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1.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 39(4): 389-393, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056636

RESUMO

Abstract Rectal Prolapse is a condition where the rectum protrudes beyond the anus. The explanation of this condition can be traced back to ancient Ayurveda text like Susruta Samhita, Ebers Pappyrus of 1500 B.C., etc. The exact cause of rectal prolapse is unclear but it is predominant on female gender and on people having constipation, previous anorectal surgeries etc. Both partial and complete varieties of rectal prolapse are extremely debilitating because of the discomfort of the prolapsing mass and variety of symptoms like rectal bleed, intermittent constipation or fecal incontinence. Although, diverse modalities of surgical management of rectal prolapse are present, no single optimal procedure is proved and the choice of operation is determined by the patient's age, sex, degree of incontinence, operative risk, as well as by the surgeon's experience. In Ayurveda, Guda Bhramsa (Rectal prolapse) is explained by Acharya Susruta under Kshudra Rogas (chapter of minor diseases) and has elaborated it's conservative management very beautifully. In this case, a female with partial rectal prolapse was treated with Kshara application and managed without complications. So, Kshara application can be a safe and effective alternative for the management of rectal prolapse.


Resumo O prolapso retal é uma condição em que o reto se projeta para além do ânus. A explicação desta condição foi relatada em antigos textos Ayurveda como Susruta Samhita e Ebers Pappyrus, datados de 1500 aC. A causa exata do prolapso retal não é clara, mas essa condição é predominante no sexo feminino e nas pessoas com constipação e histórico de cirurgias anorretais anteriores. Tanto o prolapso retal parcial quanto total são extremamente debilitantes devido ao desconforto da massa prolapsante e da variedade de sintomas como sangramento retal, constipação intermitente ou incontinência fecal. Embora diversas modalidades de tratamento cirúrgico para corrigir o prolapso retal tenham sido relatadas na literatura, nenhum procedimento é consensual; a escolha da operação é determinada pela idade, sexo, grau de incontinência, risco operatório e experiência do cirurgião. Na Ayurveda, Guda Bhramsa (prolapso retal) é explicado por Acharya Susruta no Kshudra Rogas (capítulo de doenças menores) e seu manejo conservador é descrito de forma bastante completa. No presente caso, uma paciente do sexo feminino com prolapso retal parcial foi tratada com aplicação de Kshara e administrada sem complicações. Assim, a aplicação de Kshara pode ser uma alternativa segura e eficaz para o manejo do prolapso retal.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Cauterização , Prolapso Retal/cirurgia , Medicina Ayurvédica , Prolapso Retal/terapia , Índia , Medicina Ayurvédica/história
2.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 353-364, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431119

RESUMO

Cinnabar is an attractive mineral with many different uses. It is reported that cinnabar is one of the traditional Chinese's medicines extensively use. The main objective of this critical review is to identify the current overview, concept and chemistry of cinnabar, which includes the process developments, challenges, and diverse options for pharmacology research. It is used as a medicine through probable toxicity, especially when taking overdoes. This review is the first to describe the toxicological effects of cinnabar and its associated compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) dependent metabolomics could be useful for examination of the pharmaceutical consequence. The analysis indicated that the accurate preparation methods, appropriate doses, disease status, ages with drug combinations are significant factors for impacting the cinnabar toxicity. Toxicologically, synthetic mercury sulfide or cinnabar should be notable for mercuric chloride, mercury vapor and methyl mercury for future protection and need several prominent advancements in cinnabar research.


Assuntos
Amnésia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Mercúrio/uso terapêutico , Nootrópicos/uso terapêutico , Agitação Psicomotora/tratamento farmacológico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Amnésia/fisiopatologia , Animais , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , História Antiga , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/química , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/isolamento & purificação , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/toxicidade , Medicina Ayurvédica/história , Medicina Ayurvédica/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/história , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Compostos de Mercúrio/química , Compostos de Mercúrio/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Mercúrio/toxicidade , Camundongos , Nootrópicos/química , Nootrópicos/isolamento & purificação , Nootrópicos/toxicidade , Agitação Psicomotora/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Testes de Toxicidade
3.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(6): 8342-8351, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417354

