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2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 77, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was enacted to enhance access to care primarily among nonelderly and low-income populations; however, several provisions addressed key determinants of emergency department (ED) and inpatient visits among Medicare beneficiaries over age 65 years. We take stock of the overall changes in these visits among older Medicare beneficiaries, focusing on those with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs), and provide a nationally representative post-reform update. METHODS: We analyzed a sample of 32,919 older adults (65+) on Medicare from the 2006-2015 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Using a survey-weighted two-part model, we examined changes in ED visits, inpatient visits, and length of stay (LOS) by MCC status, before (2006-2010), during (2011-2013), and after the ACA (2014-2015). RESULTS: Prior to the ACA, 18.1% of Medicare older adults had ≥1 ED visit, whereas 17.1% had ≥1 inpatient visits, with an average of 5.1 nights/visit. Following ACA reforms, among those with 2+ chronic conditions, the rate of ever having an ED visit increased by 4.3 percentage points [95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.5, 6.1, p < 0.01], whereas the rate of inpatient visits decreased by 1.4 percentage points [95%CI: - 2.9, 0.2, p < 0.1], after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: We found sizable increases in ED visits and nontrivial decreases in inpatient visits among older Medicare beneficiaries with MCCs, underscoring the continuing need for improving access to and quality of care among older adults with MCCs to decrease reliance on the ED and reduce preventable hospitalizations.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/organização & administração , Multimorbidade , Idoso , Feminino , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Milbank Q ; 98(1): 172-196, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994260

RESUMO

Policy Points Although preventable chronic conditions such as type 2 diabetes carry a significant cost and health burden, few lifestyle interventions have been scaled at a national policy level. The translation of the National Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention from research to a Medicare-covered service can serve as a model for national adoption of other interventions that have the potential to improve population health. The successful translation of the National Diabetes Prevention Program has depended on the collaboration of government agencies, academic researchers, community-based healthcare providers, payers, and other parties. CONTEXT: Many evidence-based health interventions never achieve national implementation. This article analyzes factors that supported the translation and national implementation of a lifestyle change intervention to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes in individuals with prediabetes. METHODS: We used the Knowledge to Action framework, which was developed to map how science is translated into effective health programs, to examine how the evidence-based intervention from the 2002 Diabetes Prevention Program trial was translated into the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's large-scale National Diabetes Prevention Program, eventually resulting in payment for the lifestyle intervention as a Medicare-covered service. FINDINGS: Key findings of our analysis include the importance of a collaboration among researchers, policymakers, and payers to encourage early adopters; development of evidence-based, national standards to support widespread adoption of the intervention; and use of public input from community organizations to scale the intervention to a national level. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis offers timely lessons for other high-value, scalable interventions attempting to move beyond the evidence-gathering phase and into translation and institutionalization.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Estilo de Vida , Medicare/organização & administração , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Estados Unidos
4.
Am J Law Med ; 45(2-3): 106-129, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722633

RESUMO

Beginning on inauguration day, President Trump has attempted an executive repeal of the Affordable Care Act. In doing so, he has tested the limits of presidential power. He has challenged the force of institutional and non-institutional constraints. And, ironically, he has helped boost public support for the ACA's central features. The first two sections of this article respectively consider the use of the President's tools to advance and to subvert health reform. The final two sections consider the forces constraining the administration's attempted executive repeal. I argue that the most important institutional constraint, thus far, is found in multifaceted actions by states - and not only blue states. I also highlight the force of public voices. Personal stories, public opinion, and 2018 election results - bolstered by presidential messaging - reflect growing support for government-grounded options and statutory coverage protections. Indeed, in a polarized time, "refine and revise" seems poised to supplant "repeal and replace" as the conservative focus countering liberal pressure for a common option grounded in Medicare.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/legislação & jurisprudência , Política , Governo Federal , Financiamento Governamental/legislação & jurisprudência , Financiamento Governamental/organização & administração , Regulamentação Governamental , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Jurisprudência , Medicaid/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicaid/organização & administração , Medicare/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicare/organização & administração , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/organização & administração , Cobertura de Condição Pré-Existente , Opinião Pública , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos
5.
Health Serv Res ; 54(6): 1246-1254, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure strategies of interorganizational collaboration among health care and social service organizations that serve older adults. STUDY SETTING: Twenty Hospital Service Areas (HSAs) in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: We developed and validated a novel scale to characterize interorganizational collaboration, and then tested its application by assessing whether the scale differentiated between HSAs with high vs low performance on potentially avoidable health care use and spending for Medicare beneficiaries. DATA COLLECTION: Health care and social service organizations (N = 173 total) in each HSA completed a 12-item collaboration scale, three questions about collaboration behaviors, and a detailed survey documenting collaborative network ties. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified two distinguishable subscales of interorganizational collaboration: (a) Aligning Strategy and (b) Coordinating Current Work. Each subscale demonstrated convergent validity with the organization's position in the collaborative network, and with collaboration behaviors. The full scale and Coordinating Current Work subscale did not differentiate high- vs low-performing HSAs, but the Aligning Strategy subscale was significantly higher in high-performing HSAs than in low-performing HSAs (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Cross-sector collaboration-and particularly Aligning Strategy-is associated with health care use and spending for older adults. This new survey measure could be used to track the impact of interventions to foster interorganizational collaboration.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Relações Interinstitucionais , Medicare/organização & administração , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Serviço Social/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviço Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
6.
Can Bull Med Hist ; 36(2): 381-412, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518179

