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1.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(2): 207-10, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100510

RESUMO

Professor YANG Jun believes that chronic diarrhea is located in the "intestine" and its pathogenesis focuses on the dysfunction of the spleen and the stomach which results in the impairment of qi activity. In the treatment, the comprehensive therapy is adopted, including acupuncture, moxibustion, herbal medicine, cupping method, etc. Regarding acupuncture therapy, Tianshu (ST 25) is selected specially for regulating the spleen and stomach function, Xiabai (LU4) for dispersing the lung qi to stop diarrhea, as well as Yintang (GV 29), Shuigou (GV 26), Chengjiang (CV 24), Qihai (CV 6), Guanyuan (CV 4) and Zhongwan (CV 12) for promoting the circulation of the conception vessel and the governor vessel. Regarding moxibustion therapy, moxibustion is exerted at the abdominal region to regulate qi and blood circulation and unblocking the meridians. Moreover, the retained cupping method is used at Shenque (CV 8) to consolidate the primary qi and the modified sijunzi tang, the herbal decoction is supplemented to tonify the acquired foundation for assisting the congenital one. All of these therapies co-work on promoting and regulating qi activity so as to stop diarrhea.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Diarreia/terapia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Moxibustão , Qi , Pontos de Acupuntura , Medicina Herbária , Humanos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18968, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and approximately half of the patients with lung cancer receiving chemotherapy suffer from cancer-related fatigue (CRF). Herbal medicines (HMs) have been used in Oriental countries for centuries as tonics. Various beneficial effects of HM on fatigue and cancer have been reported. However, the effectiveness and safety of HM for CRF in lung cancer patients have not been synthesized. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of HM for CRF in patients with lung cancer, regardless of their cancer type or stage. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A comprehensive search will be conducted in 12 electronic medical databases including 5 English-language databases (Medline via PubMed, EMBASE via Elsevier, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [CENTRAL], the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database [AMED] via EBSCO, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL] via EBSCO), 4 Korean-language databases (Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System [OASIS], Koreanstudies Information Service System [KISS], Research Information Service System [RISS], and Korea Citation Index [KCI]), 2 Chinese-language databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI] and Wanfang Data), and 1 Japanese-language database (CiNii). Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs on HM for CRF will be allowed. The severity of fatigue assessed using a validated tool will be considered as theprimary outcome. The secondary outcomes will include the patients' quality of life, activities of daily life, incidence of adverse events, and total effective rate. Two independent researchers will perform the study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment. RevMan version 5.3 will be used for data synthesis. The methodological quality of the included RCTs will be assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. In the meta-analysis, for dichotomous data and continuous data, risk ratio and mean difference, respectively, will be estimated with their 95% confidence intervals. According to the heterogeneity, either a fixed-effects or a random-effects model will be used. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required because individual patient data are not included. The findings of this systematic review will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication or conference presentation. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019141660.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico , Fadiga/etiologia , Medicina Herbária/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático/métodos , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
3.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 601-614, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006376

