly lower MIPS scores compared with other physicians. Further research is needed to understand the reasons underlying the differences in physician MIPS scores by levels of patient social risk.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional , Medicare/economia , Médicos , Reembolso de Incentivo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid , Planos de Incentivos Médicos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Estados Unidos
7.
JAMA ; 324(10): 984-992, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897346

RESUMO

Importance: Integration of physician practices into health systems composed of hospitals and multispecialty practices is increasing in the era of value-based payment. It is unknown how clinicians who affiliate with such health systems perform under the new mandatory Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) relative to their peers. Objective: To assess the relationship between the health system affiliations of clinicians and their performance scores and value-based reimbursement under the 2019 MIPS. Design, Setting, and Participants: Publicly reported data on 636 552 clinicians working at outpatient clinics across the US were used to assess the association of the affiliation status of clinicians within the 609 health systems with their 2019 final MIPS performance score and value-based reimbursement (both based on clinician performance in 2017), adjusting for clinician, patient, and practice area characteristics. Exposures: Health system affiliation vs no affiliation. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was final MIPS performance score (range, 0-100; higher scores intended to represent better performance). The secondary outcome was MIPS payment adjustment, including negative (penalty) payment adjustment, positive payment adjustment, and bonus payment adjustment. Results: The final sample included 636 552 clinicians (41% female, 83% physicians, 50% in primary care, 17% in rural areas), including 48.6% who were affiliated with a health system. Compared with unaffiliated clinicians, system-affiliated clinicians were significantly more likely to be female (46% vs 37%), primary care physicians (36% vs 30%), and classified as safety net clinicians (12% vs 10%) and significantly less likely to be specialists (44% vs 55%) (P < .001 for each). The mean final MIPS performance score for system-affiliated clinicians was 79.0 vs 60.3 for unaffiliated clinicians (absolute mean difference, 18.7 [95% CI, 18.5 to 18.8]). The percentage receiving a negative (penalty) payment adjustment was 2.8% for system-affiliated clinicians vs 13.7% for unaffiliated clinicians (absolute difference, -10.9% [95% CI, -11.0% to -10.7%]), 97.1% vs 82.6%, respectively, for those receiving a positive payment adjustment (absolute difference, 14.5% [95% CI, 14.3% to 14.6%]), and 73.9% vs 55.1% for those receiving a bonus payment adjustment (absolute difference, 18.9% [95% CI, 18.6% to 19.1%]). Conclusions and Relevance: Clinician affiliation with a health system was associated with significantly better 2019 MIPS performance scores. Whether this represents differences in quality of care or other factors requires additional research.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Assistência à Saúde , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional , Medicare/economia , Reembolso de Incentivo , Estudos Transversais , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Afiliação Institucional , Planos de Incentivos Médicos , Médicos , Provedores de Redes de Segurança , Estados Unidos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0227783, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925977

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To quantify differences in the age, gender, race, and clinical complexity of Medicare beneficiaries treated by ophthalmologists and optometrists in each of the United States. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study based on publicly accessible Medicare payment and utilization data from 2012 through 2017. METHODS: For each ophthalmic and optometric provider, demographic information of treated Medicare beneficiaries was obtained from the Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) for the years 2012 through 2017. Clinical complexity was defined using CMS Hierarchical Condition Category (HCC) coding. RESULTS: From 2012 through 2017, ophthalmologists in every state treated statistically significantly older beneficiaries, with the greatest difference (4.99 years in 2014) between provider groups seen in Rhode Island. In most states there was no gender difference among patients treated by the providers but in 46 states ophthalmologists saw a more racially diverse group of beneficiaries. HCC risk score analysis demonstrated that ophthalmologists in all 50 states saw more medically complex beneficiaries and the differences were statistically significant in 47 states throughout all six years. CONCLUSIONS: Although there are regional variations in the characteristics of patients treated by ophthalmologists and optometrists, ophthalmologists throughout the United States manage older, more racially diverse, and more medically complex Medicare beneficiaries.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/terapia , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Oftalmologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Optometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/economia , Oftalmologistas/economia , Oftalmologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Oftalmologia/economia , Optometristas/economia , Optometristas/estatística & dados numéricos , Optometria/economia , Padrões de Prática Médica/economia , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
11.
Value Health ; 23(9): 1210-1217, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940239

