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5.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(678): 117-122, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967753

RESUMO

In healthy adults, vitamin D does not prevent falls or hip fractures. The diabetogenic effect of topical steroids is significant and dose dependent. Pulmonary embolism can be surely ruled out by the YEARS algorithm adapted to pregnancy. Patients with osteoarthritis treated with tramadol have a higher risk of death when compared to those treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients can be reduced by an educational intervention deployed in pharmacies. Medical scribes are effective in improving visit quality and job satisfaction of family physicians. Impedance studies lead to new diagnostic approaches in chronic fatigue. In healthy individuals, isolated check-up interventions do not have an impact on morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Medicina Interna , Osteoartrite , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada , Medicina Interna/tendências , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(678): 128-132, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967755

RESUMO

General internal medicine is particularly concerned by the shift from stationary to ambulatory care, a shift that unfortunately is more often discussed from an economic perspective than from the angle of evidence. This article presents the results of studies and reviews published in 2019 that investigated the effectiveness of ambulatory instead of stationary care.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Medicina Geral , Medicina Interna , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Medicina Geral/tendências , Humanos , Medicina Interna/tendências
7.
Internist (Berl) ; 61(1): 36-43, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848646

RESUMO

Swelling of soft parts of the lower extremities, whether uni- or bilateral, is a common reason for consulting a general practitioner (GP). Complex interactions mean that GPs are faced with a wide range of differential diagnoses during clarification of such findings. Of enormous importance is the prevention of a dangerous course, e.g., by initiating weight-adapted calculated antibiotic treatment, antithrombotic therapy, or even initial inpatient treatment and acute diagnostic workup in case of impending compartment syndrome or extensive venous thrombosis of the leg with or without suspicion of pulmonary embolism. Sometimes an acute venous thrombosis of the leg unmasks malignant disease. A swollen leg/swollen legs are frequently a leading symptom of decompensating heart or renal failure. Another possible cause are drug side effects, which may be exacerbated in a warm environment. An endocrine cause must also be considered in some cases. The GP is the appropriate physician for patients to contact and to initiate and coordinate diagnostics and treatment. In addition to coordination of specialist examinations, it is not infrequent that nurses and physiotherapists have to be involved in treatment, to ensure successful outpatient care.


Assuntos
Edema/diagnóstico , Medicina Geral , Perna (Membro)/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Insuficiência Venosa/complicações , Trombose Venosa , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Edema/etiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior
9.
Orv Hetil ; 160(50): 1976-1983, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814420

RESUMO

Introduction and aim: The aim of this study was to implement a two-stage diabetes screening programme in a severely disadvantaged municipality. In the first stage, diabetes risk assessment was carried out in the 18 to 75 age group, followed by screening of the high risk population for potential carbohydrate metabolism disorders using laboratory tests. Method: Stage 1: assessment of diabetes risk with the FINDRISC questionnaire; Stage 2: identification of carbohydrate metabolism status by oral glucose tolerance test and glycated haemoglobin test in patients with elevated or high risk of diabetes. Results: 406 individuals completed the FINDRISC questionnaire. Elevated or high risk for diabetes was confirmed in 129 individuals (31.77%). There was significant correlation between increased risk and age (p<0.001) and between increased risk and body mass index (p<0.001). Based on the oral glucose tolerance test, 28.3% and 9.43% of the patients were diagnosed with pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus, respectively. According to the glycated haemoglobin test, the incidences of prediabetes and diabetes were 50.94% and 11.32%, respectively. The strongest predictors of prediabetes/diabetes mellitus was the age (p = 0.047). The correlation between prediabetes/diabetes mellitus and smoking (p = 0.635) and physical activity (p = 0.975) was the weakest. The results showed that the glycated hemoglobin value increased by mean 0.2% by metabolic syndromes patients. Conclusions: Our results highlight the necessity for improving preventative care. Based on the risks of significant mortality and disability due to diabetes, prevention and early diagnosis must be prioritised in primary care. In addition to the oral glucose tolerance test, measurement of glycated haemoglobin is also indicated, while keeping in mind the limitations of its diagnostic value. Evaluating for glycated hemoglobin results, it is also worth looking for the presence of metabolic syndrome. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(50): 1976-1983.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Medicina Geral , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Estado Pré-Diabético , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico
11.
Rev Med Liege ; 74(12): 650-654, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833275

RESUMO

Since decades the incidence of skin cancer is clearly rising. This alarming trend also applies to melanoma. It represents the 4th most common cancer in women and 6th in men in 2015. Early recognition and treatment reduce both morbidity and mortality. Screening is the cornerstone of secondary prevention. However, access to reliable and rapid diagnosis is hampered by several factors, including accessibility to specialized medicine. One of the solutions to this problem is to collaborate with the first-line medical care through a teledermatology system. The TeleSPOT project, Teledermoscopy Smartphone-based Pigmented lesion diagnosis Online Taskforce, aims to provide a remote diagnostic aid by dermatologists to distinguish suspect pigmented skin lesions and accelerate their management.


