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1.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 7-20, dic.2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117892

RESUMO

El presente estudio fue realizado para desarrollar una reflexión crítica acerca de la formación médica en la Venezuela del siglo XXI, interpretando realidades y consecuencias desde las voces de médicos expertos y jóvenes graduados formados en la Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado (UCLA). Es un estudio desde el paradigma cualitativo en la modalidad crítica interpretativa, la ruta metodológica fue la hermenéutica crítica y el análisis crítico del discurso. Se utilizó el muestreo intencional y la entrevista para recopilar la narrativa de los actores sociales, categorizándola e interpretándola contrastando voces de actores, teóricos y el autor como instrumento heurístico. Los resultados indican que la formación médica socializa el paradigma biomédico cuantitativo como opción única y válida en la producción de conocimiento y en el mundo académico, con un enfoque evolucionista, organicista, positivista y racional que fragmenta al ser humano. Esta formación académica se cumple en un sistema educativo dual: las universidades autónomas y la universidad bolivariana revolucionaria, con profundas diferencias entre ellas que generan perfiles de egresados contradictorios. La formación del futuro médico implica desarrollar el saber, el saber hacer, saber ser profesional y saber convivir. En conclusión, la formación médica debe cumplirse en centros universitarios calificados y certificados; sus egresados deben ser de alto perfil científico, tecnológico y humanístico los cuales deben dar respuestas pertinentes y oportunas a los problemas de salud de la población venezolana(AU)


This study was conducted to develop a reflective critic about medical training in Venezuela in the 21st century interpreting thoughts from the voices of expert doctors and young graduates from the Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado (UCLA). This is a qualitative sociocritical study using critical hermeneutics and critical analysis of speech. Intentional sampling and interviewing was used to collect the narrative of the medical professionals. The results shows that medical training socializes the quantitative biomedical paradigm as the only valid option in the production of knowledge and in the academic world, with an evolutionist, organicist, rational and positivist approach, which divides the human being in parts. In Venezuela, a dual educational system exists: autonomous universities and the Bolivarian University with deep differences between them, which generate conflicting graduate profiles. Training of the future doctors implies developing medical knowledge, the know-how, learning how to be a professional and coexist with others. In conclusion, medical training must be performed in qualified and certified university centers; their graduates should have high scientific, technological and humanistic profiles which will allow them to provide pertinent and timely answers to the health problems of the Venezuelan population(AU)


Assuntos
Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Medicina Geral , Venezuela , Programas de Estudo , História da Medicina
3.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(11): 879-887, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873165

RESUMO

CME: Pituitary Incidentaloma in Adults: Key Knowledge for the General Practice Abstract. Incidentally detected pituitary masses, so-called pituitary incidentalomas, are increasing in frequency as the frequency of performing imaging increases. Evaluation of the imaging from a trained neuroradiologist as well as additional endocrinological and, if necessary, neuroophtalmological studies are part of the initial assessment that drives the treatment decision: in the case of benign small lesions with unremarkable assessment results, follow-up is indicated, whereas potentially malignant lesions or lesions with endocrinological or neuroophtalmological irregularities are usually treated. In borderline cases, interdisciplinary work is beneficial for the determination of the case-specific treatment procedure.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Adulto , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942698

RESUMO

This study outlines the impact of COVID-19 on paediatric emergency department (ED) utilisation and assesses the extent of healthcare avoidance during each stage of the public health response strategy. Records from five EDs and one urgent care centre in Ireland, representing approximately 48% of national annual public paediatric ED attendances, are analysed to determine changes in characteristics of attendance during the three month period following the first reported COVID-19 case in Ireland, with reference to specific national public health stages. ED attendance reduced by 27-62% across all categories of diagnosis in the Delay phase and remained significantly below prior year levels as the country began Phase One of Reopening, with an incident rate ratio (IRR) of 0.58. The decrease was predominantly attributable to reduced attendance for injury and viral/viral induced conditions resulting from changed living conditions imposed by the public health response. However, attendance for complex chronic conditions also reduced and had yet to return to pre-COVID levels as reopening began. Attendances referred by general practitioners (GPs) dropped by 13 percentage points in the Delay phase and remained at that level. While changes in living conditions explain much of the decrease in overall attendance and in GP referrals, reduced attendance for complex chronic conditions may indicate avoidance behaviour and continued surveillance is necessary.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Medicina Geral , Humanos , Irlanda , Pandemias , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Evid Based Dent ; 21(3): 100-101, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978541