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Significant literature exists on the effects of medication adherence on reducing healthcare costs, but less is known about the effect of medication adherence among Medicare low-income subsidy (LIS) recipients. This study examined the effects of medication adherence on healthcare costs among LIS recipients with diabetes, hypertension, and/or heart failure. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed Medicare claims data (2012-2013) linked to the Area Health Resources Files. Using measures developed by the Pharmacy Quality Alliance, adherence to 11 medication classes was studied among patients with 7 possible combinations of the diseases mentioned. Adherence was measured in 8 categories of proportion of days covered (PDC): ≥95%, 90% to <95%, 85% to <90%, 80% to <85%, 75% to <80%, 50% to <75%, 25% to <50%, and <25%. Annual Medicare costs were compared across adherence categories. A generalized linear model was used to control for patient/community characteristics. RESULTS: Among patients with only one disease, such as diabetes, patients with the lowest adherence (PDC < 25%) had $3152/year higher Medicare costs than patients with the highest adherence (PDC ≥ 95%; $11 101 vs $7949; P < .05). The adjusted costs among patients with PDC < 25% was $1893 higher than patients with PDC ≥ 95% ($9919 vs $8026; P < .05). Among patients with multiple chronic conditions, patients' adherence to medications for fewer diseases had higher costs. CONCLUSIONS: Greater medication adherence is associated with lower Medicare costs in the Medicare LIS population. Future policy affecting the LIS program should encourage better medication adherence among patients with chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Medicare/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
12.
Milbank Q ; 98(3): 908-974, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820837

RESUMO

Policy Points Evidence suggests that bundled payment contracting can slow the growth of payer costs relative to fee-for-service contracting, although bundled payment models may not reduce absolute costs. Bundled payments may be more effective than fee-for-service payments in containing costs for certain medical conditions. For the most part, Medicare's bundled payment initiatives have not been associated with a worsening of quality in terms of readmissions, emergency department use, and mortality. Some evidence suggests a worsening of other quality measures for certain medical conditions. Bundled payment contracting involves trade-offs: Expanding a bundle's scope and duration may better contain costs, but a more comprehensive bundle may be less attractive to providers, reducing their willingness to accept it as an alternative to fee-for-service payment. CONTEXT: Bundled payments have been promoted as an alternative to fee-for-service payments that can mitigate the incentives for service volume under the fee-for-service model. As Medicare has gained experience with bundled payments, it has widened their scope and increased their duration. However, there have been few reviews of the empirical literature on the impact of Medicare's bundled payment programs on cost, resource use, utilization, and quality. METHODS: We examined the history and features of 16 of Medicare's bundled payment programs involving hospital-initiated episodes of care and conducted a literature review of articles about those programs. Database and additional searches yielded 1,479 articles. We evaluate the studies' methodological quality and summarize the quantitative findings about Medicare expenditures and quality of care from 37 studies that used higher-quality research designs. FINDINGS: Medicare's bundled payment initiatives have varied in their design features, such as episode scope and duration. Many initiatives were associated with little to no reduction in Medicare expenditures, unless large pricing discounts for providers were negotiated in advance. Initiatives that included post-acute care services were associated with lower expenditures for certain conditions. Hospitals may have been able to reduce internal production costs with help from physicians via gainsharing. Most initiatives were not associated with significant changes in quality of care, as measured by readmission and mortality rates. Of the significant changes in readmission rates, the results were mixed, showing increases and decreases associated with bundled payments. Some evidence suggested that worse patient outcomes were associated bundled payments, although most results were not statistically significant. Results on case-mix selection were mixed: Several initiatives were associated with reductions in episode severity, whereas others were associated with little change. CONCLUSIONS: Bundled payments for hospital-initiated episodes may be a good alternative to fee-for-service payments. Bundled payments can help slow the growth of payer spending, although they do not necessarily reduce absolute spending. They are associated with lower provider production costs, and there is no overwhelming evidence of compromised quality. However, designing a bundled payment contract that is attractive to both providers and payers proves to be a challenge.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/economia , Medicare/economia , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Mecanismo de Reembolso , Redução de Custos/economia , Redução de Custos/métodos , Redução de Custos/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos Hospitalares/organização & administração , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/organização & administração , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Mecanismo de Reembolso/economia , Mecanismo de Reembolso/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
13.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 312, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) created a new reimbursement model "Bundled Payment for Care Improvement (BPCI)" which reimburses providers a predetermined payment in advance to cover all possible services rendered within a certain time window. Chordoma and Chondrosarcoma are locally aggressive malignant primary bony tumors. Treatment includes surgical resection and radiotherapy with substantial risk for recurrence which necessitates monitoring and further treatment. We assessed the feasibility of the BPCI model in these neurosurgical diseases. METHODS: We selected patients with chordoma/chondrosarcoma from inpatient admission table using the International Classification of Disease, 9th (ICD-9), and 10th (ICD-10) revision codes. We collected the patients' demographics and insurance type at the index hospitalization. We recorded the following outcomes length of stay, total payment, discharge disposition, and complications for the index hospitalization. For post-discharge, we collected the 30 days and 3/6/12 months inpatient admission, outpatient service, and medication refills. Continuous variables were summarized by means with standard deviations, median with interquartile and full ranges (minimum-maximum); Continuous outcomes were compared by nonparametric Wilcoxson rank-sum test. All tests were 2-sided with a significance level of 0.05. Statistical data analysis was performed in SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute, Inc, Cary, NC). RESULTS: The population size was 2041 patients which included 1412 patients with cranial (group1), 343 patients with a mobile spine (group 2), and 286 patients with sacrococcygeal (group 3) chordoma and chondrosarcoma. For index hospitalization, the median length of stay (days) was 4, 6, and 7 for groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively (P<.001). The mean payments were ($58,130), ($84,854), and ($82,440), for groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively (P=.02). The complication rates were 30%, 35%, and 43% for groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively (P<.001). Twelve months post-discharge, the hospital readmission rates were 44%, 53%, and 65% for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<.001). The median payments for this period were ($72,294), ($76,827), and ($101,474), for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P <.001). CONCLUSION: The management of craniospinal chordoma and chondrosarcoma is costly and may extend over a prolonged period. The success of BPCI requires a joint effort between insurers and hospitals. Also, it should consider patients' comorbidities, the complexity of the disease. Finally, the adoptionof quality improvement programs by hospitals can help with cost reduction.