RESUMO

Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that is evident in early childhood and can persist throughout the entire life. The disease is basically characterized by hurdles in social interaction where the individuals demonstrate repetitive and stereotyped interests or patterns of behavior. A wide number of neuroanatomical studies with autistic patients revealed alterations in brain development which lead to diverse cellular and anatomical processes including atypical neurogenesis, neuronal migration, maturation, differentiation, and degeneration. Special education programs, speech and language therapy, have been employed for the amelioration of behavioral deficits in autism. Although commonly prescribed antidepressants, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and stimulants have revealed satisfactory responses in autistic individuals, adverse side effects and increased risk of several other complications including obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, thyroid disorders, etc. have compelled the researchers to turn their attention toward herbal remedies. Alternative approaches with natural compounds are on continuous clinical trial to confirm their efficacy and to understand their potential in autism treatment. This chapter aims to cover the major plant-based natural products which hold promising outcomes in the field of reliable therapeutic interventions for autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Medicina Herbária , Fitoterapia , Transtorno Autístico/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19110, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cold hypersensitivity in the hands and feet (CHHF) is a common complaint in Asian female population especially in Korea. Due to the symptoms of CHHF the quality of individual's daily life can be degraded. Ucha-Shinki-Hwan (UCHA) is widely used in the treatment of various diseases including CHHF by harmonizing Yin and Yang, and improving the vitality of whole body. However, the efficacy of UCHA as a treatment option of CHHF has not been assessed in trials. Thus, we aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of UCHA in Korean women with CHHF through this trial. METHODS: This study will be an exploratory, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter trial. Korean women aged 19 to 59 years who complaint with CHHF will be enrolled from 5 university affiliated Korean medicine hospitals. A total of 164 subjects will be randomly assigned to a treatment group (UCHA) or a placebo group at a 1:1 ratio. The subjects will receive 2.5 g of either UCHA or placebo three times a day for 8 weeks. The primary outcome will be evaluated with the visual analog scale score of CHHF. The secondary outcome measures will be changes in skin temperature in extremities as measured by using a thermometer and the Korean version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated Version. DISCUSSION: This study will be the first trial to explore the efficacy and safety of UCHA for CHHF patient. This will provide meaningful clinical information on herbal medicine treatment of CHHF and a clinical evidence for planning a full randomized clinical trial. DISCLOSURES AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The authors report no competing interests. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03790033. Registered on (31 December 2018) PROTOCOL VERSION:: The final approved version of the trial protocol is V1.3. (25 January 2019).


Assuntos
Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/epidemiologia , Medicina Herbária/métodos , Temperatura Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Pé/fisiopatologia , Mãos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Coreana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitoterapia/métodos , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Qualidade de Vida , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Temperatura Cutânea/fisiologia , Escala Visual Analógica
5.
Life Sci ; 243: 117245, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926253

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the anti-metastatic potential of combinations of two bioactive carotenoids of saffron, crocin and crocetin, on 4T1 breast cancer and on a mice model of TNBC, and assess the effect of the most potent combination on the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. MAIN METHODS: The effects of the carotenoid combinations on the viability of 4T1 cells were determined by MTT assay. The effects of the nontoxic doses on migration, mobility, invasion and adhesion to ECM were examined by scratch assay, Transwell/Matrigel-coated Transwell chamber and adhesion assay respectively. Tumors were inoculated by injecting mice with 4T1 cells. The weights and survival rates of the mice and tumor sizes were monitored. Histological analysis of the tissues was conducted. The expression levels of Wnt/ß-catenin pathway genes were measured by Real-time PCR and western blotting. KEY FINDINGS: Treatment of 4T1 cells with combination doses inhibited viability in a dose-dependent manner. The nontoxic combinations significantly inhibited migration, cell mobility and invasion, also attenuating adhesion to ECM. The combination therapy mice possessed more weight, higher survival rates and smaller tumors. Histological examination detected remarkably fewer metastatic foci in their livers and lungs. It was also demonstrated that the combinations exerted anti-metastatic effects by disturbing the Wnt/ß-catenin target genes in the liver and tumors. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings propose a carotenoid combination as an alternative potent herbal treatment for TNBC, which lacks the adverse effects associated with either chemotherapeutic agents or herb-chemotherapeutic drugs.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/uso terapêutico , Medicina Herbária , Metástase Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Animais , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/prevenção & controle
6.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(2): 52, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900735

RESUMO

Kaempferia parviflora (KP) is an herbal medicine for enhancement of physical fitness and male sexual function improvement with low oral absorption of the main active compounds, methoxyflavones. The purpose of this study is to optimize the preparation of nanosuspensions of KP extract for enhancing intestinal absorption using antisolvent precipitation technique which is an accessible nanomanufacturing methodology in the small industrial factory. Nanosuspensions were prepared using various types and concentrations of stabilizers. Then, the dry powder of KP nanosuspension was produced by spray drying. Its dissolution rate was determined using USP dissolution apparatus II. The rat everted intestinal sac was tested to confirm the improvement of intestinal absorption of KP nanosuspension. The result showed that 3% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was the optimal condition for covering the nano-size of KP nanosuspension. KP nanosuspensions had particle sizes ranging from 100 to 300 nm with narrow size distribution (PDI < 0.60) and zeta potential at - 58 to - 70 mV. These characteristics were stable at 4°C and 25°C/60%RH for 1-month storage. Its methoxyflavones content also unchanged at 4°C and 25°C/60%RH for 1-month storage. KP nanosuspension released > 80% of the methoxyflavones within 30 min both in 0.1 N HCl and 0.01 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8). Moreover, the developed nanosuspension dramatically improved the rat intestinal absorption about 10-fold. Therefore, the KP nanosuspension was successfully prepared. It has relatively high stability, fast dissolution rate, and high intestinal absorption.