RESUMO

This paper reports the findings from a research project named FiCTION (Filling Children's Teeth: Indicated or Not?).Design FiCTION was a multi-centre, parallel-group, patient-randomised controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of three treatment strategies. There were three strategies within the trial: conventional caries removal and restoration plus prevention (C+P); biological sealing-in caries plus prevention (B+P); and prevention alone (PA).Case selection Children aged 3-7 years with at least one asymptomatic primary molar carious into dentine were included in the study. Participants were randomly allocated to one of the three treatment strategies. Dental professional's (DPs) attended one day training for treatment delivery. Seventy two practices randomised at least one participant. Ten practices withdrew but data collected to the withdrawal date were included in the analysis. The project ran for 3 years between 2012 and 2015. One thousand and fifty eight participants (C+P:352; B+P:352; PA:354) from 68 practices were included in the analysis set. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics for each arm of the study were balanced.During routine practice visits data were collected on a case report form (CRF). The data included:A. Co-primary outcomes: pain due to caries and evidence of dental infection (without radiographic evidence)B. Secondary outcomes: cost effectiveness, oral health related quality of life (COHRQOL), parental and caregivers perception questionnaire (P-CPQ-16), modified child dental anxiety scale, child and parent-reported anticipatory and treatment-related anxiety, caries incidence at baseline and final visit, qualitative views of parents/carers and DPs.Sound methodology was described in the narrative of the paper. The median follow-up period was 33.8 months (IQR 23.8, 36.7).Results For the co-primary outcomes the proportions of participants with at least one episode of dental pain and/or infection were: C+P 42%, B+P 40%, PA 45%. When comparing C+P with B+P and PA, there were no significant observed differences, adjusted risk difference (97.5%CI): B+P vs C+P -2%(-10%, 6%), PA vs C+P 4% (-4%, 12%). The number of episodes of dental pain and/or infection were C+P 0.62 (sd 0.95), B+P 0.58 (sd 0.87), PA 0.72 (sd 0.98). When comparing C+P with B+P and PA no significant differences were observed, adjusted incident rate ratio (97.5% CI): B+P vs C+P 0.95 (0.75, 1.21), PA vs C+P 1.18 (0.94, 1.48).Secondary outcomes:• Cost effectiveness, PA was the least costly but least effective for both co-primary outcomes with little evidence in this paper as to how and why B+P and C+P would provide greater benefits• COHRQOL, P-CPQ-16, anxiety showed no statistical differences• Parent reported anticipatory anxiety showed differences between PA vs C+P; 6% lower in the PA arm, adjusted risk difference -0.06 ((97.5% CI): -0.11 to -0.003)• Caries incidence showed no differences in the caries in primary or first permanent molars• Qualitative views showed that all three approaches were generally acceptable but trust in the dental professional played a significant role. Local anaesthesia and dental extractions were generally viewed more negatively.Conclusions There were no statistical differences between the three strategies for the co-primary outcomes, namely the incidence or number of episodes of dental pain and/or infection experienced by the study participants. The secondary outcomes suggest less anticipatory anxiety in the PA arm of the trial and that local anaesthesia and dental extractions were viewed negatively.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Medicina Geral , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Dente Molar , Qualidade de Vida , Dente Decíduo
6.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 1427-1437, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884251