Assuntos
Dermoscopia , Medicina Geral , Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Telemedicina , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico
12.
Rev Infirm ; 68(256): 45-46, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870482

RESUMO

Catherine is an advanced nurse practitioner working in a large general practice in the north of England. She works alongside her medical colleagues and receives and treats patients with undifferentiated complaints. Tom, a 33 year-old man, is presenting today with respiratory symptoms.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Satisfação do Paciente
13.
N Z Med J ; 132(1488): 21-27, 2019 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinalysis performed by dipstick testing is an aid to diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTI), and a tool in selecting patients who require urine culture and antibiotic treatment. Previous studies have demonstrated that UTI, especially in the elderly, are over-diagnosed and over-treated. We sought to study the pattern and yield of urinalysis and urine culture at our service in a tertiary institution. METHODS: A convenience sampling method was utilised to prospectively collect clinical data, through a pre-designed pro forma, from patients admitted to the General Medicine service at Christchurch Hospital between March and June 2016. RESULTS: The study included 395 patients, with a median age of 76 (range 15-100 years). The presence of urinary tract symptoms was documented in 94 patients (24%) and a non-specific syndrome of elevated temperature, confusion or subjective feverishness in 69 (17%). In symptomatic patients, 121 (74%) had a dipstick performed and 104 (86%) urine samples cultured. In the remaining patients, 181 (78%) had a dipstick performed and 81 (35%) had a urine sample sent for culture. CONCLUSIONS: We found a large number of urine dipsticks is being ordered unnecessarily in asymptomatic patients. A more useful test is urine microscopy and culture that is done on symptomatic patients only following careful clinical evaluation. Performing 'routine' urinalysis in patients presenting a wide variety of symptoms may lead to unnecessary urine cultures and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Efforts to reduce unnecessary tests and antibiotic treatment are a vital component of diagnostic stewardship programmes.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Urinálise/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Estudos Prospectivos , Procedimentos Desnecessários/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Presse Med ; 48(12): e382-e388, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare diseases are defined by a prevalence of less than one out of 2000 persons. In clinical practice, their management is difficult, due to their diversity, their complexity and a lack of adapted physician training. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to identify rare skin diseases in a reference center, to describe the difficulties encountered by general practitioners (GPs) in management of these uncommon cases, and to pinpoint the characteristics of the GPs having the most problems. METHODS: A survey conducted from March to June 2017 involving GPs at least one of whose rare skin disease patients was being monitored in a reference center. RESULTS: All in all, 96/195 (49.2%) of the GPs contacted completed the questionnaire, and virtually all of them (95%) reported five main categories of difficulties: giving a diagnosis, monitoring treatment, coordinating care, providing support, and ensuring management of intercurrent pathologies. The most widely reported difficulties were related to diagnosis (88.5%) and care coordination (76%). The GPs most in need of assistance were those practicing in rural areas (11 times more likely to experience difficulties), those with over 10 years of experience (up to 9.8 times more risk) and those not considering their role in the management of patients with rare diseases as instrumental (2.28 times more risk). CONCLUSIONS: This study brought to light the difficulties encountered by GPs in management of patients with rare skin diseases. We identified those the most in need of assistance, who are to be targeted for actions aimed at improving the care and treatment of patients suffering from rare skin diseases.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Clínicos Gerais , Padrões de Prática Médica , Doenças Raras/terapia , Dermatopatias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Competência Clínica/normas , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Medicina Geral/educação , Clínicos Gerais/normas , Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Br Dent J ; 227(10): 875-880, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758122

RESUMO

This is the second in a two-part series that aims to summarise answers to common questions facing dentists in general practice. The first part of this series is entitled 'Periodontal care in general practice: 20 important FAQs - Part one' (Br Dent J 2019;226: 850-854) and contains the first set of ten FAQs.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Doenças Periodontais , Odontólogos , Odontologia Geral , Humanos
16.
Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes ; 147-148: 90-96, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were the translation and a first reflection of the psychometric properties of the Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), a multidimensional instrument to measure workload in general practice. METHODS: During April and September 2015, the NASA-TLX was translated and evaluated. For this purpose, a questionnaire composed of the NASA-TLX items and others items related to demographic data, was developed. Postgraduate family medicine trainees and family physicians were then asked to assess patient consultations by applying the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the NASA-TLX were identified using explorative and confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α. RESULTS: Overall, 16 participants completed 769 surveys after a single patient consultation. The highest average was observed for the item 'mental demand' (mean 6.9 ± 5.4), followed by the item 'effort' (mean 6.6 ± 5.5). Factor analysis revealed a one-factor solution with an explained variance of 56.9 %. The German version of NASA-TLX demonstrated a high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.84). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that there was an acceptable consistency between the expected unidimensional structure and the data. CONCLUSIONS: The German version of NASA-TLX provides preliminary indications of psychometric properties and presents an important tool to evaluate family physicians' workload in direct patient contact.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Psicometria , Carga de Trabalho , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Alemanha , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
17.
Prim Dent J ; 8(3): 64-74, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666174