Assuntos
Absorção Intestinal , Zingiberaceae/química , Animais , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Medicina Herbária , Masculino , Nanopartículas/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Solubilidade , Suspensões
8.
Phytochem Anal ; 31(2): 242-251, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435982

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ephedrine is a typical compound found in lots of plant species that is used in several medicines for the treatment of asthma and bronchitis. However, excess amounts are harmful to humans, so it needs to be removed. OBJECTIVE: This study developed a multi-phase extraction (MPE) method with a molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) coated ionic liquid (IL)-based silica (SiO2 @IL@MIP) to simultaneously extract and separate ephedrine from Pinellia ternata, 10 medicines, and urine samples. METHODS: IL was immobilized on silica. Subsequently, the IL was combined with the functional monomer, followed by the addition of the crosslinker and template. The resulting sorbent was applied to the MPE, and the extraction, washing and elution solvents were evaluated. RESULTS: Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the synthesis of SiO2 @IL@MIP. A maximum adsorption amount of 5.76 mg/g was obtained at 30°C at a neutral pH. In MPE, 10.00 mL of methanol could extract all the ephedrine from Pinellia ternata. The interference was removed by washing with 4.00 mL of water, ethanol, and acetonitrile. Finally, 8.00 mL of methanol/acetic acid (99:1, v/v) was applied as the elution solvent. The following were extracted: 5.50 µg/g of ephedrine from Pinellia ternata, 0.00-46.50 µg/g from the 10 herbal medicines, and 68.70-102.80 µg/mL in the urine samples. CONCLUSION: The proposed method was applied successfully to the simultaneously extraction and separation of ephedrine from plants and medicines. These results are expected to provide important data for the development of new methods for the separation and purification of bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos , Impressão Molecular , Pinellia , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Efedrina , Medicina Herbária , Humanos , Polímeros , Dióxido de Silício , Extração em Fase Sólida
9.
Orv Hetil ; 161(1): 17-25, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884814

RESUMO

Introduction: Herbal medicine use has become widespread in recent years. This is the first study in Hungary evaluating the use of nutraceutical agents in patients undergoing elective surgery. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the types, frequency of use and predisposing factors of the most commonly used herbs among patients of an urban hospital and a university clinic. Method: We conducted an anonymous survey questionnaire at the Jávorszky Ödön Hospital and at the 1st Department of Surgery of Semmelweis University. A total of 1000 questionnaires were distributed. Results: In total, 612 questionnaires were returned. 34.3% of patients used herbal remedies, 19.6% of them two weeks prior to surgery. The most commonly used herbs were garlic, chamomile and lemongrass, while in the two-week period before surgery were garlic, ginger and rosehips. 58.5% of the patients had some type of co-morbidity; in this group, the use of herbal remedies was significantly more frequent. 64.4% of patients were expected to undergo general surgical intervention; in this group, the use of herbs was more popular. Analyzing the sociodemographic factors, women, people with a higher level of education, the ones that live in the capital and are over 60 years of age are more likely to use these compounds. Conclusion: One third of patients waiting for surgery used herbal remedies, one fifth of them two weeks prior to surgery. Only one fifth of the patients reported the use of these compounds to their doctors. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(1): 17-25.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Medicina Herbária , Fitoterapia , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Hungria , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Perioperatória , Plantas Medicinais , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(6): 1134-1144, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799957