RESUMO

Purpose: Demographic change and lack of specialized workforces are challenging. Likewise, home visits by general practitioners (GPs) become rarer. If a nursing home resident develops acute symptoms, nurses are often inclined to call the rescue service. Besides patient-related consequences, this might lead to unnecessary hospitalization and far-reaching health economic costs. Due to legal restrictions of remote treatment in Germany, which were recently loosened, telemedicine is still in the early stages. The aim of this study was to employ a holistic telemedical system for nursing homes which facilitates the connection to a GP and thus avoids unnecessary hospitalizations in the case of ambulatory-sensitive illnesses. Materials and Methods: After an inter-professional requirement analysis, the iterative development was started. In addition to an audio-video connection, several point of care measurements were integrated. Finally, first field tests were performed in a nursing home in a rural area in Germany. Results: One nursing home was equipped with telemedical system based on the results of the requirement analysis and tele-medically connected to a GP. Over a period of seven months, 56 routine and emergency teleconsultations took place. Only one of those required a hospital admission. In addition to video telephony, electrocardiography and assessment of vitals such as pulse, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and auscultation of heart and lungs were applied frequently. Conclusion: A telemedical system including integrated medical devices was successfully developed and has turned out to be helpful and even necessary for careful and reliable decision-making by the GP. First test results show high acceptance for elderly care. Involved patients, nurses, and the GP itemize various specific benefits, including economic, personal, and altruistic issues. Another issue that the current COVID-19 crisis brought to light is lowering the risk of contagion; GPs can replace their home visits by using telepresence combined with point of care measures.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Medicina Geral/métodos , Casas de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Consulta Remota/métodos , Consulta Remota/organização & administração , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Alemanha , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Consulta Remota/instrumentação , Software , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Value Health ; 23(9): 1142-1148, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To inform allocation decisions in any healthcare system, robust cost data are indispensable. Nevertheless, recommendations on the most appropriate valuation approaches vary or are nonexistent, and no internationally accepted gold standard exists. This costing analysis exercise aims to assess the impact and implications of different calculation methods and sources based on the unit cost of general practitioner (GP) consultations in Austria. METHODS: Six costing methods for unit cost calculation were explored, following 3 Austrian methodological approaches (AT-1, AT-2, AT-3) and 3 approaches applied in 3 other European countries (Germany, The Netherlands, United Kingdom). Drawing on Austrian data, mean unit costs per GP consultation were calculated in euros for 2015. RESULTS: Mean unit costs ranged from €15.6 to €42.6 based on the German top-down costing approach (DE) and the Austrian Physicians' Chamber's price recommendations (AT-3), respectively. The mean unit cost was estimated at €18.9 based on Austrian economic evaluations (AT-1) and €17.9 based on health insurance payment tariffs (AT-2). The Dutch top-down (NL) and the UK bottom-up approaches (UK) yielded higher estimates (NL: €25.3, UK: €29.8). Overall variation reached 173%. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to systematically investigate the impact of differing calculation methods on unit cost estimates. It shows large variations with potential impact on the conclusions in an economic evaluation. Although different methodological choices may be justified by the adopted study perspective, different costing approaches introduce variation in cross-study/cross-country cost estimates, leading to decreased confidence in data quality in economic evaluations.


