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2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 8-12, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914562

RESUMO

With the rapid development of medical practice, evidence-based medicine combines the best evidence, clinical experience and patient value, the role of evidence-based public health in public health has become increasingly prominent. However, only about half of the evidence-based medical evidence can be truly translated into regular health care services, and the conversion process takes a long time. In order to bridge the gap between best evidence and clinical or public health applications, implementation research emerged as a new discipline. This paper introduce the background, development, theory and methods of implementation research, and discusses it's application and challenges of implementing scientific in the field of public health in China.


Assuntos
Ciência da Implementação , Saúde Pública , China , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Humanos
3.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e79, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841104

RESUMO

In March 2019, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a nasal spray formulation of esketamine for the treatment of resistant depression in adults. Esketamine is the S-enantiomer of ketamine, an FDA-approved anaesthetic, known to cause dissociation and, occasionally, hallucinations. While ketamine has not been approved for depression in the USA or in any other country, it has been used off-label in cases of severe depression. This commentary critically reviewed the evidence on esketamine submitted to the FDA, aiming to draw implications for clinical practice, research and regulatory science.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/tratamento farmacológico , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Depressão/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/diagnóstico , Aprovação de Drogas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
5.
BMJ ; 367: l5887, 2019 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690574

RESUMO

Diabetes is a major and costly health concern worldwide, with high morbidity, disability, mortality, and impaired quality of life. The vast majority of people living with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. Historically, the main strategy to reduce complications of type 2 diabetes has been intensive glycemic control. However, the body of evidence shows no meaningful benefit of intensive (compared with moderate) glycemic control for microvascular and macrovascular outcomes important to patients, with the exception of reduced rates of non-fatal myocardial infarction. Intensive glycemic control does, however, increase the risk of severe hypoglycemia and incurs additional burden by way of polypharmacy, side effects, and cost. Additionally, data from cardiovascular outcomes trials showed that cardiovascular, kidney, and mortality outcomes may be improved with use of specific classes of glucose lowering drugs largely independently of their glycemic effects. Therefore, delivering evidence based, patient centered care to people with type 2 diabetes requires a paradigm shift and departure from the predominantly glucocentric view of diabetes management. Instead of prioritizing intensive glycemic control, the focus needs to be on ensuring access to adequate diabetes care, aligning glycemic targets to patients' goals and situations, minimizing short term and long term complications, reducing the burden of treatment, and improving quality of life.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Qualidade de Vida , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Complicações do Diabetes/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Metanálise como Assunto , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Lancet ; 394(10211): 1816-1826, 2019 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncertainty remains about the optimal monotherapy for hypertension, with current guidelines recommending any primary agent among the first-line drug classes thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, in the absence of comorbid indications. Randomised trials have not further refined this choice. METHODS: We developed a comprehensive framework for real-world evidence that enables comparative effectiveness and safety evaluation across many drugs and outcomes from observational data encompassing millions of patients, while minimising inherent bias. Using this framework, we did a systematic, large-scale study under a new-user cohort design to estimate the relative risks of three primary (acute myocardial infarction, hospitalisation for heart failure, and stroke) and six secondary effectiveness and 46 safety outcomes comparing all first-line classes across a global network of six administrative claims and three electronic health record databases. The framework addressed residual confounding, publication bias, and p-hacking using large-scale propensity adjustment, a large set of control outcomes, and full disclosure of hypotheses tested. FINDINGS: Using 4·9 million patients, we generated 22 000 calibrated, propensity-score-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) comparing all classes and outcomes across databases. Most estimates revealed no effectiveness differences between classes; however, thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics showed better primary effectiveness than angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: acute myocardial infarction (HR 0·84, 95% CI 0·75-0·95), hospitalisation for heart failure (0·83, 0·74-0·95), and stroke (0·83, 0·74-0·95) risk while on initial treatment. Safety profiles also favoured thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics over angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers were significantly inferior to the other four classes. INTERPRETATION: This comprehensive framework introduces a new way of doing observational health-care science at scale. The approach supports equivalence between drug classes for initiating monotherapy for hypertension-in keeping with current guidelines, with the exception of thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics superiority to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and the inferiority of non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. FUNDING: US National Science Foundation, US National Institutes of Health, Janssen Research & Development, IQVIA, South Korean Ministry of Health & Welfare, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diuréticos/efeitos adversos , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 54(4): 569-584, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703782

RESUMO

Human trafficking is the intentional exploitation of vulnerable individuals for the personal gain of the exploiter and is now recognized as an emerging public health care priority. Health care providers are well positioned to identify and assist trafficked individuals as well as those who may be at risk for exploitation. Trauma informed care is essential to identify victims and evaluate the impact of traumatic stress while highlighting survivors' strengths and supporting their resiliency. Human trafficking demographics, including mental and physical health problems, health considerations, risk factors, screening, implications for practice, and national resources, are reviewed.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Tráfico de Pessoas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pessoal de Saúde , Tráfico de Pessoas/psicologia , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Pública
8.
Psychiatr Prax ; 46(8): 468-475, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683337

RESUMO

The development of treatment guidelines alone does not improve patient care. The implementation of guidelines depends on various conditions, including structural conditions. The update of the S3 guideline "Psychosocial therapies for severe mental illnesses" systematically describes very different psychosocial therapies and reviews their effectiveness. The implementation of the resulting recommendations, which are coordinated in a complex consensus process, is hampered by the structured social legislation in Germany. The present article shows to what extent the recommendations of the update of the S3 Guideline Psychosocial Therapies follow the Federal Participation Act (BTHG).