RESUMO

In 2019, in a world of instant gratification, what are the expectations of patients and dentists? Is training sufficient to meet these expectations? Decision-making in dentistry impacts the treatment choices patients are given, and may influence the outcomes of such treatment. It is therefore important to ensure as much standardisation as possible. In order to achieve this, it is important to know the current standard and the views of dentist as this will influence dental treatment planning. Clinical Relevance: This paper captures the treatment planning dilemmas of dentists, specifically of those in their Foundation training year, in order to aid targeting of training and development. Objective Statement: To understand treatment decisions of general dental practitioners and specialists.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Bucal/organização & administração , Odontólogos/psicologia , Odontologia Geral , Medicina Geral , Odontologia Geral/organização & administração , Humanos
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 811, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of people living with chronic health conditions is increasing in Australia. The Chronic Disease Management program was introduced to Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) to provide a more structured approach to managing patients with chronic conditions and complex care needs. The program supports General Practitioners (GP)s claiming for up to one general practice management plan (GPMP) and one team care arrangement (TCA) every year and the patient claiming for up to five private allied health visits. We describe the profile of participants who claimed for GPMPs and/or TCAs in Central and Eastern Sydney (CES) and explore if GPMPs and/or TCAs are associated with fewer emergency hospitalisations (EH)s or potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH)s over the following 5 years. METHODS: This research used the CES Primary and Community Health Cohort/Linkage Resource (CES-P&CH) based on the 45 and Up Study to identify a community-dwelling population in the CES region. There were 30,645 participants recruited within the CES area at baseline. The CES-P&CH includes 45 and Up Study questionnaire data linked to MBS data for the period 2006-2014. It also includes data from the Admitted Patient Data Collection, Emergency Department Data Collection and Deaths Registry linked by the NSW Centre for Health Record Linkage. RESULTS: Within a two-year health service utilisation baseline period 22% (5771) of CES participants had at least one claim for a GPMP and/or TCA. Having at least one claim for a GPMP and/or TCA was closely related to the socio-demographic and health needs of participants with higher EHs and PPHs in the 5 years that followed. However, after controlling for confounding factors such as socio-demographic need, health risk, health status and health care utilization no significant difference was found between having claimed for a GPMP and/or TCA during the two-year health service utilisation baseline period and EHs or PPHs in the subsequent 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: The use of GPMPs and/or TCAs in the CES area appears well-targeted towards those with chronic and complex care needs. There was no evidence to suggest that the use of GPMPs and /or TCAs has prevented hospitalisations in the CES region.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/terapia , Medicina Geral/organização & administração , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração
20.
BMJ ; 367: l5922, 2019 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical effectiveness and safety of stand alone and blended internet based vestibular rehabilitation (VR) in the management of chronic vestibular syndromes in general practice. DESIGN: Pragmatic, three armed, parallel group, individually randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 59 general practices in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 322 adults aged 50 and older with a chronic vestibular syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: Stand alone VR comprising a six week, internet based intervention with weekly online sessions and daily exercises (10-20 minutes a day). In the blended VR group, the same internet based intervention was supplemented by face-to-face physiotherapy support (home visits in weeks 1 and 3). Participants in the usual care group received standard care from a general practitioner, without any restrictions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was vestibular symptoms after six months as measured by the vertigo symptom scale-short form (VSS-SF range 0-60, clinically relevant difference ≥3 points). Secondary outcomes were dizziness related impairment, anxiety, depressive symptoms, subjective improvement of vestibular symptoms after three and six months, and adverse events. RESULTS: In the intention-to-treat analysis, participants in the stand alone and blended VR groups had lower VSS-SF scores at six months than participants in the usual care group (adjusted mean difference -4.1 points, 95% confidence interval -5.8 to -2.5; and -3.5 points, -5.1 to -1.9, respectively). Similar differences in VSS-SF scores were seen at three months follow-up. Participants in the stand alone and blended VR groups also experienced less dizziness related impairment, less anxiety, and more subjective improvement of vestibular symptoms at three and six months. No serious adverse events related to online VR occurred during the trial. CONCLUSION: Stand alone and blended internet based VR are clinically effective and safe interventions to treat adults aged 50 and older with a chronic vestibular syndrome. Online VR is an easily accessible form of treatment, with the potential to improve care for an undertreated group of patients in general practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NTR5712.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral/métodos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Telemedicina/métodos , Doenças Vestibulares/reabilitação , Idoso , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Doença Crônica/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento , Doenças Vestibulares/diagnóstico , Doenças Vestibulares/psicologia
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