Assuntos
Condrossarcoma/terapia , Cordoma/terapia , Medicare/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. , Condrossarcoma/economia , Cordoma/economia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Alta do Paciente , Readmissão do Paciente , Melhoria de Qualidade/economia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(8): 1302-1307.e1, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741554

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess and quantify the financial effect of unbundling newly unbundled moderate sedation codes across major payors at an academic radiology practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Billing and reimbursement data for 23 months of unbundled moderate sedation codes were analyzed for reimbursement rates and trends. This included 10,481 and 28,189 units billed and $443,257 and $226,444 total receipts for codes 99152 (initial 15 minutes of moderate sedation) and 99153 (each subsequent 15 minute increment of moderate sedation), respectively. Five index procedures-(i) central venous port placement, (ii) endovascular tumor embolization, (iii) tunneled central venous catheter placement, (iv) percutaneous gastrostomy placement, and (v) percutaneous nephrostomy placement-were identified, and moderate sedation reimbursements for Medicare and the dominant private payor were calculated and compared to pre-bundled reimbursements. Revenue variation models across different patient insurance mixes were then created using averages from 4 common practice settings among radiologists (independent practices, all hospitals, safety-net hospitals, and non-safety-net hospitals). RESULTS: Departmental reimbursement for unbundled moderate sedation in FY2018 and FY2019 totaled $669,701.34, with high per-unit variability across payors, especially for code 99153. Across the 5 index procedures, moderate sedation reimbursement decreased 1.3% after unbundling and accounted for 3.9% of procedural revenue from Medicare and increased 11.9% and accounted for 5.5% of procedural revenue from the dominant private payor. Between different patient insurance mix models, estimated reimbursement from moderate sedation varied by as much as 29.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Departmental reimbursement from billing the new unbundled moderate sedation codes was sizable and heterogeneous, highlighting the need for consistent and accurate reporting of moderate sedation. Total collections vary by case mix, patient insurance mix, and negotiated reimbursement rates.


Assuntos
Sedação Consciente/economia , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Radiografia Intervencionista/economia , Terminologia como Assunto , Sedação Consciente/classificação , Sedação Consciente/tendências , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado/tendências , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Medicare/economia , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/classificação , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Prática Privada/economia , Radiografia Intervencionista/classificação , Radiografia Intervencionista/tendências , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/economia , Estados Unidos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237790, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810185