RESUMO

A two-phase anaerobic system comprised of upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor for hydrogen production and internal circulation reactor (IC) for methane production was proposed and investigated at laboratory scale and mesophilic temperature (35 °C). Hydrogen was efficiently produced from the UASB with the highest production rate of 3.00 ± 0.04 L · L-1 reactor · d-1 at optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 h and in the IC, methane was also produced from residual organic matter and soluble metabolite products (SMP) with a production rate of 2.54 ± 0.04 L · L-1 reactor · d-1 at optimum HRT of 15 h. Finally, system HRT of 21 h was determined to be the optimum HRT at which energy conversion efficiency increased from 9.6 ± 0.1% (hydrogen only production) to 72.4 ± 2.5% (hydrogen and methane coproduction) and system chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal reached up to the high level of 90.1 ± 2.1%.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Águas Residuárias , Anaerobiose , Leitos , Reatores Biológicos , Medicina Herbária , Hidrogênio , Metano , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 952, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence rates for herbal medicine (HM) have been increasing worldwide. However, little is known about prevalence, user characteristics, usage pattern and factors influencing HM usage for the general German population. METHODS: A nationwide online survey on HM usage was conducted in Germany. The 2906 participants were categorised into three groups: the ones who used HM in the last 12 months, the ones who did not use HM in the last 12 months but in their lifetime, and the ones who did not use HM until now. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics, Chi Square tests and binary hierarchical logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Prevalence rates of HM were found to be very high for the general German population. Self-medication appeared as a common praxis, when at the same time HM users responded that they do not inform their physician about it, rate their knowledge about HM as somewhat poor, and use the internet as the most frequent source of information. The HM user in the last 12 months was found to include people that were more likely female, highly educated, privately insured, employed, and engaged in a more health-oriented lifestyle. While certain sociodemographic- and health-related variables influence HM usage vs. non-usage, they explain variance only to a limited extent. For distinguishing the user in the last 12 months vs. the less recent user who did not use HM in the last 12 months, ratings on different reasons for HM usage were found to perform better as predictors than sociodemographic- and health-related variables. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that HM usage plays an essential role in the German health-care system. Furthermore, the HM usage pattern may be potentially harmful for patients, as it included self-medication, little knowledge on interaction- and side-effects of HM, and a lack of communication with physicians about the usage. Moreover, prediction of HM usage in the previous year is impacted by variables beyond conventional sociodemographic- and health-related ones. In view of the high prevalence rates of HM in Germany, medical as well as health service providers should be aware of these issues.


Assuntos
Medicina Herbária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Kyobu Geka ; 72(13): 1049-1052, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879377

RESUMO

We retrospectively assessed our initial clinical experience of the herbal medicine Inchinkoto for refractory hyperbilirubinemia following open-heart surgery. Six patients developed hyperbilirubinemia in an acute phase after surgery and their maximum total bilirubin levels were 6.4~26.4 mg/dl( mean:13.1± 8.2 mg/dl). They were initially treated with ursodeoxycholic acid and/or Stronger Neo-Minophagen C containing monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, glycine, aminoacetic acid, and L-cysteine hydrochloride hydrate. These treatments, however, were ineffective, and Inchinkoto was introduced at 5~34 day (mean:13.3±11.3 days) after surgery. Hyperbilirubinemia improved in all patients after the introduction of Inchinkoto:1 day after in 1 case, 2 days after in 2 cases, 3 days after in 2 cases, and 4 days after in 1 case. These results indicate the potential of Inchinkoto to attenuate refractory hyperbilirubinemia following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Medicina Herbária , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 44(12): 906-10, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867911

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acupoint application at bilateral "Tianshu" (ST25) on intestinal mobility and immunoactivity of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P (SP) in colonic myenteric plexus of rats with functional constipation (FC), so as to analyze its mechanisms underlying improving FC. METHODS: Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, namely normal control, model, acupoint application and medication, with 10 rats in each group. The FC model was established by gavage of Loperamide Hydrochloride suspension fluid (0.5 mg/mL, 3 mg·kg-1·d-1) for 7 days. Herbal medicine paste (composed of Rheum Officinale, Sodium Sulfate, Mangnolia Officinalis, etc.) was applied to bilateral ST25 for 6 h, once daily for 4 weeks. Rats of the medication group were treated by gavage of Mosapride suspension fluid (0.15 mg/mL, 1.58 mg·kg-1·d-1) for 4 weeks. After the treatment, the rats were deprived of water for 12 hours, and then treated by gavage of 2 mL of activated carbon suspension, followed by recording the first black defecation time and the number of fecal particles and water content of feces within 6 h so as to assess the intestinal mobility. The immunoactivity and average surface density of VIP and SP positive granules in the colonic myenteric plexus were detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Compared with the normal control group, the first black defecation time was significantly prolonged, and the number and water content of fecal particles within 6 h, and the expression and the average surface density of VIP and SP were significantly reduced in the model group (P<0.01). After the treatment and compared with the model group, the first black defecation time was shortened, and the fecal water content and fecal particle number within 6 h, as well as the expression and the average surface density of VIP and SP were considerably increased in both acupoint application and medication groups (P<0.01). There were no significant differences between the acupoint application and medication groups in all the indexes mentioned above after the interventions (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Acupoint application may improve the intestinal motility in FC rats, which may be asso-ciated with its effects in up-regulating the immunoactivity of VIP and SP in colonic myenteric plexus of the large intestine.