RESUMO

The history of Cannabis goes along that of humankind, as speculated based on geographical and evolutionary models together with historic data collected to date. Its medical use is several thousand years old, as attested both by archeobotanical evidence of Cannabis remains and written records found in ancient texts from the sacred Vedic foundational texts of Ayurvedic medicine (about 800 before current era [BCE]) to the first known Pharmacopoea, the Chinese "Shen Nung Pen Ts'ao Ching" (1 century BCE). In this paper, we retrace the history of Cannabis traveling through the key stages of its diffusion among the most important ancient cultures up to our days, when we are facing a renaissance of its medical employment. We report through the centuries evidence of its use in numerous pathologic conditions especially for its anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and anticonvulsing properties that support the requirement to direct our present research efforts into the definitive understanding of its efficacy.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Maconha Medicinal/história , Fitoterapia/história , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/história , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/história , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes/história , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , China , História Antiga , Humanos , Índia , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Medicina Ayurvédica/história
4.
J Hist Neurosci ; 27(1): 56-71, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28876177

RESUMO

This article discusses etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, and treatment of epilepsy, as described in Charaka Samhita (translation: Charaka's Compendium) and Sushruta Samhita, the two core texts of Ayurveda, an ancient system of medicine. Ayurveda emphasized amnesia and loss of consciousness as core features of epileptic seizures (Sanskrit: apasmar; translation: apa negation, smaran memory) and recognized that seizures occur due to a disturbance in brain function or flow of "humors" to the brain. Semiology of various seizure types was well described. Epilepsy was attributed to both internal and multiple exogenous factors. Treatment of epilepsy with formulations of naturally occurring substances, their compounding and use, is described in remarkable detail. Lifestyle modifications to protect people with epilepsy are also documented. Cognitive comorbidities of epilepsy were recognized. Although none of the Ayurveda formulations have any empirical evidence supporting their safety or efficacy in the treatment of epilepsy, studies are needed to generate relevant evidence, to recognize their hazards, and to integrate traditional and complementary systems of medicine with modern health care in an informed and safe manner.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia/terapia , Medicina Ayurvédica/história , Epilepsia/etiologia , Epilepsia/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Índia , Convulsões/história
8.
Bull Hist Med ; 90(1): 61-91, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27040026

RESUMO

This article analyzes why adulteration became a key trope of the Indian drug market. Adulteration had a pervasive presence, being present in medical discourses, public opinion and debate, and the nationalist claim for government intervention. The article first situates the roots of adulteration in the composite nature of this market, which involved the availability of drugs of different potencies as well as the presence of multiple layers of manufacturers, agents, and distributors. It then shows that such a market witnessed the availability of drugs of diverse potency and strengths, which were understood as elements of adulteration in contemporary medical and official discourse. Although contemporary critics argued that the lack of government legislation and control allowed adulteration to sustain itself, this article establishes that the culture of the dispensation of drugs in India necessarily involved a multitude of manufacturer-retailers, bazaar traders, and medical professionals practicing a range of therapies.


Assuntos
Colonialismo/história , Marketing de Serviços de Saúde/história , Medicina Ayurvédica/história , Preparações Farmacêuticas/história , História do Século XX , Índia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/economia
10.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 45(3): 172-5, 2015 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26420529

RESUMO

This paper introduces the Bower Manuscript in Sanskrit written on birch bark excavated in Xinjiang, which was bought in Kuqa by a British India army lieutenant Bower, hence its title. Then, it was researched, annotated, and published in 7 volumes by a German British lieutenant and orientalist Honer. The first three volumes are devoted to medical prescriptions. It is first verified that its "Dazi Xiangye San" is the "Dujuan Dachen San" in Tibetan medicine. By comparing it with other traditional medical systems, such as Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian, and Uyghur medical systems, we found that Bower Manuscript is closer to Tibetan medicine and Mongolian medicine, while it has less relation with Chinese medicine and Uyghur medicine. However, it also exerts some influence on TCM.


Assuntos
Manuscritos Médicos como Assunto , Medicina Ayurvédica/história , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/história , China , História Antiga , História Medieval
11.
Hist Psychiatry ; 26(1): 88-97, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25698688

RESUMO

The article documents medical approaches to mental illness in mid- to late-nineteenth-century India through examining the Indian Medical Gazette and other medical accounts. By the late nineteenth century, psychiatry in Europe moved from discussions around asylum-based care to a nuanced and informed debate about the nature of mental symptoms. This included ideas on phrenology and craniometry, biological and psycho-social causes, physical and drug treatments, many of which travelled to India. Simultaneously, indigenous socio-medical ideas were being debated. From the early to the mid-nineteenth century, not much distinction was made between the Western and the native 'mind', and consequently the diagnosis and investigation of mental symptoms did not differ. However, by the late nineteenth century Western medicine considered the 'Western mind' as more civilized and sophisticated than the 'native mind.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/história , Psicologia/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Índia , Medicina Ayurvédica/história , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Ocidente
13.
Cult Med Psychiatry ; 38(3): 369-86, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25106387