Assuntos
Honorários e Preços , Medicina Geral/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Economia Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
8.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(10): e543-e550, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, research on the indirect impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health of the population and the health-care system is scarce. We aimed to investigate the indirect effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on general practice health-care usage, and the subsequent diagnoses of common physical and mental health conditions in a deprived UK population. METHODS: We did a retrospective cohort study using routinely collected primary care data that was recorded in the Salford Integrated Record between Jan 1, 2010, and May 31, 2020. We extracted the weekly number of clinical codes entered into patient records overall, and for six high-level categories: symptoms and observations, diagnoses, prescriptions, operations and procedures, laboratory tests, and other diagnostic procedures. Negative binomial regression models were applied to monthly counts of first diagnoses of common conditions (common mental health problems, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer), and corresponding first prescriptions of medications indicative of these conditions. We used these models to predict the expected numbers of first diagnoses and first prescriptions between March 1 and May 31, 2020, which were then compared with the observed numbers for the same time period. FINDINGS: Between March 1 and May 31, 2020, 1073 first diagnoses of common mental health problems were reported compared with 2147 expected cases (95% CI 1821 to 2489) based on preceding years, representing a 50·0% reduction (95% CI 41·1 to 56·9). Compared with expected numbers, 456 fewer diagnoses of circulatory system diseases (43·3% reduction, 95% CI 29·6 to 53·5), and 135 fewer type 2 diabetes diagnoses (49·0% reduction, 23·8 to 63·1) were observed. The number of first prescriptions of associated medications was also lower than expected for the same time period. However, the gap between observed and expected cancer diagnoses (31 fewer; 16·0% reduction, -18·1 to 36·6) during this time period was not statistically significant. INTERPRETATION: In this deprived urban population, diagnoses of common conditions decreased substantially between March and May 2020, suggesting a large number of patients have undiagnosed conditions. A rebound in future workload could be imminent as COVID-19 restrictions ease and patients with undiagnosed conditions or delayed diagnosis present to primary and secondary health-care services. Such services should prioritise the diagnosis and treatment of these patients to mitigate potential indirect harms to protect public health. FUNDING: National Institute of Health Research.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(708): 1801-1806, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997450

RESUMO

The health check-up is an opportunity for the general practitioner to carry out preventive measures and screening. Like any other patient, adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities must have access to it without discrimination. The preventive recommendations for people with disabilities follow those of the general population with some specificities, in particular the prevention of sensory disability, attention to the underestimated health problems in this population and those associated with the handicap. Here several types of barriers to the implementation of preventive measures such as patient's participatory and emotional barriers, the caregiver's barriers and the environmental barriers will be discussed. Finally, practical advice for the management of these patients will be presented.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento , Adulto , Medicina Geral , Humanos
10.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e041370, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To use Population Health Management (PHM) methods to identify and characterise individuals at high-risk of severe COVID-19 for which shielding is required, for the purposes of managing ongoing health needs and mitigating potential shielding-induced harm. DESIGN: Individuals at 'high risk' of COVID-19 were identified using the published national 'Shielded Patient List' criteria. Individual-level information, including current chronic conditions, historical healthcare utilisation and demographic and socioeconomic status, was used for descriptive analyses of this group using PHM methods. Segmentation used k-prototypes cluster analysis. SETTING: A major healthcare system in the South West of England, for which linked primary, secondary, community and mental health data are available in a system-wide dataset. The study was performed at a time considered to be relatively early in the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 1 013 940 individuals from 78 contributing general practices. RESULTS: Compared with the groups considered at 'low' and 'moderate' risk (ie, eligible for the annual influenza vaccination), individuals at high risk were older (median age: 68 years (IQR: 55-77 years), cf 30 years (18-44 years) and 63 years (38-73 years), respectively), with more primary care/community contacts in the previous year (median contacts: 5 (2-10), cf 0 (0-2) and 2 (0-5)) and had a higher burden of comorbidity (median Charlson Score: 4 (3-6), cf 0 (0-0) and 2 (1-4)). Geospatial analyses revealed that 3.3% of rural and semi-rural residents were in the high-risk group compared with 2.91% of urban and inner-city residents (p<0.001). Segmentation uncovered six distinct clusters comprising the high-risk population, with key differentiation based on age and the presence of cancer, respiratory, and mental health conditions. CONCLUSIONS: PHM methods are useful in characterising the needs of individuals requiring shielding. Segmentation of the high-risk population identified groups with distinct characteristics that may benefit from a more tailored response from health and care providers and policy-makers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Gestão da Saúde da População , Medição de Risco/métodos , Gestão de Riscos , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Gestão de Riscos/organização & administração , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
N Z Med J ; 133(1522): 96-111, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994620