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Psicoterapia/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Alemanha , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Psicoterapia/normas
9.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 39(11): 1223-8, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To carry out the methodological quality evaluation and content analysis of the evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for acupuncture-moxibustion in China, and to provide reference for the development and updating of future guidelines. METHODS: With Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and EvaluationⅡ(AGREEⅡ), 20 evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for acupuncture and moxibustion in China were evaluated from six aspects: scope and purpose, stakeholder involvement, rigour of development, clarity of presentation, applicability and editorial independence. In addition, the contents of 20 guidelines were systematically analyzed, and the characteristics of guidelines were summarized from the aspects of disease selection, operation technology type and safety. RESULTS: The scores of six domains were scope and purpose (91.1%), stakeholder involvement (68.5%), rigour of development (68.6%), clarity of presentation (90.3%), applicability (34.5%) and editorial independence (16.7%). The recommendations of the 20 acupuncture guidelines covered common clinical problems such as diagnosis, treatment and precautions, which were in line with the clinical characteristics of acupuncture and moxibustion in terms of content structure. CONCLUSION: The methodology of the evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for acupuncture and moxibustion in China conformed to the requirements of AGREEⅡ on the quality evaluation, and the overall quality was moderate, but the aspects of applicability and editorial independence were still needed to be improved. The contents of recommendations in 20 guidelines were specific and clear, in line with the characteristics of acupuncture and moxibustion, presenting clinical reference value. In the future, in the process of guideline development, the method of developing acupuncture and moxibustion guidelines should be constantly improved to improve the quality of the guidelines; in the meantime, more attention should be paid to the generalization and clinical applicability evaluation.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Moxibustão , China , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 2893-2895, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602830

RESUMO

The three elements in evidence-based clinical decisions are " best clinical research evidence,physicians' personal experience,and patients' basic values and wishes". This concept coincides with the " bio-psycho-social" model of systematic medicine,and this is the key reason why evidence-based medicine has become the most important diagnostic and therapeutic system under the new medical model. However,there is no methodological support for the implementation of " respecting patients' basic values and wishes".As a result,this concept is difficult to be implemented in clinical practice,and has become the form of " patient or family member' s signature for consent". In narrative medicine,doctors are advocated to record details,psychological processes and even family members' feelings in non-technical language to form parallel medical records,and the key point is to achieve " empathy" between doctors and patients. This idea is consistent with traditional Chinese medicine( TCM),and also provides a practical operation method " to respect patients' basic values and wishes". Medicine is a discipline based on human science,with dual attributes of science and humanity. Humanistic care is the tradition of TCM,and also is one of the basic characteristics and core connotations in TCM. Therefore,in the development of evidence-based TCM,we should combine evidence-based medicine with narrative medicine,and inject humanistic care into evidence-based medicine with the concept and methodology of narrative medicine,so as to achieve the deep integration of science and humanity.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/tendências , Humanos
13.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(10): 745-750, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594172

RESUMO

With the improvement of people's living conditions and the prolonged lifespan, gout and hyperuricemia have increasingly become common chronic diseases in daily clinical practice for other physicians in addition to rheumatologists, even including general practitioners and primary care doctors. The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) firstly issued recommendations on gout diagnosis and management in 2006, which has been updated several times. Using a Delphi consensus approach, 2018 updated European League Against Rheumatism evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis of gout finally formulated eight main recommendations, which was published online in June 2019. Not only does this edition emphasize the role of specialists, joint puncture or tophus aspirates and ultrasound in diagnosis, but also calls on all clinicians to pay more attention to risk factors of gout and associated comorbidities.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Gota/diagnóstico , Hiperuricemia/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 156(4): 442-452.e12, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582116

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated and compared the completeness of reporting of abstracts of orthodontics systematic reviews before and after the publication of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) extension for Abstracts Checklist (PRISMA-A). METHODS: Abstracts of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in orthodontics published in PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases before March 23, 2018, that met the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, were evaluated using the 12 items of PRISMA-A, scoring each item from 0 to 2. Abstracts were classified into 2 groups: before and after publication of the PRISMA-A checklist. Three calibrated evaluators (intraclass correlation coefficient and kappa > 0.8) assessed the scores for compliance with the checklist. The number of authors, country of affiliation of the first author, performance of meta-analysis, and topic of the article were recorded. A regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between abstract characteristics and the PRISMA-A scores. RESULTS: Of 1034 abstracts evaluated, 389 were included in the analysis. The mean PRISMA-A score was 53.39 (95% CI, 51.83-54.96). The overall score for studies published after the publication of the checklist was significantly higher than for studies published before (P ≤ 0.0001). The components returning significantly higher scores after publication of PRISMA-A were title (P = 0.024), information from databases (P = 0.026), risk of bias (P ≤ 0.0001), included studies (P ≤ 0.0001), synthesis of results (P ≤ 0.0001), interpretation of results (P = 0.035), financing and conflict of interest (P ≤ 0.0001), and registration (P ≤ 0.0001). These results showed the positive effect of PRISMA-A had on the quality of reporting of orthodontics systematic reviews. Nevertheless, the poor adherence revealed that there is still need for improvement in the quality of abstract reporting. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of reporting of abstracts of orthodontic systematic reviews and meta-analyses increased after the introduction of PRISMA-A.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Ortodontia/normas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Editoração/normas , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Bibliometria , Lista de Checagem , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade
15.
J Neurosurg Spine ; 31(4): 457-463, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574462