RESUMO

Health care professions struggling for legitimacy, recognition, and market share can become disoriented to their priorities. Health care practitioners are expected to put the interests of patients first. Professional associations represent the interests of their members. So when a professional association is composed of health care practitioners, its interests may differ from those of patients, creating a conflict for members. In addition, sometimes practitioners' perspectives may be altered by indoctrination in a belief system, or misinformation, so that a practitioner could be confused about the reality of patient needs. Politicians, in attempting to find an expedient compromise, can value a "win" in the legislative arena over the effects of that legislation. These forces all figure into the events that led to the acceptance of chiropractic into the American Medicare system. Two health care systems in a political fight lost sight of their main purpose: to provide care to patients without doing harm.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Quiroprática/história , Medicare/organização & administração , Médicos/psicologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Estados Unidos
8.
Inquiry ; 56: 46958019867612, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382843

RESUMO

The Medicare program is quietly becoming privatized through increasing enrollment in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans, even though MA has not lived up to its promise of delivering better care at lower cost. Policymakers must reverse this trend and ensure parity between traditional Medicare and MA rather than encourage it through legislation that only benefits MA. Furthermore, as discussions of expanding health insurance coverage through Medicare intensify, policymakers should explore what version of Medicare they wish to expand.


Assuntos
Medicare Part C/tendências , Medicare/tendências , Privatização/tendências , Humanos , Medicare/economia , Medicare/organização & administração , Medicare Part C/economia , Medicare Part C/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
9.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(9): 995-1000, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456493