RESUMO

AIM: To determine what patients presenting to general practice (GP) understand about the use of cannabis as a medicine, beliefs of how this may impact their medical conditions and interactions with doctors. METHOD: An in-person survey of 134 GP patients from four GP practices throughout the North Island of New Zealand undertaken from November 2018 to October 2019. RESULTS: Fifty-five percent of the sample were female, with 40% of all participants aged 60 years plus. Ninety-one percent of participants indicated they would use a prescribed medicinal cannabis product while 45% reported they believed it may be of some benefit to their medical condition. Of those who believed it beneficial, 71% indicated they thought it useful for pain relief. Participants indicated comfort discussing medicinal cannabis use with GPs and specialists (92% respectively); however, less than 10% had done this. CONCLUSIONS: Just under half of patients surveyed believe that medicinal cannabis products may be helpful to their condition, and while the majority report willingness, few have discussed this with their GP or specialist. There is need for accessible, accurate information regarding the use of cannabis-based medicine for patients and doctors alike to guide the patient-doctor consultation and decrease barriers to open discussion.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Medicina Geral , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Manejo da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(12): 952-954, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933395

RESUMO

CME/Answers: Pituitary Incidentaloma in Adults: Key Knowledge for the General Practice Abstract. Incidentally detected pituitary masses, so-called pituitary incidentalomas, are increasing in frequency as the frequency of performing imaging increases. Evaluation of the imaging from a trained neuroradiologist as well as additional endocrinological and, if necessary, neuroophtalmological studies are part of the initial assessment that drives the treatment decision: in the case of benign small lesions with unremarkable assessment results, follow-up is indicated, whereas potentially malignant lesions or lesions with endocrinological or neuroophtalmological irregularities are usually treated. In borderline cases, interdisciplinary work is beneficial for the determination of the case-specific treatment procedure.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Adulto , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico
15.
Br J Gen Pract ; 70(699): e696-e704, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first wave of the London COVID-19 epidemic peaked in April 2020. Attention initially focused on severe presentations, intensive care capacity, and the timely supply of equipment. While general practice has seen a rapid uptake of technology to allow for virtual consultations, little is known about the pattern of suspected COVID-19 presentations in primary care. AIM: To quantify the prevalence and time course of clinically suspected COVID-19 presenting to general practices, to report the risk of suspected COVID-19 by ethnic group, and to identify whether differences by ethnicity can be explained by clinical data in the GP record. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study using anonymised data from the primary care records of approximately 1.2 million adults registered with 157 practices in four adjacent east London clinical commissioning groups. The study population includes 55% of people from ethnic minorities and is in the top decile of social deprivation in England. METHOD: Suspected COVID-19 cases were identified clinically and recorded using SNOMED codes. Explanatory variables included age, sex, self-reported ethnicity, and measures of social deprivation. Clinical factors included data on 16 long-term conditions, body mass index, and smoking status. RESULTS: GPs recorded 8985 suspected COVID-19 cases between 10 February and 30 April 2020.Univariate analysis showed a two-fold increase in the odds of suspected COVID-19 for South Asian and black adults compared with white adults. In a fully adjusted analysis that included clinical factors, South Asian patients had nearly twice the odds of suspected infection (odds ratio [OR] = 1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.83 to 2.04). The OR for black patients was 1.47 (95% CI = 1.38 to 1.57). CONCLUSION: Using data from GP records, black and South Asian ethnicity remain as predictors of suspected COVID-19, with levels of risk similar to hospital admission reports. Further understanding of these differences requires social and occupational data.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Geral/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Registros Médicos Orientados a Problemas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde das Minorias/estatística & dados numéricos , Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
16.
Aust Health Rev ; 44(5): 733-736, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878685