Assuntos
Plexo Mientérico , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Constipação Intestinal , Medicina Herbária , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Substância P
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(18): 4053-4059, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872745

RESUMO

Nanwuweizi( Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus) and Wuweizi( Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus) have long-term history of use as common traditional Chinese medicines since the Eastern Han Dynasty( AD.25-220 year).However their information are always confused in ancient literature because they were both used as " Wuweizi". Nanwuweizi and Wuweizi are faced with problems such as confused distribution of producing areas,unclear source plants and efficacy characteristics,which limit modern resource development and application. Based on ancient literatures of materia medica,this study conducted a systematic review from several aspects,i.e. the name,distribution of producing areas,source plants,efficacy characteristics and processing of the two medicines in ancient time. This study clarified five main aspects,as following,ancient production areas and corresponding modern distribution areas; source plants used for medicinal purposes in ancient time; application period and application scope; efficacy characteristics in clinical application;processing method. This study provides a reference for evaluating the quality and for their clinical application and reasonable development of Nanwuweizi and Wuweizi.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/história , Medicina Herbária/história , Materia Medica , Schisandra , China , História Antiga , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais
15.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 139(11): 1385-1390, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685734

RESUMO

In neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and spinal cord injury (SCI), inhibited axonal regeneration lead to irreversible functional impairment. Although many agents that eliminate axonal growth impediments have been clinically investigated, none induced functional recovery. I hypothesized that the removal of impediments alone was not enough and that promoting axonal growth and neuronal network reconstruction were needed for recovery from neurodegenerative diseases. To promote axonal growth, I have focused on neurons and microglia. In vitro models of AD and SCI were developed by culturing neurons in the presence of amyloid ß (Aß) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, respectively. These were then used to identify several extracts of herbal medicines and their constituents that promoted axonal growth. Oral administration of these extracts and their constituents improved memory and motor function in in vivo mouse models of AD and SCI, respectively. The bioactive compounds in these extracts were identified by analyzing brain and spinal cord samples from the mice. Their protein targets were identified using the drug affinity responsive target stability method. Analysis of early events in the axons after culture with Aß revealed that the inhibition of endocytosis was sufficient to prevent the axonal atrophy and memory deficits caused by Aß. The compounds that increased M2 microglia were observed to promote axonal normalization and growth; they were also found to recover memory and motor function in mice models of AD and SCI, respectively. The above results indicate that axonal growth plays important roles in the recovery from AD and SCI.