RESUMO

The shift to a value-based health care system has incentivized providers to implement strategies that improve population health outcomes while minimizing downstream costs. Given their accessibility and expanded clinical care models, community pharmacists are well positioned to join interdisciplinary care teams to advance efforts in effectively managing the health of populations. In this Viewpoints article, we discuss the expanded role of community pharmacists and potential barriers limiting the uptake of these services. We then explore strategies to integrate, leverage, and sustain these services in a value-based economy. Although community pharmacists have great potential to improve population health outcomes because of their accessibility and clinical interventions that have demonstrated improved outcomes, pharmacists are not recognized as merit-based incentive eligible providers and, as a result, may be underutilized in this role. Additional barriers include lack of formal billing codes, which limits patient access to services such as hormonal contraception; fragmentation of Medicare, which prevents alignment of medical and pharmaceutical costs; and continued fee-for-service payment models, which do not incentivize quality. Despite these barriers, there are several opportunities for continued pharmacist involvement in new care models such as patient-centered medical homes (PCMH), accountable care organizations, and other value-based payment models. Community pharmacists integrated within PCMHs have demonstrated improved hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure control, and immunization rates. Likewise, other integrated, value-based models that used community pharmacists to provide medication therapy management services have reported a positive return on investment in overall health care costs. To uphold these efforts and effectively leverage community pharmacist services, we recommend the following: (a) recognition of pharmacists as providers to facilitate full participation in performance-based models, (b) increased integration of pharmacists in emerging delivery and payment models with rapid cycle testing to further clarify the role and value of pharmacists, and (c) enhanced collaborative relationships between pharmacists and other providers to improve interdisciplinary care. DISCLOSURES: This article was funded by the National Association of Chain Drug Stores. The authors have no potential conflicts of interest to report.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/normas , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/organização & administração , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/normas , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/normas , Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis/organização & administração , Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis/normas , Redução de Custos/normas , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado/normas , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Medicare/organização & administração , Medicare/normas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Papel Profissional , Estados Unidos
11.
Med Care ; 57(8): 584-591, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of Medicare payment reforms aiming to improve the efficiency and quality of care by establishing greater financial accountability for providers may vary based on the extent and types of other coverage for their patient populations. Providers who are more resource constrained due to a less favorable payer mix face greater financial risks under such reforms. The impact of the expanded Medicare dialysis prospective payment system (PPS) on quality of care in independent dialysis facilities may vary based on the extent of higher payments from private insurers available for managing increased risks. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether anemia outcomes for dialysis patients in independent facilities differ under the Medicare PPS based on facility payer mix. DESIGN: We examined changes in anemia outcomes for 122,641 Medicare dialysis patients in 921 independent facilities during 2009-2014 among facilities with differing levels of employer insurance (EI). We performed similar analyses of facilities affiliated with large dialysis organizations, whose practices were not expected to change based on facility-specific payer mix. RESULTS: Among independent facilities, similar modeled trends in low hemoglobin for all 3 facility EI groups in 2009-2010 were followed by increased low hemoglobin during 2012-2014 for facilities with lower EI (P<0.01). Post-PPS standardized blood transfusion ratios were 9% higher for lower EI versus higher EI independent facilities (P<0.01). Among large dialysis organizations facilities, there was no divergence in low hemoglobin by payer mix under the PPS. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence of poorer quality of care for anemia under the PPS in independent facilities with lower versus higher EI. Provider responses to payment reform may vary based on attributes such as payer mix that could have implications for health disparities.


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Medicare/organização & administração , Sistema de Pagamento Prospectivo/organização & administração , Diálise Renal/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia/economia , Anemia/etiologia , Eritropoetina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/economia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Medicare/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Pagamento Prospectivo/economia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/economia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Diálise Renal/normas , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Value Health ; 22(6): 642-647, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore payer feedback regarding awareness of new gene therapies, sustainability of current financing mechanisms, unique challenges by payer segment, and need and preference for new financial models. STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative interview with standardized interview guide. METHODS: Sixty-minute telephone interviews were conducted with financial decision makers from 15 US payers between August and September 2017. RESULTS: One-third of payers interviewed (n = 5) were newly aware and learning about new gene therapies, 40% (n = 6) described watchful waiting, whereas 26.7% (n = 4) were engaged in active management. New payment models-specifically, performance-based agreements and risk-pooling-were supported by 47% (n = 7) of payers, whereas the current payment model was supported by 53% (n = 8). Major challenges included uncertainty related to utilization, cost, and duration of cure. Payers cited regulation, plan turnover, and ability to track long-term outcomes as barriers to implementation of new models. CONCLUSIONS: Access to new gene therapies may be impacted by payer ability to absorb the cost of coverage. Variation exists in awareness of new gene therapies and level of incorporation of new costs into future plan coverage. The sustainability of current financing mechanisms varies by payer segment, profitability, and size; smaller plans and Medicaid are likely to be impacted first. Government reinsurance, commercial reinsurance, and stop-loss insurance backstop current reimbursement models, dampening the need for urgent action. The tipping point for action may be severe premium inflation in stop loss and reinsurance. Payers are open to innovative financing models that improve financial predictability and reward clinical performance.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Terapia Genética/métodos , Gastos em Saúde/normas , Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Medicaid/organização & administração , Medicare/organização & administração , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
13.
Prof Case Manag ; 24(3): 114-129, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946248