RESUMO

This study determined the frequency and factors associated with EGFR testing rates and erlotinib treatment as well as associated survival outcomes in patients with non small cell lung cancer in Kentucky. Data from the Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR) linked with health claims from Medicaid, Medicare and private insurance groups were evaluated. EGFR testing and erlotinib prescribing were identified using ICD-9 procedure codes and national drug codes in claims, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with EGFR testing and erlotinib prescribing. Cox-regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with survival. EGFR mutation testing rates rose from 0.1% to 10.6% over the evaluated period while erlotinib use ranged from 3.4% to 5.4%. Factors associated with no EGFR testing were older age, male gender, enrollment in Medicaid or Medicare, smoking, and geographic region. Factors associated with not receiving erlotinib included older age, male gender, enrollment in Medicare or Medicaid, and living in moderate to high poverty. Survival analysis demonstrated EGFR testing or erlotinib use was associated with a higher likelihood of survival. EGFR testing and erlotinib prescribing were slow to be implemented in our predominantly rural state. While population-level factors likely contributed, patient factors, including geographic location (areas with high poverty rates and rural regions) and insurance type, were associated with lack of use, highlighting rural disparities in the implementation of cancer precision medicine.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/uso terapêutico , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA/economia , Análise Mutacional de DNA/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/economia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/economia , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/economia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Medicaid/economia , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/economia , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Precisão/economia , Medicina de Precisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003247, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) who are hospitalized for serious infections requiring prolonged intravenous antibiotics may face barriers to discharge, which could prolong hospital length of stay (LOS) and increase financial burden. We investigated differences in LOS, discharge disposition, and charges between hospitalizations for serious infections in patients with and without OUD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We utilized the 2016 National Inpatient Sample-a nationally representative database of all discharges from US acute care hospitals. The population of interest was all hospitalizations for infective endocarditis, epidural abscess, septic arthritis, or osteomyelitis. The exposure was OUD, and the primary outcome was LOS until discharge, assessed by using a competing risks analysis to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs). Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of discharge disposition and adjusted differences in hospital charges were also reported. Of 95,470 estimated hospitalizations for serious infections (infective endocarditis, epidural abscess, septic arthritis, and osteomyelitis), the mean age was 49 years and 35% were female. 46% had Medicare (government-based insurance coverage for people age 65+ years), and 70% were non-Hispanic white. After adjustment for potential confounders, OUD was associated with a lower probability of discharge at any given LOS (aHR 0.61; 95% CI 0.59-0.63; p < 0.001). OUD was also associated with lower odds of discharge to home (aOR 0.38; 95% CI 0.33-0.43; p < 0.001) and higher odds of discharge to a post-acute care facility (aOR 1.85; 95% CI 1.57-2.17; p < 0.001) or patient-directed discharge (also referred to as "discharge against medical advice") (aOR 3.47; 95% CI 2.80-4.29; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in average total hospital charges, though daily hospital charges were significantly lower for patients with OUD. Limitations include the potential for unmeasured confounders and the use of billing codes to identify cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that among hospitalizations for some serious infections, those involving patients with OUD were associated with longer LOS, higher odds of discharge to post-acute care facilities or patient-directed discharge, and similar total hospital charges, despite lower daily charges. These findings highlight opportunities to improve care for patients with OUD hospitalized with serious infections, and to reduce the growing associated costs.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Hospitalização/tendências , Infecções/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Infecções/economia , Infecções/terapia , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/tendências , Masculino , Medicare/economia , Medicare/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/economia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 28(15): e662-e669, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732658

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Insurance claim rejections represent a challenge for healthcare providers because of the potential for lost revenue and administrative costs of reworking claims. METHODS: The billing records of five hand and upper extremity surgeons at a tertiary academic center were queried for all patient billing activity over a 1-year period yielding a total of 14,421 unique patient encounters. RESULTS: A total of 11,839 unique patient encounters were included, and the overall claim rejection rate was 19.3%. Claim rejection rate varied significantly by payer (P < 0.0001) and was lowest in private insurance (14.0%) and highest in Medicare (31.2%). The use of multiple Current Procedure Terminology codes for an encounter was independently associated with an increased risk of claim rejection for both office (25.6%, relative risk [RR] 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03 to 1.49, P = 0.0032) and surgical (25.6%, RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.18, P = 0.0002) settings. After multivariate regression adjustment, modifier 25 was associated with a decreased risk of claim rejection (23.3%, RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.85, P < 0.0001). DISCUSSION: Insurance claim rejection occurs frequently (19.3%) in hand/upper extremity surgery and varies by insurance type, with the highest rejection rate occurring in Medicare (31.2%). For a given encounter, the use of multiple Current Procedure Terminology codes and specific modifiers are predictive of rejection risk. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, prognostic.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros/economia , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros/estatística & dados numéricos , Extremidade Superior/cirurgia , Previsões , Humanos , Formulário de Reclamação de Seguro/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Medicare/economia , Estados Unidos
19.
Milbank Q ; 98(3): 847-907, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697004