Assuntos
Axônios/fisiologia , Medicina Herbária , Regeneração Nervosa , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/fisiologia , Regeneração Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Estimulação Química
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(11)2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Chronic hepatitis B requires long-term management aiming at reduction of the risks of hepatocellular inflammatory necrosis, liver fibrosis, decompensated liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer, and improving health-related quality of life. The Chinese herbal medicine formula Xiao Chai Hu Tang has been used to decrease discomfort and replication of the virus in people with chronic hepatitis B. However, the benefits and harms of Xiao Chai Hu Tang formula have never been established with rigorous review methodology. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of Xiao Chai Hu Tang formula versus placebo or no intervention in people with chronic hepatitis B. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, and seven other databases to 1 March 2019. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (www.who.int/ictrp), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov/), and the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry for ongoing or unpublished trials to 1 March 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised clinical trials, irrespective of publication status, language, and blinding, comparing Xiao Chai Hu Tang formula versus no intervention or placebo in people with chronic hepatitis B. We included participants of any sex and age, diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B according to guidelines or as defined by the trialists. We allowed co-interventions when the co-interventions were administered equally to all the intervention groups. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Review authors independently retrieved data from reports and after correspondence with investigators. Our primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, serious adverse events, and health-related quality of life. Our secondary outcomes were hepatitis B-related mortality, hepatitis B-related morbidity, and adverse events considered 'not to be serious'. We presented the meta-analysed results as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed the risks of bias using risk of bias domains with predefined definitions. We used GRADE methodology to evaluate our certainty in the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 randomised clinical trials with 934 participants, but only five trials with 490 participants provided data for analysis. All the trials compared Xiao Chai Hu Tang formula with no intervention. All trials appeared to have been conducted and published only in China. The included trials assessed heterogeneous forms of Xiao Chai Hu Tang formula, administered for three to eight months. One trial included participants with hepatitis B and comorbid tuberculosis, and one trial included participants with hepatitis B and liver cirrhosis. The remaining trials included participants with hepatitis B only. All the trials were at high risk of bias, and the certainty of evidence for all outcomes that provided data for analyses was very low. We downgraded the evidence by one or two levels because of outcome risk of bias, inconsistency or heterogeneity of results (opposite direction of effect), indirectness of evidence (use of surrogate outcomes instead of clinically relevant outcomes), imprecision of results (the CIs were wide), and publication bias (small sample size of the trials). Additionally, 47 trials lacked the necessary methodological information needed to ensure the inclusion of these trials in our review. None of the included trials aimed to assess clinically relevant outcomes such as all-cause mortality, serious adverse events, health-related quality of life, hepatitis B-related mortality, or hepatitis B-related morbidity. The effects of Xiao Chai Hu Tang formula on the proportion of participants with adverse events considered 'not to be serious' is uncertain (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.02 to 11.98; I2 = 69%; very low-certainty evidence). Only three trials with 222 participants reported the proportion of people with detectable hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV-DNA), but the evidence that Xiao Chai Hu Tang formula reduces the presence of HBV-DNA in the blood (a surrogate outcome) is uncertain (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.85; I2 = 0%; very low-certainty evidence). Only two trials with 160 participants reported the proportion of people with detectable hepatitis B virus e-antigen (HBeAg; a surrogate outcome) (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.02; I2 = 38%; very low-certainty evidence) and the evidence is uncertain. The evidence is also uncertain for separately reported adverse events considered 'not to be serious'. FUNDING: two of the 10 included trials received academic funding from government or hospital. None of the remaining eight trials reported information on funding. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The clinical effects of Xiao Chai Hu Tang formula for chronic hepatitis B remain unclear. The included trials were small and of low methodological quality. Despite the wide use of Xiao Chai Hu Tang formula, we lack data on all-cause mortality, serious adverse events, health-related quality of life, hepatitis B-related mortality, and hepatitis B-related morbidity. The evidence in this systematic review comes from data obtained from a maximum three trials. We graded the certainty of evidence as very low for adverse events considered not to be serious and the surrogate outcomes HBeAg and HBV-DNA. We found a large number of trials which lacked clear description of their design and conduct, and hence, these trials are not included in the present review. As all identified trials were conducted in China, there might be a concern about the applicability of this review outside China. Large-sized, high-quality randomised sham-controlled trials with homogeneous groups of participants and transparent funding are lacking.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Herbária , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(29): 2718-2738, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721714

RESUMO

Widely advocated for their health benefits worldwide, herbal medicines (HMs) have evolved into a billion dollar generating industry. Much is known regarding their wellness inducing properties, prophylactic and therapeutic benefits for the relief of both minor to chronic ailment conditions given their long-standing use among various cultures worldwide. On the other hand, their equally meaningful chemistry, pharmacokinetic profile in humans, interaction and toxicity profile have been poorly researched and documented. Consequently, this review is an attempt to highlight the health benefits, pharmacokinetics, interaction, and toxicity profile of five globally famous HMs. A systematic literature search was conducted by browsing major scientific databases such as Bentham Science, SciFinder, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Google Scholar and EBSCO to include 196 articles. In general, ginsenosides, glycyrrhizin and curcumin demonstrate low bioavailability when orally administered. Ginkgo biloba L. induces both CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 and alters the AUC and Cmax of conventional medications including midazolam, tolbutamide, lopinavir and nifedipine. Ginsenosides Re stimulates CYP2C9, decreasing the anticoagulant activity of warfarin. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze increases the bioavailability of buspirone and is rich in vitamin K thereby inhibiting the activity of anticoagulant agents. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. displaces serum bound cardiovascular drugs such as diltiazem, nifedipine and verapamil. Herbal medicine can directly affect hepatocytes leading to hepatoxicity based on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The potentiation of the activity of concurrently administered conventional agents is potentially lethal especially if the drugs bear dangerous side effects and have a low therapeutic window.