RESUMO

This is a study of the emergence of new institutional arenas for ayurveda and yunani medicine, collectivized at the time as 'indigenous medicine,' in a semi-autonomous State (Mysore) in late colonial India. The study argues that the characteristic dimensions of this process were compromise and misalignment between ideals of governance and modes of pedagogy and practice. Running counter to a narrative that the Princely States such as Mysore were instrumental for the 'preservation' of ayurveda, this study analyzes the process of negotiation and struggle between a variety of actors engaged with shaping the direction of institutionalized 'indigenous medicine'. In examining the entanglements over the priorities of the state administration and the conflicting desires and ideals of protagonists, the study problematizes the idea of studying the encounter between the 'state' and 'indigenous medicine,' in order rather to highlight their co-production and the tensions which were generated in the process. While institution-making for ayurveda and yunani in Mysore State assumed distinctive translocal forms, themes of divergence that were unresolved during the time of this study, over the role of the state, the politics of validation, appropriate curricula and pedagogy, and their relation to practice and employment, continue to inform the trajectories of state-directed health provision through 'indigenous medicine' on larger scales [India, health-care, ayurveda, yunani, education].


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/história , Medicina Ayurvédica/história , Medicina Unani/história , Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Índia
15.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24961002

RESUMO

The article considers the findings about pseudo-doctoring represented in one of the most ancient medical sources on our planet--treatise "Charaka Samhita" (Carakasamhita). This treatise is the most important text of Ayurveda, a traditional medical system developed in the Hindustan sub-continent during millenniums.


Assuntos
Medicina Ayurvédica/história , Médicos/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Índia
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 155(1): 373-86, 2014 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24907429

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Food is medicine and vice versa. In Hindu and Ayurvedic medicine, and among human cultures of the Indian subcontinent in general, the perception of the food-medicine continuum is especially well established. The preparation of the exhilarating, gold-coloured Soma, Amrita or Ambrosia, the elixir and food of the 'immortals'-the Hindu pantheon-by the ancient Indo-Aryans, is described in the Rigveda in poetic hymns. Different theories regarding the botanical identity of Soma circulate, but no pharmacologically and historically convincing theory exists to date. We intend to contribute to the botanical, chemical and pharmacological characterisation of Soma through an analysis of two historical Amrita recipes recorded in the Bower Manuscript. The recipes are referred therein as panaceas (clarified butter) and also as a medicine to treat nervous diseases (oil), while no exhilarating properties are mentioned. Notwithstanding this, we hypothesise, that these recipes are related to the ca. 1800 years older Rigvedic Soma. We suppose that the psychoactive Soma ingredient(s) are among the components, possibly in smaller proportions, of the Amrita recipes preserved in the Bower Manuscript. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Bower Manuscript is a medical treatise recorded in the 6th century A.D. in Sanskrit on birch bark leaves, probably by Buddhist monks, and unearthed towards the end of the 19th century in Chinese Turkestan. We analysed two Amrita recipes from the Bower Manuscript, which was translated by Rudolf Hoernle into English during the early 20th century. A database search with the updated Latin binomials of the herbal ingredients was used to gather quantitative phytochemical and pharmacological information. RESULTS: Together, both Amrita recipes contain around 100 herbal ingredients. Psychoactive alkaloid containing species still important in Ayurvedic, Chinese and Thai medicine and mentioned in the recipe for 'Amrita-Prâsa clarified butter' and 'Amrita Oil' are: Tinospora cordifolia (Amrita, Guduchi), three Sida spp., Mucuna pruriens, Nelumbo nucifera, Desmodium gangeticum, and Tabernaemontana divaricata. These species contain several notorious and potential psychoactive and psychedelic alkaloids, namely: tryptamines, 2-phenylethylamine, ephedrine, aporphines, ibogaine, and L-DOPA. Furthermore, protoberberine alkaloids, tetrahydro-ß-carbolines, and tetrahydroisoquinolines with monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAO-I) activity but also neurotoxic properties are reported. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that Soma was a combination of a protoberberine alkaloids containing Tinospora cordifolia juice with MAO-I properties mixed together with a tryptamine rich Desmodium gangeticum extract or a blending of Tinospora cordifolia with an ephedrine and phenylethylamine-rich Sida spp. extract. Tinospora cordifolia combined with Desmodium gangeticum might provide a psychedelic experience with visual effects, while a combination of Tinospora cordifolia with Sida spp. might lead to more euphoric and amphetamine-like experiences.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional/história , Fitoterapia/história , Extratos Vegetais/história , Plantas Medicinais/química , Alcaloides/história , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Etnofarmacologia/história , Alimentos/história , História Medieval , Humanos , Manuscritos Médicos como Assunto/história , Medicina Ayurvédica/história , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
17.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 62(12): 73-4, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26259432
19.
Ann Plast Surg ; 73(1): 2-7, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23788147