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in multiple changes in the delivery of general practice services. In response to the threat of the pandemic and in order to keep their businesses safe and viable, general practices have rapidly moved to new models of care, embraced Medicare-funded telehealth and responded to uncertain availability of personal protective equipment with innovation. These changes have shown the adaptability of general practice, helped keep patients and practice staff safe, and undoubtedly reduced community transmission and mortality. The pandemic, and the response to it, has emphasised the potential dangers of existing fragmentation within the Australian health system, and is affecting the viability of general practice. These impacts on primary care highlight the need for improved integration of health services, should inform future pandemic planning, and guide the development of Australia's long-term national health plan.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Medicina Geral/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Austrália , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Medicina Geral/métodos , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Estatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/métodos
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 586, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate and excessive antimicrobial prescribing can lead to antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) principles are not well established in general practice in Australia despite the relatively high rate of community antimicrobial prescribing. Few interventions have been implemented that have resulted in a significant reduction or improvement in antimicrobial prescribing by General Practitioners (GPs). This study was therefore conducted to assess the impact of a novel GP educational intervention on the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescriptions as well as GP compliance with antimicrobial prescription guidelines. METHODS: In 2018, a simple GP educational intervention was rolled out in a large clinic with the aim of improving antimicrobial prescribing. It included face-to-face education sessions with GPs on AMS principles, antimicrobial resistance, current prescribing guidelines and microbiological testing. An antibiotic appropriateness audit on prescribing practice before and after the educational intervention was conducted. Data were summarised using percentages and compared across time points using Chi-squared tests and Poisson regression (results reported as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)). RESULTS: Data from 376 and 369 prescriptions in July 2016 and July 2018, respectively, were extracted. There were significant improvements in appropriate antimicrobial selection (73.9% vs 92.8%, RR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.18-1.34), appropriate duration (53.1% vs 87.7%, RR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.49-1.83) and compliance with guidelines (42.2% vs 58.5%, RR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.19-1.61) post- intervention. Documentation of antimicrobial duration directions, patient follow-up as well as patient weight significantly increased after the intervention (p < 0.001). There was significant reduction in; prescriptions without a listed indication for antimicrobial therapy, prescriptions without appropriate accompanying microbiological tests and the provision of unnecessary repeat prescriptions (p < 0.001). Inappropriate antimicrobial prescriptions observed pre-intervention for medical termination of pregnancy ceased post-intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Auditing GP antimicrobial prescriptions identified prescribing practices inconsistent with Australian guidelines. However, implementation of a simple education program led to significantly improved antimicrobial prescribing by GPs. These findings indicate the important role of AMS and continued antimicrobial education within general practice.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Medicina Geral/educação , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Austrália , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Projetos Piloto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prescrições
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, general practitioners worldwide re-organise care in very different ways because of the lack of evidence-based protocols. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the organisation and the characteristics of consultations in Belgian out-of-hours primary care during five weekends at the peak of a COVID-19 outbreak and compares it to a similar period in 2019. METHODS: Real-time observational study using pseudonymised routine clinical data extracted out of reports from home visits, telephone- and physical consultations (iCAREdata). Nine general practice cooperatives (GPCs) participated covering a population of 1 513 523. RESULTS: All GPCs rapidly re-organised care in order to handle the outbreak and provide a safe working environment. The average consultation rate was 222 per 100 000 citizens per weekend. These consultations were handled by telephone alone in 40% (N = 6293). A diagnosis at risk of COVID-19 was registered in 6692 (43%) consultations,. Out of 5311 physical consultations, 1460 were at risk of COVID-19 of which 443 (30%) did not receive prior telephone consultation to estimate this risk. Compared to 2019, the workload initially increased due to telephone consultations but afterwards declined drastically. The physical consultation rate declined by 45% with a marked decline in diagnoses unrelated to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: General practitioners can rapidly re-organise out-of-hours care to handle patient flows during a COVID-19 outbreak. Forty percent of the out-of-hours primary care contacts are handled by telephone consultations alone. We recommend to give a telephone consultation to all patients and not to rely on call takers to differentiate between infectious and regular care. The demand for physical consultations declined drastically provoking questions about patient's safety for care unrelated to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Plantão Médico/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Medicina Geral/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Clínicos Gerais , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Consulta Remota/métodos , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
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