RESUMO

Policy Points Concerns have been raised about risk selection in the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP). Specifically, turnover in accountable care organization (ACO) physicians and patient panels has led to concerns that ACOs may be earning shared-savings bonuses by selecting lower-risk patients or providers with lower-risk panels. We find no evidence that changes in ACO patient populations explain savings estimates from previous evaluations through 2015. We also find no evidence that ACOs systematically manipulated provider composition or billing to earn bonuses. The modest savings and lack of risk selection in the original MSSP design suggest opportunities to build on early progress. Recent program changes provide ACOs with more opportunity to select providers with lower-risk patients. Understanding the effect of these changes will be important for guiding future payment policy. CONTEXT: The Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) establishes incentives for participating accountable care organizations (ACOs) to lower spending for their attributed fee-for-service Medicare patients. Turnover in ACO physicians and patient panels has raised concerns that ACOs may be earning shared-savings bonuses by selecting lower-risk patients or providers with lower-risk panels. METHODS: We conducted three sets of analyses of Medicare claims data. First, we estimated overall MSSP savings through 2015 using a difference-in-differences approach and methods that eliminated selection bias from ACO program exit or changes in the practices or physicians included in ACO contracts. We then checked for residual risk selection at the patient level. Second, we reestimated savings with methods that address undetected risk selection but could introduce bias from other sources. These included patient fixed effects, baseline or prospective assignment, and area-level MSSP exposure to hold patient populations constant. Third, we tested for changes in provider composition or provider billing that may have contributed to bonuses, even if they were eliminated as sources of bias in the evaluation analyses. FINDINGS: MSSP participation was associated with modest and increasing annual gross savings in the 2012-2013 entry cohorts of ACOs that reached $139 to $302 per patient by 2015. Savings in the 2014 entry cohort were small and not statistically significant. Robustness checks revealed no evidence of residual risk selection. Alternative methods to address risk selection produced results that were substantively consistent with our primary analysis but varied somewhat and were more sensitive to adjustment for patient characteristics, suggesting the introduction of bias from within-patient changes in time-varying characteristics. We found no evidence of ACO manipulation of provider composition or billing to inflate savings. Finally, larger savings for physician group ACOs were robust to consideration of differential changes in organizational structure among non-ACO providers (eg, from consolidation). CONCLUSIONS: Participation in the original MSSP program was associated with modest savings and not with favorable risk selection. These findings suggest an opportunity to build on early progress. Understanding the effect of new opportunities and incentives for risk selection in the revamped MSSP will be important for guiding future program reforms.


Assuntos
Redução de Custos , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro/economia , Medicare/economia , Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis/economia , Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis/organização & administração , Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Redução de Custos/economia , Redução de Custos/métodos , Redução de Custos/estatística & dados numéricos , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro/métodos , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Masculino , Medicare/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
20.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 110(4): 1147-1152, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite favorable recommendations, national lung screening adoption remains low (2% to 3%). Patients living in rural areas have additional challenges, including access to lung screening programs. We initiated a mobile lung screening program to serve the rural patients at risk. This is what we learned from this 12-month feasibility project. METHODS: Utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, we began an 8-month design and build schedule. This was the first build of this type. The operational team included a radiology technician, nurse practitioner, driver with a commercial driver's license, and program developer. Specialized software was used for data mining. Downstream revenue projections were based on previously published Medicare claims data. Generally accepted accounting principles were used. RESULTS: The prototype bus was delivered January 2018. During the 12-month feasibility period, we performed 548 low-dose lung screenings at 104 sites. Mean patient age was 62 years, mean pack-years of smoking was 41; 258 (47%) were male. Five lung cancers were found in addition to a type B thymoma. Financially, we exceeded the break-even analysis by 28%. The 5-year pro forma using 1 year of actual data and 4 additional years of projected data demonstrated a net present value of 1 million, internal rate of return of 34.6%, and profitability index of 2.2-all highly dependent on downstream revenue. CONCLUSIONS: Although challenges exist, a commercially viable bus and a financially sound mobile program can be developed. However, without a centralized approach for incidental findings, the downstream revenue may be at risk as well as the financial viability of the project.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Medicare/economia , Unidades Móveis de Saúde/economia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/economia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
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