RESUMO

The authors believe that the standardized and systematic study of immobilization techniques, diagnostic modalities, medical and surgical treatment strategies, and ultimately outcomes and outcome measurement after cervical spinal trauma and cervical spinal fracture injuries, if performed using well-designed medical evidence-based comparative investigations with meaningful follow-up, has both merit and the remarkable potential to identify optimal strategies for assessment, characterization, and clinical management. However, they recognize that there is inherent difficulty in attempting to apply evidence-based medicine (EBM) to identify ideal treatment strategies for individual cervical fracture injuries. First, there is almost no medical evidence reported in the literature for the management of specific isolated cervical fracture subtypes; specific treatment strategies for specific fracture injuries have not been routinely studied in a rigorous, comparative way. One of the vulnerabilities of an evidenced-based scientific review in spinal cord injury (SCI) is the lack of studies in comparative populations and scientific evidence on a given topic or fracture pattern providing level II evidence or higher. Second, many modest fracture injuries are not associated with vascular or neural injury or spinal instability. The application of the science of EBM to the care of patients with traumatic cervical spine injuries and SCIs is invaluable and necessary. The dedicated multispecialty author groups involved in the production and publication of the two iterations of evidence-based guidelines on the management of acute cervical spine and spinal cord injuries have provided strategic guidance in the care of patients with SCIs. This dedicated service to the specialty has been carried out to provide neurosurgical colleagues with a qualitative review of the evidence supporting various aspects of care of these patients. It is important to state and essential to understand that the science of EBM and its rigorous application is important to medicine and to the specialty of neurosurgery. It should be embraced and used to drive and shape investigations of the management and treatment strategies offered patients. It should not be abandoned because it is not convenient or it does not support popular practice bias or patterns. It is the authors' view that the science of EBM is essential and necessary and, furthermore, that it has great potential as clinician scientists treat and study the many variations and complexities of patients who sustain acute cervical spine fracture injuries.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/lesões , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos
16.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 198-203, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evidence that health interventions work is not enough to ensure implementation into policy and practice. The complexity of public health systems requires more diverse actions. This paper proposes a conceptual model to enhance understanding of interlinking factors that influence the evidence implementation process. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to explore factors that influence the process of evidence implementation in complex public health systems, including research findings and observations from 32 case studies of injury prevention interventions underway in 24 countries and results from evidence research networks. Concepts and themes identified through a critical review were organised, ordered and interlinked to build the model. RESULTS: An Evidence Implementation Model for Public Health Systems and four concepts or themes: Evidence implementation target; Actors involved in implementation; Knowledge transfer; and Barriers and facilitators to evidence implementation were developed to provide a simplified, yet broad framework that highlights multiple factors and back and forth inter-linkages within and between the concepts that influence the uptake of evidence into public health systems policy and practice. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the factors discussed within and amongst the four concepts of this model should ultimately help to positively influence the uptake of evidence into real world public health systems. This model has relevance for decision makers, researchers, knowledge brokers, and implementers.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Tomada de Decisões , Medicina Baseada em Evidências
18.
Nervenarzt ; 90(11): 1125-1134, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659372

RESUMO

Psychotherapy has been proven to be effective; however, this statement applies in particular to the "average patient" in randomized controlled trials. As a considerable proportion of patients do not show any benefits despite the constant development of new therapy methods and the mechanisms of action are still too little understood, innovative psychotherapy research has to address both problems. In addition, the idea of personalization that originated in somatic medicine or - from our point of view more appropriately - individualization or person-centering should be taken up. After providing an overview of further developments in psychotherapy beyond disorder-specific methods, this article presents an evidence- and process-based individualized and modular psychotherapy as a visionary goal of psychotherapeutic research: Beyond syndromes and disorders, as many biopsychosocial characteristics as possible and the processes and mechanisms underlying the mental problems should be analyzed and bundled in an individual comprehensive functional analysis. Based on this functional analysis, evidence-based techniques and modules should be selected. The individual response during the course of therapy should be continuously documented, so that feedback helps to determine the further therapeutic procedure. In order to pursue this vision, studies are needed that are oriented towards the individual patient, investigate the central mechanisms of action and generate large translational datasets. These should be analyzed by ideographic analyses and reduce the gap between research and practice, thus contributing to the paradigm of a practice research network, which is now consistently moving to the centre of research.


Assuntos
Psicoterapia , Psicotrópicos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Psicoterapia/normas , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
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