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) announced that beginning in 2019, Medicare Advantage (MA) health plans may begin offering additional benefits for nonmedical home services. In 2019, this change impacts the Long-Term Services and Supports (LTSS) landscape dramatically. This 2-part article describes LTSS, its traditional demographic and health care footprint, the regulatory and accreditation landscape, quality measurement and outcomes, and the critical importance of maintaining care continuity for individuals receiving LTSS. The objectives are to: PRIMARY PRACTICE SETTING(S):: Applicable to all health care sectors where case management is practiced. FINDINGS/CONCLUSIONS: Historically, once Medicare recognizes a product or service, managed health plans and commercial insurance carriers follow suit. Professional case managers must become fluent in the language of LTSS, the implications of these CMS changes, and the impact on case management practice across the care continuum. IMPLICATIONS FOR PROFESSIONAL CASE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE: Professional case managers should understand LTSS, especially as it pertains to care transitions and continuity of health care services to our most vulnerable clients.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Gerentes de Casos/educação , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Assistência de Longa Duração/organização & administração , Medicaid/organização & administração , Medicare/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Administração de Caso/normas , Currículo , Educação Médica Continuada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
15.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 36(10): 871-876, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most people in the United States and other countries cite their preferred location of death as their homes. However, intractable symptoms sometimes require hospitalization, especially if significant sedation becomes necessary. For over a decade, Hospice of Central New York has been using compounded phenobarbital suppositories with individuals in whom adequate sedation has not been achieved using sufficient doses of antipsychotics or benzodiazepines but prefer to remain in their homes. OBJECTIVES: (1) Describe the use of phenobarbital suppositories in homes for the purpose of sedation. (2) Understand patient characteristics of potential users and those in whom suppositories were actually used. (3) Measure time to death after initiating the phenobarbital suppositories. SETTING: Medicare-certified not-for-profit hospice organization in New York State. METHOD: Retrospective case series. RESULTS: Of 1675 patients enrolled in hospice over an 18-month period, phenobarbital suppositories were placed in the homes of 90 patients for potential use. Suppositories were initiated in 31 of the 90 patients. Agitated delirium was the major symptom for which suppositories were placed and initiated. Both groups had a greater prevalence of cancer diagnoses than the target population. The mean time to death after initiation of phenobarbital suppositories was 38.8 hours. None of the users were hospitalized. CONCLUSION: The use of compounded phenobarbital suppositories for the purpose of palliative sedation is an alternative for patients and families who desire to remain home despite refractory symptoms.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/métodos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Fenobarbital/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/organização & administração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Supositórios , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
16.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 36(8): 705-710, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884954

RESUMO

As the Medicare program struggles to control expenditures, there is increased focus on opportunities to manage patient populations more efficiently and at a lower cost. A major source of expense for the Medicare program is beneficiaries at end of life. Estimates of the percentage of Medicare costs that arise from patients in the last year of life differ, ranging from 13% to 25%, depending on methods and assumptions. We analyze the most recently available Medicare Limited Data Set to update prior studies of end-of-life costs and examine different methods of performing this calculation. Based upon these findings, we conclude that higher estimates that take into account the spending over the 12 months leading up to death more accurately reflect the full cost of a patient's last year of life. Comparing current year costs of decedents with Medicare's current year costs understates the full budgetary impact of end-of-life patients. Because risk-taking entities such as Medicare Advantage plans and Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) need to reduce costs while improving the quality of care, they should initiate programs to better manage the care of patients with serious or advanced illness. We also calculate costs for beneficiaries dying in different settings and conclude that more effective use of palliative care and hospice benefits offers a lower cost, higher quality alternative for patients at end of life.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/organização & administração , Assistência Terminal/economia , Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis/economia , Feminino , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/economia , Medicare Part C/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Estados Unidos
18.
Health Serv Res ; 54(2): 327-336, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Medicare's Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) does not account for social risk factors in risk adjustment, and this may lead the program to unfairly penalize safety-net hospitals. Our objective was to determine the impact of adjusting for social risk factors on HRRP penalties. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Claims data for 2 952 605 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF) or pneumonia from December 2012 to November 2015. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Poverty, disability, housing instability, residence in a disadvantaged neighborhood, and hospital population from a disadvantaged neighborhood were associated with higher readmission rates. Under current program specifications, safety-net hospitals had higher readmission ratios (AMI, 1.020 vs 0.986 for the most affluent hospitals; pneumonia, 1.031 vs 0.984; and CHF, 1.037 vs 0.977). Adding social factors to risk adjustment cut these differences in half. Over half the safety-net hospitals saw their penalty decline; 4-7.5 percent went from having a penalty to having no penalty. These changes translated into a $17 million reduction in penalties to safety-net hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Accounting for social risk can have a major financial impact on safety-net hospitals. Adjustment for these factors could reduce negative unintended consequences of the HRRP.


Assuntos
Medicare/organização & administração , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco Ajustado/organização & administração , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/organização & administração , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Economia Hospitalar , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/normas , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Readmissão do Paciente/economia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/normas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
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