Assuntos
Medicina Herbária , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacocinética , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Fitoterapia , Área Sob a Curva , Disponibilidade Biológica , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/biossíntese , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/biossíntese , Indução Enzimática , História do Século XXI , Humanos
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17551, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593137

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Refractory edema is characterized by persistent swelling which does not react to diuretic use and sodium restriction. Traditional herbal medicine, Gwack Rhyung Tang and Chunggan extract effectively treated refractory lower limb edema caused by cirrhosis and improved liver function. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old male patient with a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hepatic encephalopathy, and cellulitis presented lower limb edema which did not react to diuretics for more than 7 months. DIAGNOSES: Refractory edema caused by cirrhosis. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated for 25 days using Gwack Rhyung Tang and Chunggan extract. OUTCOMES: Loss of body weight, decrease in circumferences of both lower limb and improvement of liver function biochemistry results are checked. There was no recurrence or aggravation of the condition up to 3 weeks of follow-up periods. LESSONS: Traditional herbal medicine can be an effective alternative for refractory edema due to cirrhosis with improving liver function.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Fibrose/complicações , Medicina Herbária , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596175

RESUMO

In the Philippines, the herbal medicinal product (HMP) market is flourishing due to the abundance of pharmacologically important species, and the high level of ethnomedicinal knowledge still widely accepted by the public. As such, herbal products from Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng., locally known as bignay, are popular as medicine for various ailments of the circulatory and digestive systems. Though efficacy is guaranteed, the authenticity of the marketed products is still in question as several other herbal plants can provide the said benefits. Similar morphology between wild species also hinders species identification and contributes confusion especially to the general consumer. The authenticity of the marketed HMPs was established by means of DNA barcoding techniques which offers quick and reliable species identification by means of (1) the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) and (2) the establishment of the first Standard Reference Material (SRM) Herbal barcode library for Antidesma spp. A total of 56 gene accessions from matK-psbA-trnH-rbcL sequences of 9 wild Antidesma spp. comprised the SRM which was then used to confirm the identity of 11 randomly sampled bignay-derived HMPs. Following the BLASTn and the SRM (maximum likelihood tree reconstruction) criterion, the subjected sequences revealed that only three of the 11 HMPs were authentic A. bunius-derived products. The other eight HMPs contained substitutes that were either fillers or different herbal medicinal plant not indicated in the product labels. These results indicate that product safety should be reinforced with complete HMP authentication using traditional methods supported by molecular data.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/normas , Euphorbiaceae/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Biblioteca Gênica , Medicina Herbária , Plantas Medicinais/química , Frutas/química
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 2972-2979, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602842

RESUMO

The Silk Road and the Maritime Silk Road were the important accesses for the exchanges of herbal medicine between the primary traditional medical systems in the ancient world,which also are the strategic links between the areas with herbal medicine widely used and the most active markets for herbs at present. This article focuses on the foreign medicinal resources introduced to traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) in China. As new resources of Chinese Materia Medica( CMM),the four basic conditions should be required,which are the clear origin,the safety and effectiveness in clinical,the efficacy and properties described with theory of TCM.Medicinal property is the key scientific problem of foreign medicinal resources introduced to TCM. The research strategies include three aspects. Medicinal properties of foreign medicinal resources will be deduced and analyzed across multiple medical systems by solving the difference depending on finding the similarities of traditional medical systems. The medicinal properties-efficacies of foreign medicinal resources will be identified by identifying Xiang and selecting similar CMM. And Xiang-properties-efficacies of foreign medicinal resources will be researched under formulae environment using medicinal properties.


Assuntos
Materia Medica , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , China , Medicina Herbária
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