RESUMO

Sushruta is considered the "Father of Plastic Surgery." He lived in India sometime between 1000 and 800 BC, and is responsible for the advancement of medicine in ancient India. His teaching of anatomy, pathophysiology, and therapeutic strategies were of unparalleled luminosity, especially considering his time in the historical record. He is notably famous for nasal reconstruction, which can be traced throughout the literature from his depiction within the Vedic period of Hindu medicine to the era of Tagliacozzi during Renaissance Italy to modern-day surgical practices. The primary focus of this historical review is centered on Sushruta's anatomical and surgical knowledge and his creation of the cheek flap for nasal reconstruction and its transition to the "Indian method." The influential nature of the Sushruta Samhita, the compendium documenting Sushruta's theories about medicine, is supported not only by anatomical knowledge and surgical procedural descriptions contained within its pages, but by the creative approaches that still hold true today.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Plástica/história , História Antiga , Índia , Itália , Medicina Ayurvédica/história , Rinoplastia/história , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/história , Livros de Texto como Assunto/história
20.
Rev. med. (Säo Paulo) ; 92(3): 156-165, jul.-set. 2013.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-730795

RESUMO

O objetivo do presente artigo é apresentar de forma sucinta as bases da Medicina Clássica Indiana, o Ayurveda. A palavra sânscrita Ayurveda significa literalmente o conhecimento (veda) da longevidade (ayus). Apresentamos um histórico das principais influências de outras medicinas ancestrais que conviveram com o Ayurveda, principalmente graças às várias invasões que o território indiano sofreu ao longo de toda sua história. Diferenciamos o Ayurveda de caráter experimental e de refinada observação de sintomas e sinais das doenças de outras formas de medicina mística praticadas no mesmo território indiano por sacerdotes brâmanes ritualistas. São delineados os princípios fundamentais do Ayurveda, desde a Filosofia Samkhya que oferece suas bases metafísicas, passando pela doutrina dos três humores (tridosha vidya) e dos cinco elementos básicos, pela fisiopatologia com a descrição das várias etapas evolutivas das doenças e seus prognósticos e pela funcionalidade dos sete tecidos corporais, tanto na sua forma saudável como patológica. Descrevemos também os canais de circulação (srotamsi) com suas respectivas funções de conduzir materiais densos como o sangue, a transpiração, as fezes e a urina, bem como os canais de energia sutil responsáveis pela condução dos pensamentos e das funções mentais. As técnicas de diagnóstico são também apresentadas em conjunto com as variadas formas de tratamento, baseadas em terapias mente-corpo como as práticas de ioga e meditação.


The aim of this article is to introduce briefly the foundations of the Classical Indian Medicine, Ayurveda. The Sanskrit word Ayurveda literally means the knowledge (veda) of longevity (ayus). We present a history on the main influences of other ancient medicines that coexisted with Ayurveda, due to the several invasions that the Indian Territory suffered throughout all of its history. Ayurveda has an experimental character and a refined observation of symptoms and signs of diseases, distinct from other forms of mystic medicines practiced within the Indian Territory by orthodox Brahmins priests. The fundamental principles of Ayurveda go from the Samkhya Philosophy that offers its metaphysical bases, through the three humours (tridosha vidya) and five basic elements doctrines, the pathophysiology with the description of the numerous evolutionary steps of diseases and prognosis according to functionality of the seven basic body tissues, in both their healthy and pathological forms. Likewise, we describe the channels of circulation (srotamsi) with their respective functions of conducting dense materials such as blood, perspiration, feces and urine, as well as the subtle energy channels, responsible for the conduction of thoughts and mental functions.


Assuntos
Filosofia Médica/história , História da Medicina , Saúde Holística , Ioga/história , Cuidados Médicos , Terapias Mente-Corpo , Medicina Ayurvédica/história , Medicina Integrativa/história , Medicina Tradicional/história , Diagnóstico Precoce
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